Otaibah

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The Otaibah Tribe (Arabic: عتيبة‎)
Qaysi/Adnanite/Ishmaelites
Bedouin-camp-1906.jpg
Bedouin Camp by John Singer Sargent, 1906
Location Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Palestine and Syria
Descended from Hawazin son of Mansur son of Ikrimah son of Khasafah son of Qays ʿAylān son of Mudar son of Nizar son of Ma'ad son of Adnan.
Parent tribe Hawazin
Branches
  • Barga
  • Roug
  • Bano Saad
Religion Polytheism (Pre-Islam)
Islam (Post Islam)
A Bedouin Arab by John Singer Sargent, circa 1891

The Otaibah tribe (Arabic: عتيبة‎; also spelled Otaiba, Utaybah) are the desendants of the ancient tribe of Hawazin, and one of the largest predominantly moderate Sunni Tribes in the Arabian Peninsula. In the 21st centuary, they are mostly found in Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Palestine and Syria.

The poet Mukhlad Al-Qthami once said about his own tribe to the leader of the Rashidi dynasty Muhammed Ibn Abdullah in the late 19th centaury, translated from a nomadic Bedouin dialect of Arabic: "We are the Otaibah. Oh, how many warriors we've slain, for our legions are a steady team". A comment that started a long tribal war between Otaibah and the Ibn Rashid, ending with the victory of the former.[1][2][3]

Genealogy[edit]

According to various studies of genealogy and oral tradition, the Otaibah tribe are in fact the descendants of a mighty tribe in Arabia, the Pre-Islamic tribe of Hawazin. These are descendants of the Qays ʿAylān tribal grouping, that are descendants of Ma'ad son of Adnan or the Adnanites, that are direct descendants of the Ishmaelites or the sons of Ishmael, the elder son of Abraham, or the descendants of the twelve sons and princes of Ishmael whom God has gifted preference above the worlds, and guided them all to most righteous of paths.[4][5][6][7][8][9]

Genealogy is significantly important for the tribe of Otaibah, as it has been for centuries, for most of these examinations in the lineage, that date back to the Middle Ages, are the center point of pride for its people. Along with the multiple times it took up arms over the centuries in Arabia.[10]

As well as the fact that the foster-mother of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, Halimah al-Sa‘diyah, was from the tribe of the Banu Sa'd, a subdivision of Hawazin.[11][12]

The origins of the tribe among scholars may vary in exact details, such as attributing Otaibah exclusively to the sons of the Banu Sa'd ibn Hawazin, while others claim that they are composed solely of the Banu Jusham ibn Muawiya ibn Bakr ibn Hawazin, or are strictly of the Banu 'Amir ibn Sa'sa'ah ibn Mu'awiyah ibn Bakr ibn Hawazin. However, all accounts do agree that the lineage is traced back to Hawazin son of Mansur son of Ikrimah son of Khasafah son of Qays ʿAylān son of Mudar son of Nizar son of Ma'ad son of Adnan.[13][14]

A Bedouin Sheikh, circa 1934-1939

History[edit]

Pre-Islamic Arabia[edit]

A notable figure in the history of the tribe is its ancestor Ma'ad son of Adnan. Mentioned innumerable times in Pre-Islamic poetry across the Arabian Peninsula, and among the Ghassanid and Christian poets as well. In the distinguished Seven Mu'allaqat, it can be acknowledged that Ma'ad was not only venerated in the Pre-Islamic era but also believed to be more glorious than the whole history of the people of Arabia.[15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]

Furthermore, in other poems the nation of Ma'ad presented the majority of Pre-Islamic Arabian people.[25][26][27]

In addition, the Hawazin tribe took part in a tribal confederation called "The Great Skulls of Arabia", as the rulers of the land prior to the rise of Islam in 7th century, the confederation was characterized by strength, abundance, superiority, and honor. The name derived from the notion that the skull is the most important part of the body.[28][29][30]

Photo by Carl Raswan, circa 1930

The Era of Muhammad[edit]

Most tribes lacked the desire and resources to fight the Muslims during the era of Muhammed. However, the parent tribe of Otaibah, the Hawazin tribe did not. Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri once wrote that they thought that they were too mighty to admit to a victory such as the conquest of Mecca by the Muslims. Therefore, in 630 the Battle of Hunayn took place between the followers of Muhammad against the tribe of Hawazin in a valley called Hunayn. The battle ended in a victory for the Muslims; a great defeat for the Hawazin tribe; 6,000 people were taken prisoners and 24,000 camels were captured; in addition to losing an abundance of property and weapons. With the fall of their most formidable enemy, the Muslims had arranged the perfect conditions for other tribes to join their rising cause. After the death of Muhammed, Hawazin was one of the first tribes to participate in the Wars of Apostasy.[31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38]

Bedouin Dressed in a Bist

Rashidun Era[edit]

In the 7th century, the self proclaimed prophet Tulaiha led a rebellion against the Muslims of Medina supported by the tribes of Banu Ghatfan, the Hawazin, and the Tayy. Soon after the being defeated in the war, the tribe submitted to Islam and participated in the early Islamic Conquests with other tribes. Hordes of the Hawazin tribe moved and settled into different regions beyond Arabia, those who remained of the parent tribe were later called the Otaibah.[39][40][41]

Umayyad Era[edit]

In the Umayyad era, from 661 to 1031, the tribe along with cousins from Qays ʿAylān tribal grouping, consolidated into a large political, economic, and military component of the Caliphate. However, after the demise of Umayyads, the Qays confederation could not recover from the losses they suffered during that period, for their political role was not of much importance during the Abbasid era that followed. Furthermore, from the 7th until the 16th century, it is hard to distinguish the Hawazin tribe from other tribes such as the Banu 'AmirBanu ThaqifBanu Sulaym, Banu Ghani, Bahila and the Banu Muharib, since throughout that time the Hawazin took part in this coalition consisting of the mentioned tribes, whom were all of the same parent tribe, the Mudhar section of the Adnanites. The alliance was called the Qays ʿAylān.[42][43][30]

Abbasid Era and Ottoman Empire[edit]

Ukebl. Hjemmet Red

It has not always been conquests and the glory for the tribe, for part of its dark history takes place during the neglect and injustice from the Abbasid Caliphate. A fact that pushed the once great Qays ʿAylān tribal confederation to poverty, misery, and a sense of discrimination, this made them resort to robbing caravans as they turned to bandits in defiance to the regime. They began to storm the travelers of Najd, Medinah, and Mecca. Up until the year 844, where the Abbasid Caliph al-Wathiq, sent an army led by the Turkish leader Baja al-Kabir, to confront the Qays ʿAylān, who prior to the event, have raided Medinah and its surrounding areas. The battle ended with the ethno-racial Turkish forces of the Caliphate killing large numbers of Qays ʿAylān and taking some prisoners, those who tried to escape were killed by the inhabitants of Medinah. It is for these reasons the Qays ʿAylān were eager to join any revolution against the Caliphate, this did occur with the confederation taking up arms in revolt along side the Qarmatians, and later on the Fatimids. The Fatimid state in particular improved their political stand point with having the Qays ʿAylān on their side. Furthermore, the Otaibah have been a significantly important ally to the Sharifs of Mecca ever since the Sharifs first captured power in the 10th century Abbasid era.[44]

The 18th to the Early 20th Century[edit]

Photo by Carl Raswan, circa 1930

During the 18th and 19th centuries, the tribe ruled over central Najd, and battled for it with a few other tribes for a long period of time, although around the beginning of the 20th century its people cooperated with the Ikhwan movement endorsed by the Al Saud clan of Najd, although at that period, they tended to side more with the Sharifs of Mecca, who used to take refuge with Otaibah in times of imminent adversity.[45]

In 1912, the founder of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud, began an ambitious plan to settle the nomadic tribes within his domain, which included Najd and the Eastern coast of Arabia. This was brought together with the indoctrination of these tribes into religious ideals imposed by Muhammad ibn Abd Al-Wahhab, as the nomadic Arab Bedouin, including all of the Otaibah tribe, were not considered to be religious.

Under the discipline of Muhammad ibn Abd Al-Wahhab, new settlements are known as Hujer (singular Hijra), began to be established with an accompanying politico-religious movement called the Ikhwan, or translated from Arabic, "Brethren". (Not to be confused with the Islamist Muslim Brotherhood of Egypt).

Bedouin Woman at World's Columbian Exposition, circa 1893

The rise of an important cause alongside new religious regulations, standards, and principles, forced all of the nomadic people to leave the desert-dwelling culture behind, and for the first time start to live in large groups which gave birth to multiple societies in the region. A fact that contributed significantly to the modernization of the inhabitants of these communities in the 21st century, this was a tremendously critical service King Abdul-Aziz has accomplished for his people.[46]

Numerous colonies that consisted of the Otaibah tribe sprung across Arabia, especially in western Najd, with the new posts in place, an army of the Otaibah tribe was ready to be led. Sultan ibn Bjad Bin Humaid otherwise known as 'Sultan'adeen', and Eqab bin Mohaya the head of the Talhah clan, were influential leaders of the Otaibah tribe who enlisted in the Ikhwan movement. Shortly after joining, Sultan ibn Bjad Bin Humaid became a formidable leader in the cause. He was then deployed by Ibn Saud against rivals in the region. An effort that supported Abdul-Aziz in his endeavors to build the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.[47]

Sultan ibn Bjad Bin Humaid led tribal forces in the occupation of Al-Hasa, Ha'il, Al-Baha, Jizan, Asir, Mecca, and Jeddah. This was instrumental in gaining control of the Hejaz for Ibn Saud, the result was a successful unification of a large portion of Arabia. However, some factions of the movement grew resentful. Sultan ibn Bjad Bin Humaid joined other leaders from various tribes in revolt in December 1928, but they were defeated by the forces of Ibn Saud at the Battle of Sabilla near Al Zulfi, located at the North Eastern part of Najd, on 29 March 1929.[48]

Two years later, Sultan bin Bajad was killed. Eqab bin Mohaya on the other hand, had led his troops in the aid of King Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud to suppress the revolution. He remained a governor until he died in 1932. Furthermore, the settlements remained. One in 'Afif located approximately halfway between Riyadh and Mecca, became a prosperous city towards the end of the 20th century.

The Late 20th to 21st Century[edit]

Bedouin Chief by John Singer Sargent, circa 1905-1906

An event that gained much popularity among the tribe of Otaibah occurred in the first few years after the establishment of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 23 September 1932. King Abdulaziz consolidated the bonds of unity and peace between the different tribes after his victory, and arranged the affairs of the country and its policy, he allocated a facility for the people called the "the House of Supplies" or Bayt Al Ma'ona, which contained food supplies.[49]

A man of bad character by the name of Khramis managed the facility, his evil was evidenced by the fact that he treated tribesmen poorly, insulting their pride, and regularly using a stick to beat those who considered themselves guests in his domain.[50]

An unknown poet wrote the following poem immortalizing the event. "My creator bestow ease upon me and leave Khramis behind at his door ... so that maybe our days will be relieved, and the free (i.e. bird) gets full out of its own claws (i.e. hand or accord)". [51][52]

This story illustrates the importance of being self-reliant and patient. According to his own son, it was one of the last coherent sentances uttered by General Hmood Dawi Al-Qthami. A genealogy expert that supported much of the information in this article.[53]

Furthermore, many people from the tribe of Otaibah in Saudi Arabia have enlisted in the Armed Forces of Saudi Arabia, the presence of the tribe is particularly prominent in the Saudi National Guard.[54]

The Settlements[edit]

Also known as Hujer (singular Hijra), the indoctrination of the tribe into religious ideologies imposed by Muhammad ibn Abd Al-Wahhab, along with the accompanying politico-religious movement called Ikhwan, pushed the nomadic tribes of Arabia, including Otaibah, out of the desert and into settlements. These settlements played a major role in the modernization its inhabitants; in the early 20th to 21st century, the following were the most important settlements of the tribe of Otaibah in the Arabian Peninsula.[46]

Al-Ghata'at

Nafi 'ibn Fadhliah (left) from the Harb tribe, Sulayman ibn al-Jaba'a (center) from the Mutair tribe, and Majid ibn Khathayla (right) from Otaiba, circa 1938.

Al-Ghata'at is considered the oldest and the most important settlement of the Ikhwan movement and the most significant in the preparation of  soldiers, as described by the brother of King Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud, Prince Saud Ibn Abdul Rahman Al Saud in the book of "The Saudis and the Islamic Solution." It was completely destroyed after the Battle of Sabilla. Up until Majid ibn Khathayla asked King Abdul Aziz to allow him to live there, he allowed the construction of a new town in a close proximity to it. Al-Ghata'at is located West of Al-Muzahmiyah Governorate, with a close proximity to Riyadh/Taif Expressway.

Bedouin Chief of Palmyra, circa 1890-1900

Al Hafira

An old water fetching site of the Pre-Islamic era, it was the first settlement for the Da'ajeen of the tribe of Otaiba, its founder is Prince Manahi bin Khalid bin Hasher al-Hidal founded in 1919. When he died in 1939, his son Sajdi took responsibility of the settlement until 1968, he was then followed by his son Manahi, who remained a prince over it until his death in 2001. Its supervising officer in the early 21st century the Sheikh Sajdi bin Menahi bin Sajdi bin Menahi bin Khalid al-Hidal, the settlement has been mentioned in many historians. It was considered an Otaibah settlement since its conception, its families and clans included Zamil, Mana, Faraj, Rihani and Zarkali. This settlement is characterized by its close proximity to the province of Dawadmi, which is only 48 km away. Also it is about 80 km away from Al-Quweiyya Governorate, and located about 200 km away from the capital Riyadh. Furthermore, there are some mining sites in Al-Ridiniyat area of ​​Al-Hafira.

Al Dahina

Bust of a Bedouin, circa 1900-1910

This settlement was established in 1913 as Sheikh Abdul Rahman bin Rabian, along with some of the tribes of Otaibah settled in it, the emirate was then taken over by Sheikh Omar bin Rabian, who was moved to exile by order of King Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud, and was left by only a group of Thoi Thubat of the tribe of Otaibah in 1929 after the Battle of Sabilla. The most significant of its princes are Sultan bin Mohammed bin Sultan bin Muthekir bin Halis, until the early 21st century, the emirate was still under the responsibly of the decendents of the former. It was received by his son Salal bin Sultan bin Halis, after his death, the emirate was then received Sheikh Dhuar bin Sultan bin Halis, and after him, Sheikh Sultan bin Thar bin Halis. Some archeological site still exist in the location such as an old mosque that was said to have been occupied by two thousand fighters led by Sheikh Omar bin Abdul Rahman bin Rabian before participating in the Battle of Sabilla. Also, some ancient artifacts have been found in the location. A rock with a prehistoric markings and drawing on it called the rock of Rashid Al Khalawi.

Al Sajir

It is in the territory of the Al Sir, located to the North-East of the province of Dawadmi at almost 120km away, it was founded by ​​Fihan bin Nasser bin Braz bin Mahia in 1914 by order of King Abdul Aziz. When Fihan bin Nasser passed away, Aqab bin Daif Allah Ibn Ghazi Ibn Muhayya, it was considered the largest settlements of the Ikhwan movement. After the Battle of Sabilla, King Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud, assigned Eid Ibn Qablan Al-Hantushi to be the prince on Al Sajir, after him Nasser bin Germain bin Braz bin Mahia was assigned. His successor, Turki Ibn Saddah bin Mahia then became a general in the Saudi National Guard, after him was his Metib bin Turki bin Mahia, whom was considered the backbone of the city of Sagar. In his time, Sagar witnessed many achievements and developments until he died in 1997, he was succeeded by his son Sheikh Nayef bin Metib bin Mahia. It is worth mentioning that the Ibn Mahia clan of the Otaibah tribe, are a few of the most famous tribal princes. Especially since many of which participated in conquests and invasions along side King Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud. Al Sajir is considered one of the largest cities of the tribe of Otaibah, its residents include the families and clans of: Hanatish, Hazman, Al Gariba, Karashamah, Ghagabin, Al Asaidah, Daghalebah, Al Nifa'a, Al Murashidah, Hafah, Al Maghaibah, Gaibat, and Al Thubtan.

Sinam

Saudi Man and Wife, circa 1914

Founded by Sheikh Sultan bin Mashaan Abba Al-Ula in 1914. Led by Sultan bin Mshaan Abaala and Majid bin Jaza Abaala, it is located near two valleys, the northern valley is called Al Dathma, and the southern valley is called Wadi Al-Arjan. In terms of location, it is located in the western side of the province of Quweia and about 70 kilometers away, that is in the Southwestern direction of the province. One of the main positions in the conquests of King Abdul Aziz was the Sinam Brigade led by Sultan bin Mashaan Abu Ala, it was the heart of the battle of Turaba in in 1918. Its prince in 21st century is Al Hineedi Omar Aba El-Ela.

Arwa

Located in the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia, it has an administrative center that belongs to the province of Dawadmi at about 99 km South, its area covers 84 km in width including its surrounding areas. It was founded by Sheikh Sultan Bin Mohammed Bin Hindi Bin Humaid and Sheikh Jahjah bin Bajad bin Humaid Al Otaibi in 1918, the chieftains of the settlement were Hashar bin Mugid bin Humaid, and Nayef bin Jahjah bin Humaid. Al Mugata settled here, and a few other tribes of Otaibah, its prince in the 21st century is Sheikh Jahjah bin Nayef bin Humaid. Arwa is an ancient place known since the Jahiliyyah, and it overlooks a large mountain called (Arwan).

Nafi

Located north of the province of Dawadmi and is about 90 kilometers away, and it is about 100 kilometers from the province of Ras, it was inhabited by several tribes. It was headed by Prince Abdullah bin Sabil by order of His Majesty King Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman Al Saud, and then settled by Sheikh Turki Al-Ditt, after the Battle of Sabla. Turki Al-Ditt ended up in prison for his participation in the battle of Battle of Sabilla in the revolt, it was established in 1928. The head of the desert center was Sheikh Omar bin Abdulrahman bin Turki bin Sultan bin Rabian. Considered the most famous Sheikh of Otaibah. Sheikh Omar bin Rabian participated in many invasions and conquests with King Abdul Aziz, including: Leith, Al Ragama, Battle of Sabilla, Najran, Wa'Dakh, Jubla, he remained a prince on the desert exile until he died in 1980. His succesor is his son Sheikh Abdullah bin Omar bin Rabian, its prince in the 21st century.

Hulban

Hulban is one of the oldest counties of Najd where many Arab tribes lived in the Jahiliyyah and Islam, the derived from the notion that when the sheep and camels are milked, the area would filled with milk. It is located in the western part of Riyadh on the Riyadh/Makkah Road, it is 290 kilometers away from Riyadh. It is administered by the Qawaiya governorate, its princes are Sheikh Majid bin Dawi bin Fahid, Sheikh Nayef bin Dawi bin Fahaid, Sheikh Jahz bin Nayef bin Fahaid, Sheikh Faihan bin Hilal bin Fahaid, Sheikh Faihan bin Jahaz bin Fahid. The vast majority of the population of this center are from the clan of Shiabin and some other tribes and families.

Al Heed

Established in 1924 by ​​Nasser bin Jerman bin Mahiya, and Falah bin Sadah bin Mahia, it was then ruled by Eqab Bin Muhaia after he took the control of Sager until he died. After him was Turki Ibn Saddah bin Mahia, and then his son Afas bin Aqab bin Mahia who took control until his retirement in 1993, its inhabitants are the Hanatish, Al Aidaan, Al Dalabiha, and Roug of Otaibah. Its prince in the 21st century is Sheikh Khalid ibn 'Ufas ibn Aqab bin Mahiya.

Al Rawdah

Prince Majid Ibn Dawi Ibn Fahid was its supervising officer since its establishment in the Arid region during 1918, its population consisted of the Shibabin clan of the Otaibah tribe, as well as other group of tribes and clans.

Aseela

Aseela is a settlement located North-East of the province of Dawadmi at about 95 kilometers, the city of Sager is about 13 kilometers away. It was founded in 1916, among its most famous princes, Nafel bin Tawaiq al Hofi, Ghazi Al Toum, Abdulmohsen bin Ghazi Al Toum. Its prince in the 21st century is Saud bin Abdul Mohsen bin Ghazi Al Toum.

Arja'a

Arja'a lies north of Dawadmi about 28 kilometers away, it was founded by a number of the Al Hamameed clan of the tribe of Otaibah, including Qatim al-Habil, Muqahim al-Habil, Ja'adan al-Habil, Ouad al-Hammadi and others. That was in about 1918, its first prince was Qatim al-Habil, then Abdullah al-Subeik, then for the second time Qatim al-Habil, then Hanif bin Qatim al-Habil, then Mohammed bin Qatim al-Habil. Its chieftain in 21st century is Mansour bin Hanif bin Qatim al-Habil, the people of Arja supported King Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud.

Musada

Masada is located north of the province of Dawadmi, about 10 kilometers; was founded in 1926 by Sheikh Khaled bin Jameh, who continued to be the prince until he died. Then after him Saeed Al-Duwaikh was assigned, one of the Roussans.It was later abandoned by Sheikh Abdul Aziz Bin Jameh, who did not last there since he moved to the Al Fawoj, where he became the prince in 1953, his successor was Sheikh Hadjan bin Mitrk bin Jameh, then his son, Metrk bin Hadjan Ibn Jamea. The later is its current prince in 21st century, the people of Masada participated in the war in Yemen in 1933 with Prince Abdul Aziz bin Musaed, all of whom were of the Rusian clan, including the father of Metrk bin Hadjan Ibn Jamea.

Al Jumaniyah

Al Jumaniyah is located to the east of Afif on the old road of Afif/Riyadh and is about 65 km away from Afif governorate, it was founded by Sheikh Nayef bin Maraq Al Deet in1929, who is considered to be one of the most famous princes of the tribe of Otaibah. He participated along side King Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud in many conquests and battles, he remained a prince over the settlement until he died. He was succeeded by his son, Turki bin Nayef Al Deet, followed by Saleh bin Nayef Al Deet, its prince in 21st century.

Al Labib

It was established by order of King Abdul Aziz, and led by Sheikh Abdul Mohsen Al-Hidal, its people greatly supported the King in his conquests. Friday prayers used to be conducted here by Imam Sheikh Abdullah bin Muhanna, who is the father of Sheikh Sulayman bin Muhanna, who was head of the Riyadh courts. Sheikh Abdul Mohsen Al-Hidal later moved to another settlement called Moghaira and resided there until he died in 1980, he then succeeded by his son Sheikh Turki bin Abdul Mohsen bin Badr Al-Hidal until he died in 2010. Its prince in the 21st century in Sheikh Mohammed Bin Turki Bin Abdul Mohsen Al-Hidal.

Orefejan

Located in the hills of Al-Muhammar, previously named "the Hills of Al Ashig." North West the city of Nafi at 30 km, and North of the city of Dawadmi. In 1927, a dispute, presumably over who has control, erupted between Omar bin Rabian and Miteb Al Shagar Al Dimasi in the city Nafi. Omar later asked King Abdul Aziz if he could stay indefinitely in Nafi, meaning he would have control there; the king agreed. Miteb on the other hand Al Dimasi asked the king to have control over Orefejan, the king agreed, and Miteb moved from Nafi Orefejan and became its prince. Nasser Ibn Miteb Al Shagar Al Dimasi is its prince in 21st century. Services in the city include governmental agencies, primary healthcare services, middle and secondary schools for boys and girls, it has previously opened a courtroom, a post office and a popular market which opens on Fridays, paved roads, and street lighting. Most of its inhabitants are of the Damaseen and Al Asadi.

Abu Jalal

Its founder was Mahmas bin Mohammed bin Nasser Al-Shaghar in 1925, its current prince is Badr bin Mahmas bin Mohammed Al-Shaghar, who succeeded his brother Sultan Al-Shaghar after his death in 1969. The reason for its name is said to be man named Abu Jalal, who was murdered near a water supply in this region, the water supply is also named after him. Located near the Mkhammer Mountains, which is located near the mountain of Suag, between Dokhnh and Dhiria. North West of the province of Dawadmi, at 150 km, and West of the city of Nafi at 40 km, its inhabitants include the clans of Al Damas, Al Rougi, Al Aidan, and Al Ghabi.

Qarareh

The name is derived from the fact that it gathers water after rain. Located to the North of the mountains of Gal and Gul, and South East of the mountains of Takhfa, South West of Qassim, at 60 km away from the city of Nafi, and about 120 km from Al Ris. It was established in 1928 by Sheikh Sultan Bin Mujahid Abu Sanon, its prince in 21st century is Sheikh Bandar bin Alitha bin Sultan Abu Sanon. Its inhabitants are the clans of Al Harbadah from Thoi Atiya, Al Muzahama, Al Rougi.

Al Rawidah

It is the first settlement of the Dagalbh from the Barqa branch of Otaibah, its people participated with Ibn Saud in his endeavors of unification. Its founder, Jamal bin Mohammed Al-Muhri, the Sheikh or chieftain of Dagalbh; in 21st century, its chief is Muhammad Bin Jamal Al-Muhri, and there are a number of schools at the settlement, plus a clinic, a health center, a post office, and a number of shops.

Al Jamash

Located to the North West of Al-Dawadmi province, on the road between Al-Qassim and Makkah, at about 65 kilometers, it is inhabited by a number of clans namely Al-Dalabahah, Al-Hazman, Al-Ghbayyat, Al-Ghadabin, Al Hanatish, Al-Hamameed, Al Karashmah, Al Mirashidah, and Al Aidan.

The Battles of Otaibah[edit]

Notable battles in this period include, but are not limited to:

  • In 1655, Sharif Mohammed Al-Harith led Otaibah into battle in a city called Al Jubailah, part of the greater Al Arid region which consists of Nejd in Saudi Arabia. The tribe they fought was Al Mughera.
  • In 1786, a battle occurred between Sharif Suror and the tribe of Harb.
  • In 1810, the tribe endured a long conflict with Al Bagom tribe that ended with multiple casualties, and a peace treaty.
  • In 1811, the battles of Turabah led by Hindi Ibn Muhaya Al Bugimi and Gusab Al Otaibi.
  • In 1852, the battle of Sinaf Al Tarad between Otaibah and Qahtan.
  • In 1856, the First Owanid, a battle between Otaibah and Mutair.
  • In 1871, A war campaign composed of the tribe led by a Sharif against the entire region on Asir.
  • In 1871, the Second Owanid, a battle between Otaibah and Mutar.
  • In 1873, the Second Wakat Talal, a war campaign led by Saud bin Faisal bin Turki along side the tribe of Mutar, the tribe of Ajman, the tribe of Suhul, the tribe Subai, the people of Al Arid, and the people of Al Dariea, against the Otaibah tribe.
  • In 1875, Munakh Al Dal, a long conflict between Abdul Rahman bin Faisal supported by the tribe of Mutar, the tribe of Ajman, and the people of Najd, against the tribe of Otaibah.
  • In 1876, Munakh Dala, a long conflict occurred between the tribes of Qahtan and Dawasir, against Otaibah.
  • In 1883, the battle of Arwa between Muhammad ibn Saud supported by Otaibah, against the Ibn Rashid, the tribe of Shamar, the people of Qasim, and other tribes.
  • in 1884, Wakat Al Hamada, a war campaign led by Abdullah bin Faisal supported by Otaibah, and the people of Al Arid, against Ibn Rashid, the tribe of Shamar, the people of Qasim.
  • In 1891, Munakh Al Harmalia, a long conflict between Otaibah against the tribe of Mutair supported by Qahtan and Harb.
  • In 1892, Wakat Al Ansr, a battle campaign between Otaibah and the tribe of Shamar.
  • In 1893, Wakat Al Anjal, a battle campaign with Otaibah on one side, and the tribe of Mutair and the tribe of Harb on the other.
  • In 1895, Munakh Arja'a, long conflict between Otaibah against the tribe of Mutair, the tribe of Harb, and the tribe of Qahtan.
  • In 1899 Munakh Jinifa, a long conflict between Otaibah led by Fajir Al Salat against Mutair and Qahtan led by Ibn Basis.
  • In 1899, Munakh Al Hiwar, a long conflict between Otaibah against Mutair.
  • In 1901, the battle of Rihat between a clan of Otaibah led by Abid Ibn Abdullah Al Sahmani Al Zaragi against the Mutair tribe and the Bani Salem.
  • In 1908, Munakh Al He'asha, a long conflict between Otaibah and the tribe of Harb.
  • In 1909, Munakh Al Rashawia, a long conflict between Otaibah against the tribe of Harb along with some of the Mutair tribe.
  • In 1911, Wakat Abu Dakhn, a battle campaign led by Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud supported by the tribe of Subai, the tribe of Mutair, and the people of Shagra against Otaibah.
  • in 1918, King Abdul Aziz with a brigade of the Otaibah tribe from the Sinam settlement led by Sultan bin Mashaan Abu Ala. It was the in the battle of Turaba.
  • In 1929, the Battle of Sabilla.

Branches of the Tribe[edit]

The Major Branches of Otaibah Tribe

The Otaibah tribe is subdivided into three major branches: Barga (Arabic:  برقا‎), Roug (Arabic:  روق‎) and Bano Saad (Sons of Saad) (Arabic:   بنو سعد‎). Each major branch is divided into many clans, each clan is divided into various families.[55]

Barga[edit]

Barga is a main branch of the tribe, and its clans and families are the following:

  • Shamlah (Arabic:  شملة‎), is a sub-branch and its clans are divided into:
    • Al Nufaei (Arabic:  النفيعي‎), a clan that includes the families of:
      • Al Musa'aed (Arabic:  المساعيد‎)
      • Al Nakheshah (Arabic:  النخشة‎)
      • Thoi Mufarrej (Arabic:  ذوي مفرج‎)
      • Thoi Ziad (Arabic:  ذوي زياد‎)
      • Thoi Zaid (Arabic: ذوي زايد‎)
      • Al Mahaya (Arabic:  المحايا‎)
      • Al Besaisah (Arabic:  البسايسه‎)
      • Al Feletah (Arabic:  الفلتة‎)
      • Al Salaga (Arabic: السلاقى‎)
      • Al A'elah (Arabic:  العيلة‎)
    • Al Rrwais (Arabic:  الرويس‎), a clan that includes the families of:
      • Al Shuhabah (Arabic:  الشهبة‎)
      • Al Mugahesaha (Arabic:   المقاحصة‎)
      • Al Marawhah (Arabic:   المراوحة‎)
      • Thoi Mujarri (Arabic:   ذوي مجري‎)
    • Al Mugati (Arabic:   المقاطي‎), a clan that includes the families of:
      • Al Kerzan (Arabic:   الكرزان‎)
      • Al Bususa (Arabic:   البصصة‎)
    • Al Tefehi (Arabic:   الطفيحي‎), a clan that includes the families of:
      • Al Ababeed (Arabic:   العبابيد‎)
      • Al Ja'adah (Arabic:   الجعدة‎)
      • Al Husanah (Arabic:  الحصنة‎)
      • Al Wethaneen (Arabic:  الوذانيين‎)
      • Al Swoatah (Arabic:  السوطة‎)
      • Alhulifat (Arabic:  الحليفات‎)
      • Al Hoboos (Arabic:   الحبوس‎)
      • Al Hulasah (Arabic:  الحلسة‎)
      • Al Humayah (Arabic:  الحمية‎)
      • Al Wegadeen (Arabic:  الوقادين‎)
      • Al Jomaiyat (Arabic:  الجميعات‎)
  • Eial Mansour (Sons of Mansour) (Arabic:  عيال منصور‎) is a sub-branch, and its clans include:
    • Al-Qthami (also spelled Al-Quthami, Al-Qathami or Al Guthami) (Arabic:  القثامي‎), a clan that includes the families of:
      • Al Khullad (Arabic:   الخلد‎)
      • Al Ghashashmah (Arabic:  الغشاشمة‎)
      • Al Dahasah (Arabic:  الدهسة‎)
        • Thoi Dariweesh (Arabic: ذوي درويش‎)
          • Al Tawali (Arabic:  الطوالع‎)
            • Thoi Soloman (Arabic: ذوي سليمان‎)
            • Thoi Salim (Arabic: ذوي سالم‎)
            • Thoi Niwar (Arabic: ذوي نوار‎)
            • Thoi Thilab (Arabic: ذوي ثلاب‎)
            • Thoi Mubarak (Arabic: ذوي مبارك‎)
            • Thoi Wahf (Arabic: ذوي وهف‎)
          • Thoi Banya (Arabic: ذوي بنية‎)
          • Al Jinadibh (Arabic: الجنادبة‎)
          • Al Marahia (Arabic: المراهية‎)
      • Al Dwaniah (Arabic:  الدوانية‎)
      • Al Jabarah (Arabic:  الجبرة‎)
      • Al Zooran (Arabic:  الزوران‎)
    • Al-Osaimi (Arabic:  العصيمي‎), a clan that includes the families of:
      • Al Julah (Arabic:  الجلاه‎)
      • Al A'emrriah (Arabic:  العمرية‎)
      • Al Ababeed (Arabic:  العبابيد‎)
      • Al Sheja'een (Arabic:  الشجاعين‎)
      • Al Hamareen (Arabic:  الحمارين‎)
      • Al Shefa'an (Arabic:  الشفعان‎)
    • Al Da'ajani (Arabic:  الدعجاني‎), a clan that includes the families of:
      • Thoi Khyoot (Arabic:  ذوي خيوط‎)
      • Al Malabisah (Arabic:  الملابسة‎)
      • Al Huddaf (Arabic:  الهدف‎)
      • Al Ma'alyah (Arabic:  المعالية‎)
      • Al Swalm (Arabic:  السوالم‎)
    • Al Dughailabi (Arabic:   الدغيلبي‎), a clan that includes the families of:
      • Al Na'arah (Arabic:  النعرة‎)
      • Al Gmool (Arabic:  القمول‎)
      • Al Geba'ah (Arabic:  القبعة‎)
    • Al Shaibani (Arabic:  الشيباني‎), a clan that includes the families of:
      • Thoi Saleh (Arabic: ذوي صالح‎)
      • Thoi Khalifah (Arabic:  ذوي خليفة‎)
      • Garafi (Arabic: قرافي‎)
      • Al Fihidat (Arabic: الفهيدات‎)
      • Thoi Murshid (Arabic: ذوي مرشد‎)
      • Al Dimokh (Arabic: الدموخ‎)
      • Thoi Najim (Arabic: ذوي نجم‎)
      • Ibn Musaifir (Arabic: ابن مسيفر‎)
      • Thoi Owad (Arabic: ذوي عواد‎)
      • Al Zibajiah (Arabic: الزبالجة‎)
      • Thoi Amr (Arabic: ذوي عمرو‎)
      • Al Fowareen (Arabic: الفوارين‎)

Roug[edit]

Roug is a main branch of the tribe, and its clans and families are the following:

  • Talhah (Arabic:  طلحة‎) is a sub-branch, and its clans include:
    • Al Asa'adah (Arabic:  الأساعدة‎)
    • Al Hufah (Arabic:  الحفاة‎)
    • Al Sumarrah (Arabic:  السمرة‎)
    • Al Hanateesh (Arabic:  الحناتيش‎)
    • Al Gharbiah (Arabic:  الغربية‎)
    • Al Karashemah (Arabic:  الكراشمة‎)
    • Al Ddalabehah (Arabic:  الدلابحة‎)
    • Al Ghawariah (Arabic:  الغوارية‎)
    • Al Theebah (Arabic:  الذيبة‎)
    • Al Hamameed (Arabic:  الحماميد‎)
    • Al Hezman (Arabic:  الحزمان‎)
    • Al Maghaibah (Arabic:  المغايبة‎)
    • Thoi Zarrag (Arabic:  ذوي زراق‎)
    • Al Ghadhabeen (Arabic:  الغضابين‎)
    • Al Barqawi
    • Al Awazem (Arabic:  العوازم‎)
  • Mezhem مزحم is a sub-branch, and its clans include:
    • Thoi Thubait (Arabic: ذوي ثبيت‎)
    • Al Onthyan (Arabic:  العضيان‎)
    • Al Ghubaiat (Arabic:  الغبيات‎)
    • Al Marashedah (Arabic:  المراشدة‎)
    • Al Jetha'an (Arabic:  الجذعان‎)
    • Al Seaheen (Arabic:  السياحين‎)
    • Thoi A'ali (Arabic:  ذوي عالي‎)
    • Thoi A'tyah (Arabic:  ذوي عطية‎)

Bano Saad[edit]

The Bano Saad is a main branch of the tribe, and its clans and families are the following:

  • Al Batnain (Arabic:  البطين‎)
  • Al Lessah (Arabic:  اللصة‎)
  • Al Surairat (Arabic:  الصريرات‎)

Prominent Members[edit]

Nisba (Onomastics)[edit]

In Arabic names, a nisba is an adjective indicating the place of origin, tribal affiliation, or ancestry, of a person. Example:

  • (Arabic: عتيبة‎) O' Tay Bah "Otaibah"
  • (Arabic: عتيبي‎) O' Tay Bee (un) "Otaibi" (masculine nominative singular)
  • (Arabic: عتيبية‎) O' Tay Bee Ya (tun) "Otaibi" (feminine nominative singular)
  • (Arabic: عتيبيون‎) O' Tay Bee Un (a) "Otaibi" (masculine nominative plural)
  • (Arabic: عتيبيات‎) O' Tay Bee Yāt (un) "Otaibi" (feminine nominative plural)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Al-Qthami, Hmood (1985). North of Hejaz. Jeddah: Dar Al Bayan. p. 245. 
  2. ^ Al Qthami, Mukhlid. "Hina Otaibah". Retrieved 19 November 2017. 
  3. ^ Al Qthami, Dawi (November 23, 2017). "My Heritage". 
  4. ^ Quran 6:86
  5. ^ H. Kindermann-[C.E. Bosworth]. "'Utayba." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007.
  6. ^ "The Book of Genesis". 
  7. ^ Al-Qthami, Hmood (1985). North of Hejaz. Jeddah: Dar Al Bayan. 
  8. ^ Al Rougi, Hindees. "The Tribe of Otaibah". 
  9. ^ Al Qthami, Dawi (November 23, 2017). "My Heritage". 
  10. ^ Al Qthami, Dawi (November 23, 2017). "My Heritage". 
  11. ^ Haykal, Muhammad Husyan (1968). The Life of Muhamad. India: Millat Book Center. p. 47. 
  12. ^ Mubarakpuri, Safiur Rahman (1979). The Sealed Nectar. Saudi Arabia: Dar-us-Salam Publications. p. 58. 
  13. ^ Al Rougi, Hindees. "The Tribe of Otaibah". 
  14. ^ Al Qthami, Dawi (November 23, 2017). "My Heritage". 
  15. ^ Ignác Goldziher - Muhammedanische Studien 1, Page: 91
  16. ^ Jawwad Ali, The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam (1993), University of Baghdad, Vol.1, Pages: 382-383
  17. ^ Ahmad Az-Zain & Mahmood Abu Al-Wafa, The "Divan" (Collection of Poems) of the people of the tribe of Huthayl (1965-Cairo), Vol. 1, Page: 37
  18. ^ Az-Zauzani, Sharh Al-Mu'allqat As-Sab'a, Page: 125
  19. ^ Al-Asfahani, Kitab Al-Aghani (The Book of Songs), Vol. 11, Pages: 11-58-100-150
  20. ^ Ali Hasan Fa'ur, The "Divan" (Collection of Poems) of Zuhair Ibn Abi Salam (1988), Page: 106
  21. ^ Al-Mufdhaliyyat (The Compositions of Al-Mufdhaly), Pages: 47-293
  22. ^ Ibn Abd Rabbih Al-Andalusi, Al-Eqd Al-Fareed, Vol. 1, Page: 309
  23. ^ Ahmad Ibn Yahya Al-Balatheri, Ansab Al-Ashraf (Genealogies of Honorable People), Vol. 1, Page: 19
  24. ^ Abu Sa'eed As-Sukkari, Sharh Ash'ar Al-Huthaliyyeen (The Explanation of the poems of the people of the tribe of "Huthayl"), Vol. 1, Page: 88
  25. ^ Jawwad Ali, The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam (1993), University of Baghdad, Vol.1, Pages: 384
  26. ^ Abd A. Mahna, The "Divan" (Collection of Poems) of Hassan Ibn Thabet (1994), Page:44
  27. ^ Abd Ar-Rahman Al-Barqouqi, Explanation of the "Divan" (Collection of Poems) of Hassan Ibn Thabet (1929), Page: 398
  28. ^ Al-Qthami, Hmood (1985). North of Hejaz. Jeddah: Dar Al Bayan. p. 235. 
  29. ^ Ali Phd, Jawad. "A Detailed Account of the History of Arabs Before Islam". Dar Al Saqi. Retrieved 18 November 2017. 
  30. ^ a b Al Qthami, Dawi (November 23, 2017). "My Heritage". 
  31. ^ Lammens, H. and Abd al-Hafez Kamal. "Hunayn". In P.J. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam Online Edition. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912. 
  32. ^ Lammens, H. and Abd al-Hafez Kamal. "Hunayn". In P.J. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam Online Edition. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912. 
  33. ^ "When The Moon Split". Darussalam. 1 July 1998 – via Google Books. 
  34. ^ The sealed nectar, By S.R. Al-Mubarakpuri, Pg356
  35. ^ Najibabadi, Akbar S. K. HISTORY OF ISLAM - Tr. Atiqur Rehman (3 Vols. Set). Adam Publishers & Distributors. ISBN 9788174354679. 
  36. ^ IslamKotob. Tafsir Ibn Kathir all 10 volumes. IslamKotob. 
  37. ^ Watt 1971, p. 286.
  38. ^ Carimokam, Sahaja (2010-09-17). Muhammad and the People of the Book. Xlibris Corporation. ISBN 9781453537855. 
  39. ^ Al Rougi, Hindees. "The Tribe of Otaibah". 
  40. ^ Al Qthami, Dawi (November 23, 2017). "My Heritage". 
  41. ^ Ibrahim Abed; Peter Hellyer (2001). United Arab Emirates: A New Perspective. Trident Press. pp. 81–84. ISBN 978-1-900724-47-0. 
  42. ^ Fischer 1934, p. 656.
  43. ^ Fischer 1934, p. 655.
  44. ^ Al Qthami, Dawi (November 23, 2017). "My Heritage". 
  45. ^ H. Kindermann-[C.E. Bosworth]. "'Utayba." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007.
  46. ^ a b Al Qthami, Dawi (November 23, 2017). "My Heritage". 
  47. ^ Commins, David (2009). The Mission and Saudi Arabia. I.B.Tauris. p. 81. The significance of Ikhwan military power for the success of Ibn Saud's conquests is another disputed point. 
  48. ^ "Battle of Sibilla (Arabian history) - Encyclopædia Britannica". Britannica.com. 1929-03-29. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  49. ^ Al Qthami, Dawi (November 23, 2017). "My Heritage". 
  50. ^ Al Qthami, Dawi (November 23, 2017). "My Heritage". 
  51. ^ "Ya Fatri". November 23, 2017. 
  52. ^ Al Qthami, Dawi. "My Heritage". 
  53. ^ Al Qthami, Dawi (November 23, 2017). "My Heritage". 
  54. ^ Commins, David (2009). The Mission and Saudi Arabia. I.B.Tauris. p. 92. Rank and file Ikhwan fighters formed units in a new military institution, initially the White Army, eventually the National Guard ... 
  55. ^ Al-Qthami, Hmood (1985). North of Hejaz. Jeddah: Dar Al Bayan. pp. 223 – 232.