The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is a perfect sphere of hot plasma, with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process. It is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth. Its diameter is about 109 times that of Earth, and its mass is about 330,000 times that of Earth, accounting for about 99. 86% of the total mass of the Solar System. About three quarters of the Suns mass consists of hydrogen, the rest is mostly helium, with smaller quantities of heavier elements, including oxygen, neon. The Sun is a G-type main-sequence star based on its spectral class and it formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of matter within a region of a large molecular cloud. Most of this matter gathered in the center, whereas the rest flattened into a disk that became the Solar System. The central mass became so hot and dense that it eventually initiated nuclear fusion in its core and it is thought that almost all stars form by this process.
The Sun is roughly middle-aged, it has not changed dramatically for more than four billion years and it is calculated that the Sun will become sufficiently large enough to engulf the current orbits of Mercury and probably Earth. The enormous effect of the Sun on Earth has been recognized since prehistoric times, the synodic rotation of Earth and its orbit around the Sun are the basis of the solar calendar, which is the predominant calendar in use today. The English proper name Sun developed from Old English sunne and may be related to south, all Germanic terms for the Sun stem from Proto-Germanic *sunnōn. The English weekday name Sunday stems from Old English and is ultimately a result of a Germanic interpretation of Latin dies solis, the Latin name for the Sun, Sol, is not common in general English language use, the adjectival form is the related word solar. The term sol is used by planetary astronomers to refer to the duration of a solar day on another planet. A mean Earth solar day is approximately 24 hours, whereas a mean Martian sol is 24 hours,39 minutes, and 35.244 seconds.
From at least the 4th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt, the Sun was worshipped as the god Ra, portrayed as a falcon-headed divinity surmounted by the solar disk, and surrounded by a serpent. In the New Empire period, the Sun became identified with the dung beetle, in the form of the Sun disc Aten, the Sun had a brief resurgence during the Amarna Period when it again became the preeminent, if not only, divinity for the Pharaoh Akhenaton. The Sun is viewed as a goddess in Germanic paganism, Sól/Sunna, in ancient Roman culture, Sunday was the day of the Sun god. It was adopted as the Sabbath day by Christians who did not have a Jewish background, the symbol of light was a pagan device adopted by Christians, and perhaps the most important one that did not come from Jewish traditions
In astronomy, a plutino is a trans-Neptunian object in 2,3 mean-motion resonance with Neptune. For every 2 orbits that a plutino makes, Neptune orbits 3 times, the term plutino derived from the dwarf planet Pluto, the largest and the first plutino discovered. The term does not imply common physical characteristics, Plutinos are named after mythological creatures associated with the underworld. Plutinos form the part of the Kuiper belt and represent about a quarter of the known Kuiper belt objects. Plutinos are the largest class of the resonant trans-Neptunian objects, aside from Pluto itself, the first plutino,1993 RO, was discovered on September 16,1993. It is thought that objects that are currently in mean orbital resonances with Neptune initially followed independent heliocentric paths. As Neptune migrated outward early in the Solar Systems history, the bodies it approached would have been scattered, during this process, the 3,2 resonance is the strongest and most stable among all resonances.
This is the reason it contains the largest number of bodies. The orbital periods of plutinos cluster around 247.3 years, the gravitational influence of Pluto is usually neglected given its small mass. However, the width is very narrow and only a few times larger than Pluto’s Hill sphere. Consequently, depending on the eccentricity, some plutinos will be driven out of the resonance by interactions with Pluto. Numerical simulations suggest that the orbits of plutinos with an eccentricity 10%–30% smaller or larger than that of Pluto are not stable over Ga timescales, the plutinos brighter than HV=6 include, David Jewitt on Plutinos Minor Planet Center, List of TNOs MPC List of Distant Minor Planets
(208996) 2003 AZ84
2003 AZ84 is a binary trans-Neptunian object from the outer regions of the Solar System, approximately 700 kilometers in diameter. It belongs to the plutinos – a group of planets named after its largest member Pluto – as it orbits in a 2,3 resonance with Neptune in the Kuiper belt. It was discovered on 13 January 2003, by American astronomers Chad Trujillo and its lightcurve amplitude deviates little from that of an ellipsoid, which suggests that it is likely one with small albedo spots. It orbits the Sun in just over 247 Earth years and it is currently 45.3 AU from the Sun and came to aphelion in 1982. It will come to perihelion in 2107, simulations by the Deep Ecliptic Survey show that over the next 10 million years 2003 AZ84 will not come closer than 31.6 AU from the Sun. Two rotational lightcurves of this planet were obtained by Scott Sheppard. Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 6.71 and 6.76 hours with a brightness variation of 0.14 and 0.10 in magnitude. The Spitzer Space Telescope has estimated its size at 686±96 km, while an analysis of a combination of Spitzer and these results are in agreement with each other.
Its large size 2003 AZ84 makes it a dwarf planet. Its mass is unknown since the satellite has not been recovered, a stellar occultation in 2010 measured a single chord of 573±21 km. But this is only a limit for the diameter of 2003 AZ84 because the chord may not have passed through the center of the body. The spectra and colors of 2003 AZ84 are very similar to those of Orcus, both bodies have a flat featureless spectrum in the visible and moderately strong water ice absorption bands in the near-infrared, although 2003 AZ84 has a lower albedo. Both bodies have an absorption band near 2.3 μm. Using observations with the Hubble Space Telescope, the discovery of a satellite of 2003 AZ84 was reported in IAUC8812 on 22 February 2007, the object was measured with a separation of 0.22 arcsec and an apparent magnitude difference of 5.0. As of 2012, attempts to recover the satellite have failed, the unrecovered satellite is estimated to be about 68±20 km in diameter. Orbital simulation from JPL / Ephemeris 2003 AZ84 Precovery Images 2003 AZ84 at the JPL Small-Body Database Discovery · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters
Vesta, minor-planet designation 4 Vesta, is one of the largest objects in the asteroid belt, with a mean diameter of 525 kilometres. It was discovered by the German astronomer Heinrich Wilhelm Olbers on 29 March 1807 and is named after Vesta, Vesta is the second-most-massive and second-largest body in the asteroid belt after the dwarf planet Ceres, and it contributes an estimated 9% of the mass of the asteroid belt. It is slightly larger than Pallas, though more massive. Vesta is the last remaining rocky protoplanet of the kind that formed the terrestrial planets, numerous fragments of Vesta were ejected by collisions one and two billion years ago that left two enormous craters occupying much of Vestas southern hemisphere. Debris from these events has fallen to Earth as howardite–eucrite–diogenite meteorites, Vesta is the brightest asteroid visible from Earth. Its maximum distance from the Sun is slightly greater than the distance of Ceres from the Sun. NASAs Dawn spacecraft entered orbit around Vesta on 16 July 2011 for an exploration and left orbit on 5 September 2012 en route to its final destination.
Researchers continue to examine data collected by Dawn for additional insights into the formation, Heinrich Olbers discovered Pallas in 1802, the year after the discovery of Ceres. He proposed that the two objects were the remnants of a destroyed planet and these orbital intersections were located in the constellations of Cetus and Virgo. Olbers commenced his search in 1802, and on 29 March 1807 he discovered Vesta in the constellation Virgo—a coincidence, because Ceres and Vesta are not fragments of a larger body. Because the asteroid Juno had been discovered in 1804, this made Vesta the fourth object to be identified in the region that is now known as the asteroid belt, the discovery was announced in a letter addressed to German astronomer Johann H. Schröter dated 31 March. Gauss decided on the Roman virgin goddess of home and hearth, Vesta was the fourth asteroid to be discovered, hence the number 4 in its formal designation. The name Vesta, or national variants thereof, is in use with two exceptions and China.
In Greek, the name adopted was the Hellenic equivalent of Vesta, Hestia, in English, in Chinese, Vesta is called the hearth-god star, 灶神星 zàoshénxīng, in contrast to the goddess Vesta, who goes by her Latin name. Upon its discovery, Vesta was, like Ceres, the symbol representing the altar of Vesta with its sacred fire and was designed by Gauss. In Gausss conception, this was drawn, in its modern form, after the discovery of Vesta, no further objects were discovered for 38 years, and the Solar System was thought to have eleven planets. However, in 1845, new asteroids started being discovered at a rapid pace and it soon became clear that it would be impractical to continue inventing new planetary symbols indefinitely, and some of the existing ones proved difficult to draw quickly. That year, the problem was addressed by Benjamin Apthorp Gould, who suggested numbering asteroids in their order of discovery, the fourth asteroid, acquired the generic symbol ④
In celestial mechanics, the mean anomaly is an angle used in calculating the position of a body in an elliptical orbit in the classical two-body problem. Define T as the time required for a body to complete one orbit. In time T, the radius vector sweeps out 2π radians or 360°. The average rate of sweep, n, is n =2 π T or n =360 ∘ T, define τ as the time at which the body is at the pericenter. From the above definitions, a new quantity, M, the mean anomaly can be defined M = n, because the rate of increase, n, is a constant average, the mean anomaly increases uniformly from 0 to 2π radians or 0° to 360° during each orbit. It is equal to 0 when the body is at the pericenter, π radians at the apocenter, if the mean anomaly is known at any given instant, it can be calculated at any instant by simply adding n δt where δt represents the time difference. Mean anomaly does not measure an angle between any physical objects and it is simply a convenient uniform measure of how far around its orbit a body has progressed since pericenter.
The mean anomaly is one of three parameters that define a position along an orbit, the other two being the eccentric anomaly and the true anomaly. Define l as the longitude, the angular distance of the body from the same reference direction. Thus mean anomaly is M = l − ϖ, mean angular motion can be expressed, n = μ a 3, where μ is a gravitational parameter which varies with the masses of the objects, and a is the semi-major axis of the orbit. Mean anomaly can be expanded, M = μ a 3, and here mean anomaly represents uniform angular motion on a circle of radius a
The asteroid belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter. It is occupied by numerous irregularly shaped bodies called asteroids or minor planets, the asteroid belt is termed the main asteroid belt or main belt to distinguish it from other asteroid populations in the Solar System such as near-Earth asteroids and trojan asteroids. About half the mass of the belt is contained in the four largest asteroids, Vesta, the total mass of the asteroid belt is approximately 4% that of the Moon, or 22% that of Pluto, and roughly twice that of Plutos moon Charon. Ceres, the belts only dwarf planet, is about 950 km in diameter, whereas Vesta, Pallas. The remaining bodies range down to the size of a dust particle, the asteroid material is so thinly distributed that numerous unmanned spacecraft have traversed it without incident. Nonetheless, collisions between large asteroids do occur, and these can form a family whose members have similar orbital characteristics.
Individual asteroids within the belt are categorized by their spectra. The asteroid belt formed from the solar nebula as a group of planetesimals. Planetesimals are the precursors of the protoplanets. Between Mars and Jupiter, gravitational perturbations from Jupiter imbued the protoplanets with too much energy for them to accrete into a planet. Collisions became too violent, and instead of fusing together, the planetesimals, as a result,99. 9% of the asteroid belts original mass was lost in the first 100 million years of the Solar Systems history. Some fragments eventually found their way into the inner Solar System, Asteroid orbits continue to be appreciably perturbed whenever their period of revolution about the Sun forms an orbital resonance with Jupiter. At these orbital distances, a Kirkwood gap occurs as they are swept into other orbits. Classes of small Solar System bodies in other regions are the objects, the centaurs, the Kuiper belt objects, the scattered disc objects, the sednoids.
On 22 January 2014, ESA scientists reported the detection, for the first definitive time, of water vapor on Ceres, the detection was made by using the far-infrared abilities of the Herschel Space Observatory. The finding was unexpected because comets, not asteroids, are considered to sprout jets. According to one of the scientists, The lines are becoming more and more blurred between comets and asteroids. This pattern, now known as the Titius–Bode law, predicted the semi-major axes of the six planets of the provided one allowed for a gap between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
Pluto is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune. It was the first Kuiper belt object to be discovered, Pluto was discovered by Clyde Tombaugh in 1930 and was originally considered to be the ninth planet from the Sun. After 1992, its planethood was questioned following the discovery of objects of similar size in the Kuiper belt. In 2005, which is 27% more massive than Pluto, was discovered and this led the International Astronomical Union to define the term planet formally in 2006, during their 26th General Assembly. That definition excluded Pluto and reclassified it as a dwarf planet, Pluto is the largest and second-most-massive known dwarf planet in the Solar System and the ninth-largest and tenth-most-massive known object directly orbiting the Sun. It is the largest known trans-Neptunian object by volume but is less massive than Eris, like other Kuiper belt objects, Pluto is primarily made of ice and rock and is relatively small—about one-sixth the mass of the Moon and one-third its volume.
It has an eccentric and inclined orbit during which it ranges from 30 to 49 astronomical units or AU from the Sun. This means that Pluto periodically comes closer to the Sun than Neptune, light from the Sun takes about 5.5 hours to reach Pluto at its average distance. Pluto has five moons, Styx, Kerberos. Pluto and Charon are sometimes considered a system because the barycenter of their orbits does not lie within either body. The IAU has not formalized a definition for binary dwarf planets, on July 14,2015, the New Horizons spacecraft became the first spacecraft to fly by Pluto. During its brief flyby, New Horizons made detailed measurements and observations of Pluto, on October 25,2016, at 05,48 pm ET, the last bit of data was received from New Horizons from its close encounter with Pluto on July 14,2015. In the 1840s, Urbain Le Verrier used Newtonian mechanics to predict the position of the then-undiscovered planet Neptune after analysing perturbations in the orbit of Uranus. Subsequent observations of Neptune in the late 19th century led astronomers to speculate that Uranuss orbit was being disturbed by another planet besides Neptune, by 1909, Lowell and William H.
Pickering had suggested several possible celestial coordinates for such a planet. Lowell and his observatory conducted his search until his death in 1916, unknown to Lowell, his surveys had captured two faint images of Pluto on March 19 and April 7,1915, but they were not recognized for what they were. There are fourteen other known prediscovery observations, with the oldest made by the Yerkes Observatory on August 20,1909. Percivals widow, Constance Lowell, entered into a legal battle with the Lowell Observatory over her late husbands legacy. Tombaughs task was to image the night sky in pairs of photographs, examine each pair
California Institute of Technology
The California Institute of Technology is a private doctorate-granting university located in Pasadena, United States. The vocational and preparatory schools were disbanded and spun off in 1910, the university is one among a small group of Institutes of Technology in the United States which is primarily devoted to the instruction of technical arts and applied sciences. Caltech has six divisions with strong emphasis on science and engineering, managing $332 million in 2011 in sponsored research. Its 124-acre primary campus is located approximately 11 mi northeast of downtown Los Angeles, first-year students are required to live on campus, and 95% of undergraduates remain in the on-campus House System at Caltech. Although Caltech has a tradition of practical jokes and pranks. The Caltech Beavers compete in 13 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division IIIs Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference, Caltech is frequently cited as one of the worlds best universities. There are 112 faculty members who have elected to the United States National Academies.
In addition, numerous faculty members are associated with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute as well as NASA, according to a 2015 Pomona College study, Caltech ranked number one in the U. S. for the percentage of its graduates who go on to earn a PhD. Caltech started as a school founded in Pasadena in 1891 by local businessman and politician Amos G. Throop. The school was known successively as Throop University, Throop Polytechnic Institute, the vocational school was disbanded and the preparatory program was split off to form an independent Polytechnic School in 1907. At a time when research in the United States was still in its infancy, George Ellery Hale. He joined Throops board of trustees in 1907, and soon began developing it and he engineered the appointment of James A. B. Scherer, a literary scholar untutored in science but a capable administrator and fund raiser, scherer persuaded retired businessman and trustee Charles W. Gates to donate $25,000 in seed money to build Gates Laboratory, the first science building on campus.
In 1910, Throop moved to its current site, arther Fleming donated the land for the permanent campus site. The promise of Throop attracted physical chemist Arthur Amos Noyes from MIT to develop the institution and assist in establishing it as a center for science, with the onset of World War I, Hale organized the National Research Council to coordinate and support scientific work on military problems. This institution, with its able investigators and excellent research laboratories, through the National Research Council, Hale simultaneously lobbied for science to play a larger role in national affairs, and for Throop to play a national role in science. During the course of the war, Hale and Millikan worked together in Washington on the NRC, they continued their partnership in developing Caltech. Under the leadership of Hale and Millikan, Caltech grew to prominence in the 1920s
Centaur (minor planet)
Centaurs are minor planets with a semi-major axis between those of the outer planets. They have unstable orbits that cross or have crossed the orbits of one or more of the giant planets, Centaurs typically behave with characteristics of both asteroids and comets. They are named after the centaurs that were a mixture of horse. It has been estimated there are around 44,000 centaurs in the Solar System with diameters larger than 1 km. The first centaur to be discovered, under the definition of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, they were not recognized as a distinct population until the discovery of 2060 Chiron in 1977. The largest confirmed centaur is 10199 Chariklo, which at 260 km in diameter is as big as a mid-sized main-belt asteroid, the lost centaur 1995 SN55 may be somewhat larger. No centaur has been photographed up close, although there is evidence that Saturns moon Phoebe, imaged by the Cassini probe in 2004, in addition, the Hubble Space Telescope has gleaned some information about the surface features of 8405 Asbolus.
As of 2008, three centaurs have been found to display comet-like comas, Chiron,60558 Echeclus, and 166P/NEAT, Chiron and Echeclus are therefore classified as both asteroids and comets. Other centaurs, such as 52872 Okyrhoe and 2012 CG, are suspected of having shown comas, any centaur that is perturbed close enough to the Sun is expected to become a comet. The generic definition of a centaur is a body that orbits the Sun between Jupiter and Neptune and crosses the orbits of one or more of the giant planets. Though nowadays the MPC often lists centaurs and scattered disc objects together as a single group, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory similarly defines centaurs as having a semi-major axis, a, between those of Jupiter and Neptune. In contrast, the Deep Ecliptic Survey defines centaurs using a classification scheme. These classifications are based on the change in behavior of the present orbit when extended over 10 million years. The DES defines centaurs as non-resonant objects whose instantaneous perihelia are less than the osculating semi-major axis of Neptune at any time during the simulation and this definition is intended to be synonymous with planet-crossing orbits and to suggest comparatively short lifetimes in the current orbit.
The collection The Solar System Beyond Neptune defines objects with an axis between those of Jupiter and Neptune and a Jupiter – Tisserands parameter above 3. The JPL Small-Body Database lists 324 centaurs, there are an additional 65 trans-Neptunian objects with a perihelion closer than the orbit of Uranus. The Committee on Small Body Nomenclature of the International Astronomical Union has not formally weighed in on either side of the debate, thus far, only the binary objects Ceto and Phorcys and Typhon and Echidna have been named according to the new policy. Other objects caught between these differences in classification methods include 944 Hidalgo which was discovered in 1920 and is listed as a centaur in the JPL Small-Body Database
10199 Chariklo is the largest confirmed centaur. It orbits the Sun between Saturn and Uranus, grazing the orbit of Uranus, on 26 March 2014, astronomers announced the discovery of two rings, around Chariklo by observing a stellar occultation. Making it the first known planet to have rings. Chariklo was discovered by James V. Scotti of the Spacewatch program on February 15,1997, Chariklo is named after the nymph Chariclo, the wife of Chiron and the daughter of Apollo. A photometric study in 2001 was unable to find a definite period of rotation, infrared observations of Chariklo indicate the presence of water ice, which may in fact be located in its rings. Michael Browns website lists it as possibly a dwarf planet with a diameter of 232 km. Chariklo is currently the largest known centaur, with a diameter of about 250 km.2060 Chiron is likely to be the second largest with 220 km. The lost centaur 1995 SN55 may even be larger, with a diameter close to 300 km. The orbit of Chariklo is more stable than those of Nessus, Chariklo lies within 0.09 AU of the 4,3 resonance of Uranus and is estimated to have a relatively long orbital half-life of about 10.3 Myr.
Orbital simulations of twenty clones of Chariklo suggest that Chariklo will not start to come within 3 AU of Uranus for about thirty thousand years. During the perihelic oppositions of 2003–04, Chariklo had an apparent magnitude of +17.7, as of 2014, Chariklo was 14.8 AU from the Sun. A stellar occultation in 2013 revealed that Chariklo has two rings with radii 396 and 405 km and widths of about 7 km and 3.5 km respectively, the rings are approximately 9 km apart. This makes Chariklo the smallest known object to have rings and these rings are consistent with an edge-on orientation in 2008, which naturally explains Chariklos dimming before 2008 and brightening since. Furthermore, it explains the gradual disappearance of the water-ice features in Chariklos spectrum before 2008. The existence of a system around a minor planet was unexpected because it had been thought that rings could only be stable around much more massive bodies. Ring systems around minor bodies had not previously been discovered despite the search for them through direct imaging, the team nicknamed the rings Oiapoque and Chuí, after the two rivers that form the northern and southern coastal borders of Brazil.
A request for formal names will be submitted to the IAU at a date,2060 Chiron may have a similar pair of rings. 37th DPS, Diameters of Kuiper Belt and Centaur Objects AstDys orbital elements Orbital simulation from JPL / Ephemeris Chariklo Photo Chariklos orbit between Saturn and Uranus