(4489) 1988 AK

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(4489) 1988 AK
Discovery [1]
Discovered by E. Bowell
Discovery site Lowell Obs.
Discovery date 15 January 1988
Designations
MPC designation (4489) 1988 AK
1988 AK · 1980 KA1
1989 AQ1
Jupiter trojan[1][2][3]
Greek[4][5] · background[5]
Orbital characteristics[2]
Epoch 23 March 2018 (JD 2458200.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 37.94 yr (13,857 d)
Aphelion 5.5196 AU
Perihelion 4.9173 AU
5.2184 AU
Eccentricity 0.0577
11.92 yr (4,354 d)
174.79°
0° 4m 57.72s / day
Inclination 22.224°
86.540°
6.5830°
Jupiter MOID 0.1975 AU
TJupiter 2.8480
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter
76.60±0.41 km[6]
92.93±7.4 km[7]
95.02±2.47 km[8]
12.580±0.001 h[9][a]
12.58±0.1 h[10]
12.582±0.001 h[11][a]
12.582±0.004 h[12]
0.050±0.003[8]
0.0514±0.009[7]
0.069±0.005[6]
D (SDSS-MOC)[13]
D (S3OS2)[14]
D(Pan-STARRS)[3][15]
V–I = 0.950±0.037[3]
9.00[1][2][3][8]
9.1[6]
9.12±0.22[15]

(4489) 1988 AK, provisional designation 1988 AK, is a large Jupiter trojan from the Greek camp, approximately 90 kilometers (56 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 15 January 1988, by American astronomer Edward Bowell at the Anderson Mesa Station of the Lowell Observatory near Flagstaff, Arizona, in the United States.[1] The dark D-type asteroid belongs to the 50 largest Jupiter trojans and has a rotation period of 12.58 hours.[3] It has not yet been named since its numbering in June 1990.[16]

Orbit and classification[edit]

1988 AK is a dark Jovian asteroid orbiting in the leading Greek camp at Jupiter's L4 Lagrangian point, 60° ahead of the Gas Giant's orbit in a 1:1 resonance (see Trojans in astronomy). It is a non-family asteroid in the Jovian background population,[5][17] it orbits the Sun at a distance of 4.9–5.5 AU once every 11 years and 11 months (4,354 days; semi-major axis of 5.22 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.06 and an inclination of 22° with respect to the ecliptic.[2]

The body's observation arc begins with its first observation as 1980 KA1 at Crimea–Nauchnij in May 1980, almost 8 years prior to its official discovery observation at Anderson Mesa.[1]

Physical characteristics[edit]

In the SDSS-based taxonomy, as well as in both the Tholen- and SMASS-like taxonomy of the Small Solar System Objects Spectroscopic Survey (S3OS2), 1988 AK is a dark D-type asteroid.[13][17][14] It has also been characterized as a D-type by Pan-STARRS' survey.[3][15]

On 18 December 2012, 1988 AK has occulted the star TYC 2467-00054-1 over parts of the United States, the asteroid's brightness was measured at 16.1 and that of the star at 11.1 magnitude.[18]

Rotation period[edit]

Since 1992, several rotational lightcurves of 1988 AK have been obtained from photometric observations by Stefano Mottola, as well as Daniel Coley and Robert Stephens at the Center for Solar System Studies, California, in collaboration with Linda French and Brian Warner. Lightcurve analysis gave a well-defined rotation period of 12.582 hours with a consolidated brightness amplitude between 0.20 and 0.26 magnitude (U=3/3).[3][9][10][11][12][a]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Japanese Akari satellite, the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, 1988 AK measures between 76.60 and 95.02 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.050 and 0.069.[6][7][8]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link adopts the results obtained by IRAS, that is, an albedo of 0.0514 and a diameter of 92.93 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 9.0.[3]

List of largest Jupiter Trojans above 50 km
#
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
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25
26
27
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44
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52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
 
Largest Jupiter Trojans by survey(A)
(mean-diameter in kilometers; YoD: Year of Discovery)
Designation WISE IRAS Akari Ln RP V–I YoD Ref
624 Hektor 225 233 230.99 L4 6.92 0.930 1907 list
617 Patroclus 140.362 140.92 140.85 L5 102.80 0.830 1906 list
911 Agamemnon 131.038 166.66 185.30 L4 6.59 0.980 1919 list
588 Achilles 130.099 135.47 133.22 L4 7.31 0.940 1906 list
3451 Mentor 126.288 116.30 117.91 L5 7.70 0.770 1984 list
3317 Paris 118.790 116.26 120.45 L5 7.09 0.950 1984 list
1867 Deiphobus 118.220 122.67 131.31 L5 58.66 0.930 1971 list
1172 Äneas 118.020 142.82 148.66 L5 8.71 0.950 1930 list
1437 Diomedes 117.786 164.31 172.60 L4 24.49 0.810 1937 list
1143 Odysseus 114.624 125.64 130.81 L4 10.11 0.860 1930 list
2241 Alcathous 113.682 114.63 118.87 L5 7.69 0.940 1979 list
659 Nestor 112.320 108.87 107.06 L4 15.98 0.790 1908 list
3793 Leonteus 112.046 86.26 87.58 L4 5.62 0.780 1985 list
3063 Makhaon 111.655 116.14 114.34 L4 8.64 0.830 1983 list
1583 Antilochus 108.842 101.62 111.69 L4 31.54 0.950 1950 list
884 Priamus 101.093 96.29 119.99 L5 6.86 0.900 1917 list
1208 Troilus 100.477 103.34 111.36 L5 56.17 0.740 1931 list
1173 Anchises 99.549 126.27 120.49 L5 11.60 0.780 1930 list
2207 Antenor 97.658 85.11 91.32 L5 7.97 0.950 1977 list
2363 Cebriones 95.976 81.84 84.61 L5 20.05 0.910 1977 list
4063 Euforbo 95.619 102.46 106.38 L4 8.85 0.950 1989 list
2357 Phereclos 94.625 94.90 98.45 L5 14.39 0.960 1981 list
4709 Ennomos 91.433 80.85 80.03 L5 12.28 0.690 1988 list
2797 Teucer 89.430 111.14 113.99 L4 10.15 0.920 1981 list
2920 Automedon 88.574 111.01 113.11 L4 10.21 0.950 1981 list
(15436) 1998 VU30 87.646 85.71 78.63 L4 8.97 0.870 1998 list
3596 Meriones 87.380 75.09 73.28 L4 12.96 0.830 1985 list
2893 Peiroos 86.884 87.46 86.76 L5 8.96 0.950 1975 list
4086 Podalirius 85.495 86.89 85.98 L4 10.43 0.870 1985 list
4060 Deipylos 84.043 79.21 86.79 L4 9.30 0.760 1987 list
1404 Ajax 83.990 81.69 96.34 L4 29.38 0.960 1936 list
4348 Poulydamas 82.032 70.08 87.51 L5 9.91 0.840 1988 list
5144 Achates 80.958 91.91 89.85 L5 5.96 0.920 1991 list
4833 Meges 80.165 87.33 89.39 L4 14.25 0.940 1989 list
2223 Sarpedon 77.480 94.63 108.21 L5 22.74 0.880 1977 list
(4489) 1988 AK 76.595 92.93 95.02 L4 12.58 0.950 1988 list
2260 Neoptolemus 76.435 71.65 81.28 L4 8.18 0.950 1975 list
5254 Ulysses 76.147 78.34 80.00 L4 28.72 0.970 1986 list
(3708) 1974 FV1 75.661 79.59 76.75 L5 6.55 0.980 1974 list
2674 Pandarus 74.267 98.10 101.72 L5 8.48 1.000 1982 list
3564 Talthybius 73.730 68.92 74.11 L4 40.59 0.900 1985 list
4834 Thoas 72.331 86.82 96.21 L4 18.19 0.950 1989 list
(7641) 1986 TT6 71.839 68.97 75.28 L4 27.77 0.980 1986 list
3540 Protesilaos 70.225 76.84 87.66 L4 8.95 0.940 1973 list
(11395) 1998 XN77 68.977 64.71 67.78 L4 17.38 1998 list
(4035) 1986 WD 68.733 68.23 66.99 L4 13.47 0.970 1986 list
5264 Telephus 68.472 73.26 81.38 L4 9.53 0.970 1991 list
1868 Thersites 68.163 70.08 78.89 L4 10.48 0.960 1960 list
(9799) 1996 RJ 68.033 64.87 72.42 L4 21.52 0.910 1996 list
4068 Menestheus 67.625 62.37 68.46 L4 14.40 0.950 1973 list
(23135) 2000 AN146 66.230 58.29 68.50 L4 8.69 0.860 2000 list
2456 Palamedes 65.916 91.66 99.60 L4 7.24 0.920 1966 list
3709 Polypoites 65.297 99.09 85.23 L4 10.04 1.000 1985 list
1749 Telamon 64.898 81.06 69.14 L4 16.98 0.970 1949 list
3548 Eurybates 63.885 72.14 68.40 L4 8.71 0.730 1973 list
4543 Phoinix 63.836 62.79 69.54 L4 38.87 1.200 1989 list
12444 Prothoon 63.835 64.31 62.41 L5 15.82 1996 list
4836 Medon 63.277 67.73 78.70 L4 9.82 0.920 1989 list
(16070) 1999 RB101 63.191 64.13 68.98 L5 20.24 0.960 1999 list
(15440) 1998 WX4 62.519 66.48 71.88 L4 21.43 0.970 1998 list
(4715) 1989 TS1 62.097 63.91 65.93 L5 8.81 0.850 1989 list
(A) Used sources: WISE/NEOWISE catalog (Grav, 2012); IRAS data (SIMPS v.6 catalog); and Akari catalog (Usui, 2011)
RP: rotation period and V–I (color index) taken from the LCDB

Note: missing data was completed with figures from the JPL SBDB (query) and from the LCDB (query form) for the
WISE/NEOWISE and SIMPS catalogs, respectively. These figures are given in italics.

Numbering and naming[edit]

This minor planet was numbered on 8 June 1990 (M.P.C. 16414).[16] As of 2018, it has not been named.[1] Up to number 5000, nearly all minor planets have received a name with only a small group of Jupiter trojans and near-Earth asteroids remaining unnamed:

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Lightcurve plots of (4489) 1988 AK from March 2015 and April 2016 by Daniel Coley and Robert Stephens at the Center for Solar System Studies (U81)/(U80). Quality code is 3/3 (lightcurve rating at CS3). Summary figures at the LCDB and CS3.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "4489 (1988 AK)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 7 June 2018. 
  2. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 4489 (1988 AK)" (2018-04-25 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 7 June 2018. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "LCDB Data for (4489)". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 7 June 2018. 
  4. ^ "List of Jupiter Trojans". Minor Planet Center. 30 May 2018. Retrieved 7 June 2018. 
  5. ^ a b c "Asteroid (4489) 1988 AK". AstDyS-2, Asteroids – Dynamic Site. Retrieved 7 June 2018. 
  6. ^ a b c d Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J. M.; Masiero, J. R.; Nugent, C. R. (November 2012). "WISE/NEOWISE Observations of the Jovian Trojan Population: Taxonomy" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 759 (1): 10. arXiv:1209.1549Freely accessible. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759...49G. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/759/1/49. Retrieved 9 June 2018.  (online catalog)
  7. ^ a b c Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System – IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 15 June 2018. 
  8. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 15 June 2018.  (online, AcuA catalog p. 153)
  9. ^ a b Stephens, Robert D.; Coley, Daniel R.; Warner, Brian D.; French, Linda, M. (October 2016). "Lightcurves of Jovian Trojan Asteroids from the Center for Solar System Studies: L4 Greek Camp and Spies". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 43 (4): 323–331. Bibcode:2016MPBu...43..323S. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 7 June 2018. 
  10. ^ a b French, Linda M.; Stephens, Robert D.; Lederer, Susan M.; Coley, Daniel R.; Rohl, Derrick A. (April 2011). "Preliminary Results from a Study of Trojan Asteroids". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 38 (2): 116–120. Bibcode:2011MPBu...38..116F. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 7 June 2018. 
  11. ^ a b Stephens, Robert D.; Coley, Daniel, R.; French, Linda M. (January 2016). "Large L5 Jovian Trojan Asteroid Lightcurves from the Center for Solar System Studies". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 43 (1): 15–22. Bibcode:2016MPBu...43...15S. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 7 June 2018. 
  12. ^ a b Mottola, Stefano; Di Martino, Mario; Erikson, Anders; Gonano-Beurer, Maria; Carbognani, Albino; Carsenty, Uri; et al. (May 2011). "Rotational Properties of Jupiter Trojans. I. Light Curves of 80 Objects". The Astronomical Journal. 141 (5): 32. Bibcode:2011AJ....141..170M. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/141/5/170. Retrieved 7 June 2018. 
  13. ^ a b Carvano, J. M.; Hasselmann, P. H.; Lazzaro, D.; Mothé-Diniz, T. (February 2010). "SDSS-based taxonomic classification and orbital distribution of main belt asteroids". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 510: 12. Bibcode:2010A&A...510A..43C. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200913322. Retrieved 15 June 2018. 
  14. ^ a b Lazzaro, D.; Angeli, C. A.; Carvano, J. M.; Mothé-Diniz, T.; Duffard, R.; Florczak, M. (November 2004). "S3OS2: the visible spectroscopic survey of 820 asteroids" (PDF). Icarus. 172 (1): 179–220. Bibcode:2004Icar..172..179L. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2004.06.006. Retrieved 7 June 2017. 
  15. ^ a b c Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results" (PDF). Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 7 June 2018. 
  16. ^ a b "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 7 June 2018. 
  17. ^ a b "Asteroid (4489) 1988 AK". Small Bodies Data Ferret. Retrieved 7 June 2018. 
  18. ^ Asteroid Occultation Updates Archived 2012-07-11 at the Wayback Machine.

External links[edit]