Gustav Leonhardt was a renowned Dutch keyboard player, musicologist and editor. He was a figure in the movement to perform music on period instruments. Leonhardt professionally played many instruments, including the harpsichord, pipe organ, clavichord and he conducted orchestras and choruses. Gustav Leonhardt was born in s-Graveland, North Holland and studied organ, in 1950, he made his debut as a harpsichordist in Vienna, where he studied musicology. He was professor of harpsichord at the Academy of Music from 1952 to 1955 and he was a church organist. Leonhardt performed and conducted a variety of solo, orchestral, central to Leonhardts career was Johann Sebastian Bach. Leonhardt first recorded music of the composer in the early 1950s, with recordings in 1953 of the Goldberg Variations, the latter embodies the thesis he had published the previous year arguing that the work was intended for the keyboard, a conclusion now widely accepted. The recordings helped establish his reputation as a distinguished harpsichordist and Bach interpreter, in 1954 he led the Leonhardt Baroque Ensemble with the English countertenor Alfred Deller in a pioneering recording of two Bach cantatas.
The Ensemble included his wife Marie Leonhardt, Eduard Melkus, Alice Harnoncourt-Hoffelner, Nikolaus Harnoncourt, the project, the first cycle on period instruments, ended up taking nineteen years, from 1971 to 1990. To the surprise of some of his associates, Leonhardt accepted the role of Johann Sebastian Bach in The Chronicle of Anna Magdalena Bach and my immediate reaction is often that this performances principal message is Not Leonhardt. Leonhardt served as a member of the jury for the triennial International Harpsichord Concours of the Musica Antiqua Bruges and he was the only jury member who had participated in all sixteen juries from 1965 to 2010. Leonhardt was doctor honoris causa of the universities of Dallas, Harvard, Metz, in 2007 he was made Commander of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres in France and in 2008 Commander of the Order of the Crown in Belgium. Leonhardt gave his last public performance on 12 December 2011 at the Théâtre des Bouffes du Nord in Paris, thereafter he announced his retirement due to illness and cancelled all of his 2012 engagements.
He died in Amsterdam on Monday,16 January 2012, aged 83, two asteroids were named after him,9903 Leonhardt and Gustavleonhardt. 4, Keyboard Issue 1 « Points d’interrogation dans Froberger », tagliavini (Patrone Editore, Bologna,1995 Het huis Bartolotti en zijn bewoners, Jacques Drillon, Sur Leonhardt
Cornelis Maartenszoon Tromp was a Dutch naval officer. He was the son of Lieutenant Admiral Maarten Tromp and he became Lieutenant Admiral General in the Dutch Navy and briefly Admiral General in the Danish Navy. He fought in the first three Anglo-Dutch Wars and in the Scanian War, Cornelis Maartenszoon Tromp was born on 9 September 1629 in Rotterdam, in the county of Holland, the historically dominant province of the Dutch Republic. He was the son of Maarten Harpertszoon Tromp and Dina Cornelisdochter de Haas. His name Maartenszoon, sometimes abbreviated to Maartensz. is a patronymic and he had two full brothers and Johan. In 1633, when he was four years old, his mother died. His father remarried in 1634 and again in 1640, the two marriages together brought Tromp four half brothers and five half sisters. His father had made career as an officer for the Admiralty of the Maze, after a conflict with Lieutenant-Admiral Philips van Dorp in 1634 Maarten Tromp left the fleet starting to work as a deacon.
After Van Dorp was removed from his position in 1637, his father became Lieutenant Admiral, in 1642, Cornelis Tromp was sent to Harfleur in France to learn to speak French from a Calvinist preacher. On 1 September 1643, he joined his father on his flagship the Aemilia, in September 1645, he was appointed as lieutenant. On 22 August 1649, he was made a full captain, in 1656, he participated in the relief of Gdańsk. In 1658, it was discovered he had used his ships to trade in goods, as a result he was fined. During this war, his flagship was the Gouden Leeuw, of 82 cannon and he was closely involved in the murder of Johan de Witt and Cornelis de Witt in 1672. In 1675 he was created an English baronet and a Dutch erfridder by Charles II of England, on 8 May 1676, he became Admiral-General of the Danish navy and Knight in the Order of the Elephant, in 1677 Count of Sølvesborg. He defeated the Swedish navy in the Battle of Öland, his victory as a fleet commander. On 6 February 1679, he became Lieutenant-Admiral-General of the Republic but never fought in that capacity, having become a liability to the new regime of William III.
He died in Amsterdam in 1691, his mind broken by abuse and remorse, still officially commander of the Dutch fleet. Tromp was a very aggressive squadron commander who personally relished the fight, as a result, he had to change ships often, four times at the Four Days Battle, three times at Schooneveld and two times at Texel
North Holland is a province in the northwest of the Netherlands. It is situated on the North Sea, north of South Holland and Utrecht, in 2015, it had a population of 2,762,163 and a total area of 2,670 km2. From the 9th to the 16th century, the area was a part of the County of Holland. During this period West Friesland was incorporated, in the 17th and 18th century, the area was part of the province of Holland. At that time, the distinction between the Noorderkwartier and the Zuiderkwartier became common, in 1840, the province of Holland was split into the two provinces of North Holland and South Holland. In 1855, the Haarlemmermeer was drained and turned into land, the capital and seat of the provincial government is Haarlem, and Amsterdam, the Netherlands capital city, is the provinces largest city. The Kings Commissioner of North Holland is Johan Remkes, there are 51 municipalities and three water boards in the province. For most of its history, the province of North Holland was an integral part of Holland.
From the 9th century to the 16th century, Holland was a county ruled by the counts of Holland, during this period an area known as West Friesland was conquered and integrated into Holland. For centuries afterwards Holland would be officially called Holland and West Friesland, the people of West Friesland had a strong sense of identity as a region within Holland. From the 16th century to 1795, Holland was the wealthiest and most important province in the United Provinces in the Dutch Republic, as the richest and most powerful province, Holland dominated the union. During this period a distinction was made between the North Quarter and the South Quarter, areas that roughly correspond to the two modern provinces. The province of North Holland as it is today has its origins in the period of French rule from 1795 to 1813 and this was a time of bewildering changes to the Dutch system of provinces. In 1795 the old order was swept away and the Batavian Republic was established, in the Constitution enacted on 23 April 1798, the old borders were radically changed.
The republic was reorganised into eight departments with roughly equal populations, Holland was split up into five departments named Texel, Delf, Schelde en Maas, and Rijn. The first three of these lay within the borders of the old Holland, the two were made up of parts of different provinces. In 1801 the old borders were restored when the department of Holland was created and this reorganisation had been short-lived, but it gave birth to the concept of breaking up Holland and making it a less powerful province. This time the two departments were called Amstelland and Maasland and this did not last long
Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences
The prize was established in 1968 by a donation from Swedens central bank, the Swedish National Bank, on the banks 300th anniversary. Although it is not one of the prizes that Alfred Nobel established in his will in 1895, laureates are announced with the other Nobel Prize laureates, and receive the award at the same ceremony. Laureates in the Memorial Prize in Economics are selected by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and it was first awarded in 1969 to the Dutch and Norwegian economists Jan Tinbergen and Ragnar Frisch, for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes. An endowment in perpetuity from Sveriges Riksbank pays the Nobel Foundations administrative expenses associated with the prize, since 2012, the monetary portion of the Prize in Economics has totalled 8 million Swedish kronor. This is equivalent to the amount given for the original Nobel Prizes, the Prize in Economics is not one of the original Nobel Prizes created by Alfred Nobels will.
However, the process, selection criteria, and awards presentation of the Prize in Economic Sciences are performed in a manner similar to that of the Nobel Prizes. Laureates are announced with the Nobel Prize laureates, and receive the award at the same ceremony, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind. According to its website, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences administers a researcher exchange with academies in other countries and publishes six scientific journals. Members of the Academy and former laureates are authorised to nominate candidates, all proposals and their supporting evidence must be received before February 1. The proposals are reviewed by the Prize Committee and specially appointed experts, before the end of September, the committee chooses potential laureates. If there is a tie, the chairman of the committee casts the deciding vote, the potential laureates must be approved by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Members of the Ninth Class of the Academy vote in mid-October to determine the next laureate or laureates of the Prize in Economics.
The first prize in economics was awarded in 1969 to Ragnar Frisch, in 2009, Elinor Ostrom became the first woman awarded the prize. This makes it available to researchers in such topics as political science, moreover, the composition of the Economics Prize Committee changed to include two non-economists. This has not been confirmed by the Economics Prize Committee, the members of the 2007 Economics Prize Committee are still dominated by economists, as the secretary and four of the five members are professors of economics. Some critics argue that the prestige of the Prize in Economics derives in part from its association with the Nobel Prizes, among them is the Swedish human rights lawyer Peter Nobel, a great-grandson of Ludvig Nobel. Nobel criticizes the institution of misusing his familys name. He explaiend that Nobel despised people who cared more about profits than societys well-being and this does not matter in the natural sciences
The Rijksmuseum is a Dutch national museum dedicated to arts and history in Amsterdam. The museum is located at the Museum Square in the borough Amsterdam South, close to the Van Gogh Museum, the Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam, and the Concertgebouw. The Rijksmuseum was founded in The Hague in 1800 and moved to Amsterdam in 1808, the current main building was designed by Pierre Cuypers and first opened its doors in 1885. On 13 April 2013, after a renovation which cost €375 million. In 2013 and 2014, it was the most visited museum in the Netherlands with record numbers of 2.2 million and 2.47 million visitors and it is the largest art museum in the country. The museum has a small Asian collection, which is on display in the Asian pavilion, in 1795, the Batavian Republic was proclaimed. The Minister of Finance Isaac Gogel argued that a museum, following the French example of The Louvre. On 19 November 1798, the government decided to found the museum, on 31 May 1800, the National Art Gallery, precursor of the Rijksmuseum, opened its doors in Huis ten Bosch in The Hague.
The museum exhibited around 200 paintings and historic objects from the collections of the Dutch stadtholders, in 1805, the National Art Gallery moved within The Hague to the Buitenhof. In 1806, the Kingdom of Holland was established by Napoleon Bonaparte, on the orders of king Louis Bonaparte, brother of Napoleon, the museum moved to Amsterdam in 1808. The paintings owned by city, such as The Night Watch by Rembrandt. In 1809, the museum opened its doors in the Royal Palace in Amsterdam, in 1817, the museum moved to the Trippenhuis. The Trippenhuis turned out to be unsuitable as a museum, in 1820, the historical objects were moved to the Mauritshuis in The Hague, and in 1838 the 19th-century paintings were moved to Paviljoen Welgelegen in Haarlem. In 1863, there was a design contest for a new building for the Rijksmuseum, Pierre Cuypers participated in the contest and his submission reached the second place. In 1876 a new contest was held and this time Pierre Cuypers won, the design was a combination of gothic and renaissance elements.
The construction began on 1 October 1876, on both the inside and the outside, the building was richly decorated with references to Dutch art history. Another contest was held for these decorations, the winners were B. van Hove and J. F. Vermeylen for the sculptures, G. Sturm for the tile tableaus and painting and W. F. Dixon for the stained glass. The museum was opened at its new location on 13 July 1885, in 1890 a new building was added a short distance to the south-west of the Rijksmuseum
Provinces of the Netherlands
The most populous province is South Holland, with over 3.5 million inhabitants in 2009. With approximately 381,000 inhabitants, Zeeland has the smallest population, in terms of area, Friesland is the largest province with a total area of 5,749 km2. If water is excluded, Gelderland is the largest province in terms of area at 4,972 km2, Utrecht is the smallest at 1,449 km2. In total about 13,000 people were employed by the administrations in 2009. The provinces of the Netherlands are joined in the Association of Provinces of the Netherlands and this organisation promotes the common interests of the provinces in the national government of the Netherlands in The Hague and within the EU in Brussels. The government of each province consists of three parts, The States-Provincial is the provincial parliament elected every four years. The number of members varies between 39 and 55, depending on the number of inhabitants of the province, being a member is a part-time job. The main task of the States-Provincial is to scrutinise the work of the provincial government, the Provincial Executive is a college elected from among the members of the States-Provincial and charged with most executive tasks.
Each province has three and seven deputies, each having their own portfolio. The task of the Provincial Executive is the management of the province. The Kings Commissioner is a person appointed by the Crown who presides over the States-Provincial as well as over the Provincial Executive. The Commissioner is appointed for a term of six years, after which reappointment for another term is possible, the members of the States-Provincial are elected every four years in direct elections. To a large extent, the political parties are enlisted in these elections in the national elections. The chosen provincial legislators elect the members of the national Senate within three months after the provincial elections, the elections for the water boards take place on the same date as the provincial elections. The last three elections were held in 2007,2011 and in 2015. The provinces of the Netherlands have 7 core tasks, Sustainable spatial development, provinces have income from a part of the Vehicle Excise Duty.
Several provinces have made a profit in the past from privatising utility companies originally owned or partly owned by the provinces. An example is Essent, which was owned by six provinces
Nederhorst den Berg
Nederhorst den Berg is a village in the Dutch province of North Holland. It lies about 8 km northwest of Hilversum and it is in an area called the Vechtstreek. Until 1 January 2002, it was a municipality, it is now part of the municipality of Wijdemeren. The statistical district Nederhorst den Berg, which covers the village, J. Kuyper, Gemeente Atlas van Nederland, 1865-1870, Nederhorst den Berg. Map of the municipality, around 1868. Media related to Nederhorst den Berg at Wikimedia Commons
Hilversum is a municipality and a city in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. Located in the region called Het Gooi, it is the largest town in that area and it is surrounded by heathland, meadows and smaller towns. Hilversum is part of the Randstad, one of the largest conurbations in Europe, Hilversum is 31 km south-east of Amsterdam and 19 km north of Utrecht. The town is often called media city since it is the centre for radio. Radio Netherlands, heard worldwide via shortwave radio since the 1920s, is based here. As a result, many old AM radio sets in Europe had a Hilversum dial position marked on their tuning scales, the Dutch voting in the Eurovision Song Contest usually takes place from Hilversum. Hilversum is known for its architecturally important Town Hall, designed by Willem Marinus Dudok and built in 1931. Hilversum has one library, two swimming pools, a number of sporting halls and several shopping centers In the region, the city centre is called het dorp. Earthenware found in Hilversum gives its name to the Hilversum culture, artifacts from this prehistoric civilization bear similarities to the Wessex Culture of southern Britain and may indicate that the first Hilversum residents emigrated from that area.
The first brick settlements formed around 900, but it was not until 1305 that the first official mention of Hilversum is found, at that point it was a part of Naarden, the oldest town in the Gooi area. Farming, raising sheep and some wool manufacturing were the means of life for the Gooi in the Middle Ages, in 1424, on 21 March at 6,30 am, Hilversum received its first official independent status. This made possible further growth in the village because permission from Naarden was no longer needed for new industrial development. The town grew further in the 17th century when the Dutch economy as a whole entered its age of prosperity, in 1725 and 1766 large fires destroyed most of the town, leveling parts of the old townhouse and the church next to it. The town overcame these setbacks and the industry continued to develop. In the 19th century a substantial textile and tapestry industry emerged, aided by a link to Amsterdam in 1874. Despite this growth, Hilversum was never granted city rights so it is referred to by many locals as het dorp.
For the 1928 Summer Olympics in neighboring Amsterdam, it hosted all of the non-jumping equestrian, the city was the headquarters of the German ground forces in the Netherlands. By the industry had started its decline, only one factory, managed to continue into the 1960s
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, which is The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 851,373 within the city proper,1,351,587 in the urban area, the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country. The metropolitan area comprises much of the part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe. Amsterdams name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the citys origin around a dam in the river Amstel, during that time, the city was the leading centre for finance and diamonds. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, and many new neighborhoods and suburbs were planned, the 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. As the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered a world city by the Globalization.
The city is the capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, and seven of the worlds 500 largest companies, including Philips and ING, are based in the city. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment, the city was ranked 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009. The Amsterdam seaport to this day remains the second in the country, famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, and philosopher Baruch Spinoza. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city center. After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river, the earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated October 27,1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V.
This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel freely through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges, the certificate describes the inhabitants as homines manentes apud Amestelledamme. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam, Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century. This does not necessarily mean there was already a settlement then, since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat. Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306, from the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished, largely from trade with the Hanseatic League
Loosdrecht is a village in the municipality of Wijdemeren, North Holland, Netherlands. Loosdrecht consists of two villages, Nieuw- and Oud- Loosdrecht. Nieuw Loosdrecht is a densely populated urbanization, Oud-Loosdrecht consists mainly of lakeside villas, until 2002 Loosdrecht was a separate municipality in the province of Utrecht, covering the villages of Oud-Loosdrecht and Nieuw-Loosdrecht, and the hamlets Breukeleveen and Boomhoek. Loosdrecht is known for its lakes, the Loosdrechtse Plassen. The lakes are a hotspot for the well-to-do, with several exclusive yachting clubs, smaller boats can visit the Vuntus and other quieter lakes on the northern side of Loosdrecht, connected to the main lakes through a small underpass. Porcelain manufacturing companies in Europe Joannes de Mol
Wijdemeren is a municipality in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland, on the western border of Het Gooi region. In the north Spiegelplas and Ankeveense Plassen, in the west Loosdrechtse Plassen, dutch Topographic map of the municipality of Wijdemeren,2013. Media related to Wijdemeren at Wikimedia Commons Official website
The house is almost entirely surrounded by water and was built to resemble a ship, even with decks and railings. Before the current house was built another buitenplaats had been built by Andries Bicker in 1636, the original house dates back to 1654. Through inheritance the house came into the possession of the widow of Van Hellemont Raephorst who remarried on January 25,1667 with Admiral Cornelis Tromp. The couple redecorated the estate considerably, but the house and their improvements were treasure looted and burned by the French during the rampjaar 1672 and it was rebuilt in 1675-1684 by Maarten Tromps son, Admiral Cornelis Tromp, who called it Syllisburg, after one of his titles. Around 1720 Jacob Roeters came into possession of the estate and he renamed it Trompenburg and had a plaque with an ode by Gerard Brandt in memory of Tromp installed over the entrance in 1725