Otaibah

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The Otaibah Tribe (Arabic: عتيبة‎)
Qaysi/Adnanite/Ishmaelites
Otaibah tree2008.jpg
Ancestry of the Otaibah Tribe
Location Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Palestine and Syria
Descended from Hawazin son of Mansur son of Ikrimah son of Khasafah son of Qays ʿAylān son of Mudar son of Nizar son of Ma'ad son of Adnan.
Parent tribe Hawazin
Branches
  • Barga
    • Shamlah
      • Al Nufaei
        • Al Musa'aed
        • Al Nakheshah
        • Thoi Mufarrej
        • Thoi Ziad
        • Thoi Zaid
        • Al Mahaya
        • Al Besaisah
        • Al Feletah
        • Al Salaga
        • Al A'elah
      • Al Rrwais
        • Al Shuhabah
        • Al Mugahesaha
        • Al Marawhah
        • Thoi Mujarri
      • Al Mugati
        • Al Kerzan
        • Al Bususa
      • Al Tefehi
        • Al Ababeed
        • Al Ja'adah
        • Al Husanah
        • Al Wethaneen
        • Al Swoatah
        • Alhulifat
        • Al Hoboos
        • Al Hulasah
        • Al Humayah
        • Al Wegadeen
        • Al Jomaiyat
    • Eial Mansour (Sons of Mansour)
      • Al-Qthami
        • Al Khullad
        • Al Ghashashmah
        • Al Dahasah
          • Thoi Dariweesh
            • Al Tawali
            • Thoi Mubarak
            • Thoi Wahf
        • Al Dwaniah
        • Al Jabarah
        • Al Zooran
      • Al-Osaimi
        • Al Julah
        • Al A'emrriah
        • Al Ababeed
        • Al Sheja'een
        • Al Hamareen
        • Al Shefa'an
      • Al Da'ajani
        • Thoi Khyoot
        • Al Malabisah
        • Al Huddaf
        • Al Ma'alyah
        • Al Swalm
      • Al Dughailabi
        • Al Na'arah
        • Al Gmool
        • Al Geba'ah
      • Al Shaibani
        • Thoi Saleh
        • Thoi Khalifah
        • Thoi Garfan
        • Thoi Fhaid
  • Roug
    • Talhah
      • Al Asa'adah
      • Al Hufah
      • Al Sumarrah
      • Al Hanateesh
      • Al Gharbiah
      • Al Karashemah
      • Al Ddalabehah
      • Al Ghawariah
      • Al Theebah
      • Al Hamameed
      • Al Hezman
      • Al Maghaibah
      • Thoi Zarrag
      • Al Ghadhabeen
      • Al Barqawi
      • Al Awazem العوازم
    • Mezhem
      • Thoi Thubait
      • Al Onthyan
      • Al Ghubaiat
      • Al Marashedah
      • Al Jetha'an
      • Al Seaheen
      • Thoi A'ali
      • Thoi A'tyah
  • Bano Saad
    • Al Batnain
    • Al Lessah
    • Al Surairat
Religion Polytheism (Pre-Islam)
Islam (Post Islam)

The Otaibah tribe (Arabic: عتيبة‎; also spelled Otaiba, Utaybah and Otaibi for singular) are the desendants of the ancient tribe of Hawazin[1], and one of the largest predominantly moderate Sunni Tribes in the Arabian Peninsula. In the 21st centuary, they are mostly found in Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Palestine and Syria.[2]

The poet Mukhlad Al-Qthami once said about his own tribe to the leader of the Rashidi dynasty Muhammed bin ʿAbdullah in the late 19th centaury, translated from a nomadic Bedouin dialect of Arabic: "We are the Otaibah. Oh, how many warriors we've slain, for our legions are a momentous team." [3] A comment that started a long tribal war between Otaibah and the Ibn Rashid, ending with the victory of the former.[4]

Genealogy[edit]

According to various studies of genealogy and oral traditions[5][6], the Otaibah tribe are the descendants of the mighty Pre-Islamic tribe of Hawazin[7], that are descendants of the Qays ʿAylān tribal grouping[8], that are descendants of Ma'ad son of Adnan or the Adnanites[9], that are direct descendants of the Ishmaelites or the sons of Ishmael[10], the elder son of Abraham, or the descendants of the twelve sons and princes of Ishmael[11], whom God has gifted in the Quran preference above the worlds, and guided them all to most righteous of paths.[12][13][14][15]

These examinations in lineage are the centerpoint of pride for the tribe of Otaibah, along with the multiple wars that it has engaged in over the centuaries in Arabia.

The origins of the tribe among scholars may vary in exact details, such as attributing Otaibah exclusively to the sons of the Banu Sa'd ibn Hawazin[16], while others claim that they are solely comprised of the Banu Jusham ibn Muawiya ibn Bakr ibn Hawazin, or are strictly of the Banu 'Amir ibn Sa'sa'ah ibn Mu'awiyah ibn Bakr ibn Hawazin. However, all accounts do agree that lineage is traced back to Hawazin.[17]

History[edit]

During the time of the Islamic Conquests, the Hawazin tribe moved and settled into different regions beyond Arabia, those who remained were later called the tribe of Otaibah.[18]

In recent history, they have ruled over central Nejd for a long period of time throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, around the beginning of the 20th century, the tribe cooperated with the Ikhwan movement who were endorsed by the Al Saud clan of Nejd. However, at the time they tended to side more with the Sharifs of Mecca[19], who used to take refuge with the tribe in times of adversity.[20]

In 1912, the founder of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud, began an ambitious plan to settle the nomadic tribes within his domain, which included Nejd and the Eastern coast of Arabia. This was brought together with the indoctrination of the tribe into religious ideals imposed by Muhammad ibn Abd Al-Wahhab, as the Arab Bedouin tribes including Otaibah were not considered to be religious. New settlements under this indoctrination were to be known as hijras and the accompanying politico-religious movement was called Ikhwan or "brothers." As a result, a large number of settlements that consisted of Otaibah tribe members sprung up across Arabia, especially in western Nejd. The most prominent of these settlements were in 'Afif near Dwadmi, and Sajir near Shaqraa.

An army of the Otaibah tribe was then led by Sultan ibn Bjad Bin Humaid otherwise known as 'Sultan Aldeen,' and Eqab bin Mohaya Alotaibi the head of the Talhah clan of Otaibah, this army supported King Abdul-Aziz build the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Both of these influential leaders belonged to the Ikhwan movement, and shortly after joining, Sultan ibn Bjad Bin Humaid became a leader in the movement, they were then deployed by the Ibn Saud clan against rivals in the region. With the support of the Otaibah tribe, the Ibn Saud were able to unite a large portion of Arabia. Sultan ibn Bjad Bin Humaid led the tribal forces in the occupation of Al-Hasa, Ha'il, Al-Baha, Jizan, Asir and Mecca and Jeddah. The Ikhwan were instrumental in gaining control of the Hejaz for the House of Saud, but shortly after doing so, they grew resentful and restless.

Sultan ibn Bjad Bin Humaid joined with leaders from other tribes in revolt in December 1928, but they were defeated by the forces of Ibn Saud at the Battle of Sabilla near Al Zulfi, located at the North Eastern part of Nejd, on 29 March 1929.[21] However, The settlements remained and the one in 'Afif, located approximately halfway between Riyadh and Mecca, became a prosperous city during the end of the 20th century, around that same time, many people from the tribe of Otaibah have enlisted in the Armed Forces of Saudi Arabia. Their presence is particularly heavy in the Saudi National Guard.

The Era of King Faisal[edit]

King Faisal Al Saud was greatly supported by the Otaibah tribe during his era, he was considered to have changed the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula into a great, modern civilization. At the time of his command, he was seen to have established new ideals for the Otaibah and other tribes, this included creating an innovative perspective on democratic governments for the Middle East. King Faisal was known to have been kind and just among all tribes and individuals, he is still regarded by many people of the Otaibah tribe to have worked endlessly, internally and globally, for the people. In a memorable historic speech at the third conference of the Ministry of Exterior, he said: "Our Islamic law requires from us all to do good among ourselves as well as the entirety of human beings."[22]

Branches of the Tribe[edit]

The Otaibah tribe is subdivided into three major branches: Barga برقا, Rwog روق and Bano Saad (Sons of Saad) بنو سعد, each major branch is divided into many clans, each clan is divided into various families.[23]

  • Barga The Barga clans are the following:
    • Shamlah شملة, which are divided into:
      • Al Nufaei النفيعي, a clan that includes: Al Musa'aed المساعيد, Al Nakheshah النخشة, Thoi Mufarrej ذوي مفرج, Thoi Ziad ذوي زياد, Thoi Zaid ذوي زايد, Al Mahaya المحايا, Al Besaisah البسايسه, Al Feletah الفلتة, Al Salaga السلاقى and Al A'elah العيلة
      • Al Rrwais الرويس, a clan that includes: Al Shuhabah الشهبة, Al Mugahesaha المقاحصة, Al Marawhah المراوحة and Thoi Mujarri ذوي مجري
      • Al Mugati المقاطي, a clan that includes: Al Kerzan الكرزان and Al Bususa البصصة
      • Al Tefehi الطفيحي, a clan that includes: Al Ababeed العبابيد(العبادي)ـ, Al Ja'adah الجعدة, Al Husanah الحصنة, Al Wethaneen الوذانيين, Al Swoatah السوطة, Alhulifat الحليفات, Al Hoboos الحبوس, Al Hulasah الحلسة, Al Humayah الحمية, Al Wegadeen الوقادين and Al Jomaiyat الجميعات.
    • Eial Mansour (Sons of Mansour) عيال منصور, which are divided into:
      • Al-Qthami (also spelled Al-Quthami, Al-Qathami or Al Guthami) القثامي, which includes: Al Khullad الخلد, Al Ghashashmah الغشاشمة, Al Dahasah الدهسة, Al Dwaniah الدوانية, Al Jabarah الجبرة and Al Zooran الزوران
      • Al-Osaimi العصيمي, a clan that includes: Al Julah الجلاه, Al A'emrriah العمرية, Al Ababeed العبابيد, Al Sheja'een الشجاعين, Al Hamareen الحمارين and Al Shefa'an الشفعان
      • Al Da'ajani الدعجاني, a clan that includes: Thoi Khyoot ذوي خيوط, Al Malabisah الملابسة, Al Huddaf الهدف and Al Ma'alyah المعالية and Al Swalmالسوالم
      • Al Dughailabi الدغيلبي, a clan that includes: Al Na'arah النعرة, Al Gmool القمول, and Al Geba'ah القبعة
      • Al Shaibani الشيباني, a clan that includes: Thoi Saleh ذوي صالح and Thoi Khalifah ذوي خليفة , Thoi garfan , Thoi Fhaid ,
  • Roug The Roug clans are as follows:
    • Talhah طلحة includes: Al Asa'adah الأساعدة, Al Hufah الحفاة, Al Sumarrah السمرة, Al Hanateesh الحناتيش, Al Gharbiah الغربية, Al Karashemah الكراشمة, Al Ddalabehah الدلابحة, Al Ghawariah الغوارية, Al Theebah الذيبة, Al Hamameed الحماميد, Al Hezman الحزمان, Al Maghaibah المغايبة, Thoi Zarrag ذوي زراق, Al Ghadhabeen الغضابين, Al Barqawi and Al Awazem العوازم
    • Mezhem مزحم includes: Thoi Thubait ذوي ثبيت, Al Onthyan العضيان, Al Ghubaiat الغبيات, Al Marashedah المراشدة, Al Jetha'an الجذعان, Al Seaheen السياحين, Thoi A'ali ذوي عالي and Thoi A'tyah ذوي عطية
  • Bano Saad The Bano Saad is composed of many families, but can be summarized as: Al Batnain البطين, Al Lessah اللصة and Al Surairat الصريرات

Prominent Members[edit]

Sultan ibn Bajad Bin Humaid, refernced in the Modern History section of this article, Khalaf ibn Hathal, a poet who became prominent during the First Gulf War, Juhayman Al-'Utaybi, a militant who led the Grand Mosque Seizure in 1979, Dhaifallah Al-Rogy Al-'Utaybi, mayor of Dammam and a former executive of the Saudi National Oil Company, General Hmood bin Dawi Al-Qthami Ph.D, who served in the Saudi General Directorate of Public Security, part of the Ministry of Interior, and wrote popular books on Arab genealogy that supported information in this article, and Mutlaq Hamid Al-Otaibi a poet.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Al-Qthami, Hmood bin Dawi (1985). شمال الحجاز "North of Hejaz". Jeddah: دار البيان العربي للطباعة والنشر والتوزيع. p. 213. 
  2. ^ Al-Qthami, Hmood bin Dawi (1985). شمال الحجاز "North of Hejaz". Jeddah: دار البيان العربي للطباعة والنشر والتوزيع. p. 245. 
  3. ^ القثامي, الشاعر مخلد. "القصيدة (5) : حنا عتيـبــه". Retrieved 19 November 2017. 
  4. ^ Al-Qthami, Hmood bin Dawi (1985). شمال الحجاز "North of Hejaz". Jeddah: دار البيان العربي للطباعة والنشر والتوزيع. p. 245. 
  5. ^ Al-Qthami, Hmood bin Dawi (1985). شمال الحجاز "North of Hejaz". Jeddah: دار البيان العربي للطباعة والنشر والتوزيع. p. 223. 
  6. ^ الروقـي, هنـيدس. "قبائل عُتَيبة". 
  7. ^ Al-Qthami, Hmood bin Dawi (1985). شمال الحجاز "North of Hejaz". Jeddah: دار البيان العربي للطباعة والنشر والتوزيع. p. 213. 
  8. ^ Al-Qthami, Hmood bin Dawi (1985). شمال الحجاز "North of Hejaz". Jeddah: دار البيان العربي للطباعة والنشر والتوزيع. p. 202. 
  9. ^ Al-Qthami, Hmood bin Dawi (1985). شمال الحجاز "North of Hejaz". Jeddah: دار البيان العربي للطباعة والنشر والتوزيع. p. 202. 
  10. ^ Al-Qthami, Hmood bin Dawi (1985). شمال الحجاز "North of Hejaz". Jeddah: دار البيان العربي للطباعة والنشر والتوزيع. p. 187. 
  11. ^ "The Book of Genesis". 
  12. ^ Quran 6:86
  13. ^ H. Kindermann-[C.E. Bosworth]. "'Utayba." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007.
  14. ^ الجعيد, مرزوق. "مقال عن قبيلة عتيبه باللغه الإنجليزيه". 
  15. ^ عابد, عبدالله. "نسب قبيلة عتيبة موثّق". Retrieved 19 November 2017. 
  16. ^ بن زبن المرشدي, الاستاذ عبدالرحمن. فتح الباري في نسب ذوي ساري. 
  17. ^ الروقـي, هنـيدس. "قبائل عُتَيبة". 
  18. ^ الروقـي, هنـيدس. "قبائل عُتَيبة". 
  19. ^ H. Kindermann-[C.E. Bosworth]. "'Utayba." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007.
  20. ^ الروقـي, هنـيدس. "قبائل عُتَيبة". 
  21. ^ "Battle of Sibilla (Arabian history) - Encyclopædia Britannica". Britannica.com. 1929-03-29. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  22. ^ Al-Qthami, Hmood bin Dawi (1985). شمال الحجاز "North of Hejaz". Jeddah: دار البيان العربي للطباعة والنشر والتوزيع. p. 322. 
  23. ^ Al-Qthami, Hmood bin Dawi (1985). شمال الحجاز "North of Hejaz". Jeddah: دار البيان العربي للطباعة والنشر والتوزيع. p. 223.