Hepoxilin-epoxide hydrolase

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hepoxilin-epoxide hydrolase
Identifiers
EC number 3.3.2.7
CAS number 122096-98-4
Databases
IntEnz IntEnz view
BRENDA BRENDA entry
ExPASy NiceZyme view
KEGG KEGG entry
MetaCyc metabolic pathway
PRIAM profile
PDB structures RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum
Gene Ontology AmiGO / QuickGO

In enzymology, a hepoxilin-epoxide hydrolase (EC 3.3.2.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of the epoxyalcohol metabolites arachidonic acid, hepoxilin A3 and hepoxilin B3 to their tri-hydroxyl products, trioxolin A3 and trioxilin B3, respectively. These reactions in general inactivate the two biologically active hepoxilins.[1]

Enzyme activity[edit]

Hepoxilin-epoxide hydrolase coverts the epoxide residue in hepoxilins A3 and B3 to Vicinal (chemistry) diols as exemplified in the following enzyme reaction for the metabolism of hepoxilin A3 to trioxilin A3:

8-hydroxy-11S,12Sepoxy-(5Z,8Z,14Z)-eicosatrienoic acid + H2O 8,11,12-trihydroxy-(5Z,9E,14Z)-eicosatrienoic acid

The substrates of this enzyme are 8-hydroxy-11S,12Sepoxy-(5Z,8Z,14Z)-eicosatrienoic acid, i.e. hepoxilin A3 and H2O, whereas its product is 8,11,12-trihydroxy-(5Z,9E,14Z)-eicosatrienoic acid, i.e. the triol, trioxilin A3.[1]

Epoxide hydrolases[edit]

Epoxide hydrolases represent a group of enzymes that convert various types of epoxides to vicinal diols. Several members of this group have this metabolic activity on fatty acid epoxides including microsomal epoxide hydrolase (i.e. epoxide hydrolase 1 or EH1), soluble epoxide hydrolase (i.e. epoxide hydrolase 2 or EH2), epoxide hydrolase 3 (EH3), epoxide hydrolase 4 (EH4), and leukotriene A4 hydrolase (see epoxide hydrolase). The systematic name of this enzyme class is (5Z,9E,14Z)-(8xi,11R,12S)-11,12-epoxy-8-hydroxyicosa-5,9,14-trienoat e hydrolase. Other names in common use include hepoxilin epoxide hydrolase, hepoxylin hydrolase, and hepoxilin A3 hydrolase, since the hepoxilins are metabolites of arachidonic acid, hepoxilin-epoxide hydrolase participates in arachidonic acid metabolism.

Identity of hepoxilin-epoxide hydrolase[edit]

Recent studies have shown that Soluble epoxide hydrolase (i.e. epoxide hydrolase 2 or EH2) readily metabolizes a) hepoxilin A3 (8-hydroxy-11S,12Sepoxy-(5Z,8Z,14Z)-eicosatrienoic acid) to trioxilin A3 (8,11,12-trihydroxy-(5Z,9E,14Z)-eicosatrienoic acid) and b) hepoxilin B3 (10-hydroxy-11S,12Sepoxy-(5Z,9E,14Z)-eicosatrienoic acid) to trioxlin B3 (10,11,12-trihydroxy-(5Z,9E,14Z)-eicosatrienoic acid. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (i.e. epoxide hydrolase 2 or EH2) sEH also appears to be the hepoxilin hydrolase that is responsible for inactivating the epoxyalcohol metabolites of arachidonic acid, hepoxilin A3 and hepoxiin B3. Soluble epoxide hydrolase is widely expressed in a diversity of human and other mammal tissues and therefore appears to be the hepoxilin hydrolase responsible for inactivating hepoxilin A3 and B3 (see soluble epoxide hydrolase#Function and epoxide hydrolase#Hepoxilin-epoxide hydrolase).[1][2] The ability of EH1, EH3, EH4, and leukotriene A4 hydrolase to metabolize hepoxilins to trioxilins has not yet been reported.

Function[edit]

Hepoxilins possess several activities (see hepoxilin#Physiological effect)[3] whereas their trioxilin products are generally considered to be inactive.[1] Accordingly, the soluble epoxide hydrolase metabolic pathway is considered to function in vivo to inactivate or limit the activity of the hepoxilins.[1][3][4] It should be emphasized, however, that the other fatty acid epoxide hydrolases cited in the Epoxide hydrolases section (above) have not be reported for hepoxilin-epoxide hydrolase activity, could possibly exhibit this, and therefore contribute to inactivating the hepoxilins.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Pace-Asciak, C. R. (2015). "Pathophysiology of the hepoxilins". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids. 1851 (4): 383–96. doi:10.1016/j.bbalip.2014.09.007. PMID 25240838. 
  2. ^ Cronin, A; Decker, M; Arand, M (2011). "Mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolase is identical to liver hepoxilin hydrolase". The Journal of Lipid Research. 52 (4): 712–9. doi:10.1194/jlr.M009639. PMC 3284163Freely accessible. PMID 21217101. 
  3. ^ a b Pace-Asciak, C. R. (2009). "The hepoxilins and some analogues: A review of their biology". British Journal of Pharmacology. 158 (4): 972–81. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00168.x. PMC 2785520Freely accessible. PMID 19422397. 
  4. ^ Muñoz-Garcia, A; Thomas, C. P.; Keeney, D. S.; Zheng, Y; Brash, A. R. (2014). "The importance of the lipoxygenase-hepoxilin pathway in the mammalian epidermal barrier". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids. 1841 (3): 401–8. doi:10.1016/j.bbalip.2013.08.020. PMC 4116325Freely accessible. PMID 24021977. 
  • Pace-Asciak CR (1988). "Formation and metabolism of hepoxilin A3 by the rat brain". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 151 (1): 493–8. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(88)90620-1. PMID 3348791. 
  • Pace-Asciak CR, Lee WS (1989). "Purification of hepoxilin epoxide hydrolase from rat liver". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (16): 9310–3. PMID 2722835. 
  • Fretland AJ, Omiecinski CJ (2000). "Epoxide hydrolases: biochemistry and molecular biology". Chem. Biol. Interact. 129 (1–2): 41–59. doi:10.1016/S0009-2797(00)00197-6. PMID 11154734. 
  • Newman JW, Morisseau C, Hammock BD (2005). "Epoxide hydrolases: their roles and interactions with lipid metabolism". Prog. Lipid. Res. 44 (1): 1–51. doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2004.10.001. PMID 15748653.