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List of emoticons

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A colon, followed by a dash, followed by a closing bracket. They resemble a smiley face.
A simple smiley

This is a list of notable and commonly used emoticons, or textual portrayals of a writer's moods or facial expressions in the form of icons. Originally, these icons consisted of ASCII art, and later, Shift_JIS art and Unicode art. In recent times, graphical icons, both static and animated, have joined the traditional text-based emoticons; these are commonly known as emoji.[1][2]

Emoticons can generally be divided into three groups: Western (mainly from America and Europe) or horizontal (though not all are in that orientation); Eastern or vertical (mainly from east Asia); and 2channel style (originally used on 2channel and other Japanese message boards). The most common explanation for these different styles is that in the East, the eyes play the primary role in facial expressions, while in the West, the whole face tends to be used.[3]

Western

Western style emoticons are mostly written from left to right as though the head is rotated counter-clockwise 90 degrees. One will most commonly see the eyes on the left, followed by the nose (often not included) and then the mouth. Typically, a colon is used for the eyes of a face, unless winking, in which case a semicolon is used. However, an equals sign, a number 8, or a capital letter B are also used to indicate normal eyes, widened eyes, or those with glasses, respectively. Symbols for the mouth vary, e.g. ")" for a smiley face or "(" for a sad face. One can also add a "}" after the mouth character to indicate a beard.

Sideways Latin-only emoticons
Icon Emoji Meaning
 :‑)
:)
 :-]
:]
 :-3
:3
 :->
:>
8-)
8)
 :-}
:}
 :o)  :c)  :^)
=]

=)
☺️🙂😊😀😁 Smiley or happy face.[4][5][6]
 :‑D
:D
8‑D
8D
x‑D
xD
X‑D
XD

=D

=3
B^D 😃😄😆😍 Laughing,[4] big grin,[5][6] laugh with glasses[7], or wide-eyed surprise[8]
 :-)) Very happy or double chin[7]
 :‑(
:(
 :‑c
:c
 :‑<
:<
 :‑[
:[
:-||
>:[

:{

:@

>:(
☹️🙁😠😡😞😟😣😖 Frown,[4][5][6] sad,[9] angry,[7] pouting
 :'‑(
:'(
😢😭 Crying[9]
 :'‑)
:')
😂 Tears of happiness[9]
D‑': D:< D: D8 D; D= DX 😨😧😦😱😫😩 Horror, disgust, sadness, great dismay[5][6] (right to left)
 :‑O
:O
 :‑o
:o
 :-0 8‑0
>:O
😮😯😲 Surprise,[3] shock,[4][10] yawn[11]
 :-*
:*

😗😙😚😘😍 Kiss
 ;‑)
;)
*-)
*)
 ;‑]
;]
 ;^)  :‑,
;D
😉😜😘 Wink,[4][5][6] smirk[10][11]
 :‑P
:P
X‑P
XP
x‑p
xp
 :‑p
:p
 :‑Þ
 :‑þ
 :‑b
:b

d:

=p
>:P 😛😝😜🤑 Tongue sticking out, cheeky/playful,[4] blowing a raspberry
 :‑/
:/
 :‑. >:\ >:/  :\ =/ =\  :L =L  :S 🤔😕😟 Skeptical, annoyed, undecided, uneasy, hesitant[4]
:‑|
:|
😐😑 Straight face[5] no expression, indecision[9]
 :$ 😳😞😖 Embarrassed,[6] blushing[7]
 :‑X
:X
 :‑#
:#
 :‑&
:&
🤐😶 Sealed lips or wearing braces,[4] tongue-tied[9]
O:‑)
O:)
0:‑3
0:3
0:‑)
0:)
0;^) 😇👼 Angel,[4][5][10] saint,[9] innocent
>:‑)
>:)
}:‑)
}:)
3:‑)
3:)

>;)
😈 Evil,[5] devilish[9]
|;‑) |‑O 😎😪 Cool,[9] bored/yawning[10]
 :‑J 😏😒 Tongue-in-cheek[12]
#‑) Partied all night[9]
 %‑)
%)
😵😕🤕 Drunk,[9] confused
 :‑###..
:###..
🤒😷🤢 Being sick[9]
<:‑| Dumb, dunce-like[10]
Sideways Latin-only single-line art and portraits
Icon Meaning
~(_8^(I) Homer Simpson[10]
5:‑) ~:‑\ Elvis Presley[10][11]
*<|:‑) Santa Claus[13]
=:o] Bill Clinton[13]
7:^] ,:‑) Ronald Reagan[13]
</3 <\3 Broken-heart[14]
<3 Heart[14]
@};- @}->-- @}‑;‑'‑‑‑ @>‑‑>‑‑ Rose[4][10]
Upright Latin-only emoticons and single-line art and portraits
Icon Meaning
><> <*)))‑{ ><(((*> Fish, something's fishy,[10] Christian fish[7]
\o/ Cheer "Yay, yay."[7]
*\0/* Cheerleader[7]
//0‑0\\ John Lennon[10]
v.v Horror, disgust, sadness, great dismay[5][6]
O_O o‑o O_o o_O o_o O-O Surprise,[3] shock,[4][10] yawn[11]
>.< Skeptical, annoyed, undecided, uneasy, hesitant[4]
^5 o/\o >_>^ ^<_< High five[11]
Upright Unicode-incorporating emoticons and single-line art
Icon Meaning
ӽd̲̅a̲̅r̲̅w̲̅i̲̅ɳ̲̅ᕗ Ӽd̲̅a̲̅r̲̅w̲̅i̲̅ɳ̲̅ᕗ ӽe̲̅v̲̅o̲̅l̲̅u̲̅t̲̅i̲̅o̲̅ɳ̲̅ᕗ Ӽe̲̅v̲̅o̲̅l̲̅u̲̅t̲̅i̲̅o̲̅ɳ̲̅ᕗ Darwin fish / Evolution fish[15]
( ͡° ͜ʖ ͡°) The "Lenny Face", named and popularized on 4chan; often used to represent a smirk[16][better source needed]

Eastern

Eastern emoticons generally are not rotated sideways, and may include non-Latin characters to allow for additional complexity, these emoticons first arose in Japan, where they are referred to as kaomoji (literally "face characters").

Kaomoji faces
Icon Emoji Meaning
(>_<)(>_<)> 😣😖 Troubled[17][18]
(';') 👶 Baby[17]
(^^ゞ(^_^;)(-_-;)(~_~;) (・.・;)(・_・;)(・・;) ^^;^_^;(#^.^#)(^^;) 😅😳😓😥 Nervous, embarrassed,[17] troubled, shy,[18] sweat drop[7]
(^.^)y-.o○(-.-)y-°°° 🚬 Smoking[17]
(-_-)zzz 😴💤 Sleeping[17]
(^_-)(^_-)-☆ 😉😜 Wink[17]
((+_+))(+o+)(°°)(°-°) (°.°)(°_°)(°_°>)(°レ°) 😕😶😵🙄 Confused[17]
(o|o) Ultraman [17]
<(`^´)> N/A[17]
^_^(°o°)(^_^)/(^O^)/(^o^)/(^^)/ (≧∇≦)/(/◕ヮ◕)/(^o^)丿∩(·ω·)∩(·ω·)^ω^ 😀😅😆😃😄🙌 Joyful[17][18][19]
(__)_(._.)__(_^_)_<(_ _)> <m(__)m>m(__)mm(_ _)m 🙇 Kowtow as a sign of respect, or dogeza for apology[17][18]
\(°ロ\)(/ロ°)/ Questioning[17]
('_')(/_;)(T_T) (;_;)(;_;(;_:)(;O;)(:_;)(ToT)(T▽T) ;_;;-;;n;;;Q.QT.TQQQ_Q 😭😢 Sad, crying[10][17][18]
(ー_ー)!!(-.-)(-_-)(一一)(;一_一) 😒😩😑😞😔 Shame[17]
(=_=) 😫😩😪 Tired[17]
(=^·^=)(=^··^=)=_^= 😺😸😹😻😼😽🙀😿😾🐱 Cat[17][19]
(..)(._.) 🙍😔 Looking down[17]
^m^ Giggling with hand covering mouth[17]
(・・?(?_?) 😕😵 Confusion[17]
(-‸ლ) 🤦 Facepalm [20]
>^_^<<^!^>^/^(*^_^*)§^.^§(^<^) (^.^)(^ム^)(^·^)(^.^)(^_^.)(^_^)(^^) (^J^)(*^.^*)^_^(#^.^#)(^—^) 😃😄☺️😁😀😍 Normal laugh[17]
(^^)/~~~(^_^)/~(;_;)/~~~(^.^)/~~~(-_-)/~~~ ($··)/~~~(@^^)/~~~(T_T)/~~~(ToT)/~~~ 👋 Waving[17]
(V)o¥o(V) 👽👾 Alien Baltan[17]
\(~o~)/\(^o^)/\(-o-)/ ヽ(^。^)ノヽ(^o^)丿(*^0^*) 😍😀🙌💃 Excited[17]
(*_*)(*_*;(+_+) (@_@)(@_@。(@_@;)\(◎o◎)/! 😍 Amazed[17]
 !(^^)! N/A[17]
(*^^)v(^^)v(^_^)v(’-’*) (^v^)(^▽^)(・∀・)(´∀`)(⌒▽⌒) 😂✌️ Laughing, cheerful[17][18]
(~o~)(~_~) 😔😒😏 N/A [17]
(^^ゞ 😙😚 N/A [17]
(p_-) N/A [17]
((d[-_-]b)) 🎧 Headphones, listening to music[17]
(-"-)(ーー゛)(^_^メ)(-_-メ)(~_~メ)(--〆) (・へ・)(`´)<`~´><`ヘ´>(ーー;) 😟😓😬 Worried[17][18]
(^0_0^) 😎🤓 Eyeglasses[17]
( ..)φφ(..) Jotting note[17]
(●^o^●)(^v^)(^u^)(^◇^) ( ^)o(^ )(^O^)(^o^)(^○^))^o^( (*^▽^*)(✿◠‿◠) 😀😁😆😅😃😄 Happy[17][18]
( ̄ー ̄) 😁 Grinning[18]
( ̄□ ̄;)°o°°O°:O o_Oo_0o.O(o.o)oO 😲😮😯 Surprised[3][18]
(*´▽`*)(*°∀°)=3 Infatuation[18]
( ゚ Д゚)(°◇°) 😨😱😮😲 Shocked, surprised[18]
(* ̄m ̄) 😬😠😡 Dissatisfied[18]
ヽ(´ー`)┌¯\_(ツ)_/¯ Mellow, shrug[18]
(´・ω・`)(‘A`) Snubbed or deflated[18]
(*^3^)/~☆ 😘😚😙😗 Blowing a kiss[21]
.....φ(・∀・*) Studying is good[21]
Other Eastern emoticons
Icon Emoji Meaning
.o○○o. Bubbles[17]
( ^^)_U~~( ^^)_旦~~ 🍵☕️ Cup of tea[17]
☆彡☆ミ ☄️🌟 Shooting star[17]
>°)))彡(Q))><ヨヨ (°))<<>°))))彡<°)))彡>°))彡 <+))><<<*))>=< 🐠🐟🐡🦈🐬🐳🐋 Fish[17]
<コ:彡 C:.ミ 🐙 Octopus, squid[17]
~>°)~~~ 🐍 Snake[17]
~°·_·°~ 🦇 Bat[17]
(°°)~ Tadpole[17]
●~* 💣 Bomb[17]
 ̄|○STOOTZOTLorz Despair. The "O"s represent head on the ground, "T" or "r" forms the torso, and "S" or "z" the legs.[18]
(╯°□°)╯︵ ┻━┻┬──┬ ¯\_(ツ) ┻━┻︵ヽ(`Д´)ノ︵ ┻━┻┬─┬ノ( º _ ºノ) (ノಠ益ಠ)ノ彡┻━┻ Table flip[22]
:3ミ N/A[17]

2channel emoticons

A number of Eastern emoticons were originally developed on the Japanese discussion site 2channel, some of these are wider (made up of more characters) than usual kaomoji, or extend over multiple lines of text. Many use characters from other character sets besides Japanese and Latin.

2channel emoticons
Icon Meaning
m9(^Д^) Jeering laughter
m(_ _)m Kowtow as a sign of respect, or dogeza for apology[18]
(´・ω・`) Snubbed or deflated[18]
(`・ω・´) Feel perky[23]
(`-´)> Salute[23]
(´;ω;`) Terribly sad[23]
ヽ(´ー`)ノ Peace of mind[23]
ヽ(`Д´)ノ Be irritable[23]
(#゚Д゚) Angry[23]
( ´Д`) Yelling, or panting[23]
( ゚Д゚) Surprised, or loudmouthed[23]
┐('~`;)┌ Don't know the answer[23]
(´∀`) Carefree[23]
( ´_ゝ`) Indifferent[23]
Σ(゜д゜;) Shocked[23]
( ゚ヮ゚) Happy, upbeat[23]
⊂二二二( ω)二⊃ "Bu-n", being carefree and above, with arms stretched out while running/soaring.[23]
(((( ;゚Д゚))) Spook[23]
Σ(゚Д゚) Huge surprise[23]
( ´∀`)σ)∀`) Jog someone's cheek[23]
( ゚д゚) Amazed[23]
(´ー`)y-~~ Smoking[23]
( ^_^)o自自o(^_^ ) Toast "Cheers"[23]
m9(・∀・) Flash of intuition[23]
ヽ(´ー`)人(´∇`)人(`Д´)ノ Friendly[23]
('A`) Lonely[23]
( ´,_ゝ`) Depressed, unsatisfied (based on indifferent)[23]
(´-`).。oO( ... ) Thinking[23]
(゚Д゚;≡;゚Д゚) Impatience[23]
( ´д)ヒソ(´Д`)ヒソ(Д` ) Whispers[23]
(・∀・)つ⑩ Carrying money[23]
⊂(゚Д゚⊂⌒`つ≡≡≡(´⌒;;;≡≡≡ Sliding on belly, "whooaaa!!!"[23]
(゚д゚) Unforeseen[23]
(゚⊿゚) "I don't need it"[23]
щ(゚Д゚щ) (屮゚Д゚)屮 Come on[23]
(・∀・) Mocking, "good"[23]
(・A・) "That's bad"[23]
(゚∀゚) Discharged drug-in-brain, goofing around, "A-HYA!"[23]
( つ Д `) Sad[23]
エェェ(´д`)ェェエ Not convincing[23]
( ̄ー ̄) Simper, Snorlax[23]
[゚д゚] Deflagged[23]
♪┏(・o・)┛♪┗ ( ・o・) ┓ Happy expressions, dancing to the music[23]
d(*⌒▽⌒*)b Happy expression[23]
_| ̄|○ Given up.[23] Despair, the "O"s represent head on the ground, "T" or "r" forms the torso, and "S" or "z" the legs.[18]
STO
OTZ
OTL
(╬ ಠ益ಠ) Extreme Distaste, meant to appear as an exaggerated grimace[23]
(≧ロ≦) Shouting[23]
(ΘεΘ;) Pretending not to notice, asleep because of boredom[23]
\|  ̄ヘ ̄|/_______θ☆( *o*)/ Kick[23]
┌(;`~,)┐ Discombobulated[23]
ε=ε=ε=┌(;*´Д`)ノ Running[23]
ヽ(´▽`)/ Happy[23]
^ㅂ^ Happy[23]
(l'o'l) Shocked[23]
ヽ(o`皿′o)ノ Really angry[23]
o/ o_ o/ o_ "It's here"
(☞゚ヮ゚)☞ "Do it"[23]
☜(゚ヮ゚☜)
☜(⌒▽⌒)☞ Angel[23]
2channel emoticons containing Japanese phrases
Icon Meaning
キタ━━━(゜∀゜)━━━!!!!!  "It's here", Kitaa!, excitement that something has appeared or happened or "I came".[18]
キタワァ*・゜゚・*:.。..。.:*・゜(n‘∀‘)η゚・*:.。. .。.:*・゜゚・* !!!!!   Girlish version of "It's here".[23]
(*´Д`)ハァハァ Erotic stirring, haa haa[23]
( ´Д`)ノ(´・ω・`) ナデナデ Patting, nade nade[23]
(*゚ノO゚)<オオオオォォォォォォォーーーーーイ! Calling out, "Ooooi!"[23]
( ゚∀゚)アハハ八八ノヽノヽノヽノ \ / \/ \ Evil laugh (literally ahahaHAHA...)[23]
(・∀・ )ヾ(- -;)コラコラ Blaming "now now"[23]
お(^o^)や(^O^)す(^。^)みぃ(^-^)ノ゙ Kana reading "O ya su mi" meaning "Good night" or "Night"[23]
(‐^▽^‐)オーホッホ Chuckle
Multi-line 2channel emoticons
Icon Meaning
<`∀´> Stereotypical Korean character (Nidā)[23]
<丶`∀´>
[ (★) ]
<丶´Д`>
Stereotypical North Korean character (Kigā)[24]  
∧_∧
( ;´Д`)
Stereotypical Japanese character (Monā)[24]  
∧∧
/ 中\
(  `ハ´)
Stereotypical Chinese character (Sinā)[24]  
∧∧
 / 台\
 ( ^∀^)
Stereotypical Taiwanese character (Wanā)[24]
∧∧
/ 越 \
( ・∀・ )
Stereotypical Vietnamese character (Venā)[24]
γ~三ヽ
(三彡0ミ)
( ´∀`)
Stereotypical Indian Character (Monastē)[24]
| ̄ ̄|
_☆☆☆_
( ´_⊃`)
Stereotypical American character (Samū)[24]
 ┏━┓
━━━━━━
ミΘc_Θ-ミ
Stereotypical Jewish character (Yudā)[24]
__
│〓.│
━━━━━
ミ ´_>`)
Stereotypical English character (Jakū)[24]
____
(〓__>
ξ ・_>・)
Stereotypical French character (Torirī)[24]
_、,_
ミ  _⊃)
Stereotypical German character (Gerumandamu)[24]
≡≡彡
彡 ´_)` )
Stereotypical Austrian character (Osutō)[24]
,,,,,,,,,,,,,
 ミ;;;,,,,,,,ミ 
( `_っ´)
Stereotypical Russian character (Rosukī)[24]
_γ⌒ヽ_
lXXXXXXXXl
 ( ´m`)
Stereotypical Mexican character (Amīgo)[24]
_
<(o0o)>
(>ミ - ミ )>
Stereotypical Persian character (jujø)[24]

Unicode characters

Many emoticons are included as characters in the Unicode standard, in the Miscellaneous Symbols block, the Emoticons block, and the Supplemental Symbols and Pictographs block.

Miscellaneous Symbols (partial)[1][2][3]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+260x
U+261x
U+262x
U+263x
U+264x
U+265x
U+266x
U+267x
U+268x
U+269x
U+26Ax
U+26Bx
U+26Cx
U+26Dx
U+26Ex
U+26Fx
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0
2.^ Empty areas indicate code points assigned to non-emoticon characters
3.^ U+263A and U+263B are inherited from Microsoft Code page 437 introduced in 1981, although inspired by older systems
Emoticons[1]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1F60x 😀 😁 😂 😃 😄 😅 😆 😇 😈 😉 😊 😋 😌 😍 😎 😏
U+1F61x 😐 😑 😒 😓 😔 😕 😖 😗 😘 😙 😚 😛 😜 😝 😞 😟
U+1F62x 😠 😡 😢 😣 😤 😥 😦 😧 😨 😩 😪 😫 😬 😭 😮 😯
U+1F63x 😰 😱 😲 😳 😴 😵 😶 😷 😸 😹 😺 😻 😼 😽 😾 😿
U+1F64x 🙀 🙁 🙂 🙃 🙄 🙅 🙆 🙇 🙈 🙉 🙊 🙋 🙌 🙍 🙎 🙏
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0
Supplemental Symbols and Pictographs (partial)[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1F90x 🤀 🤁 🤂 🤃 🤄 🤅 🤆 🤇 🤈 🤉 🤊 🤋
U+1F91x 🤐 🤑 🤒 🤓 🤔 🤕 🤖 🤗 🤘 🤙 🤚 🤛 🤜 🤝 🤞 🤟
U+1F92x 🤠 🤡 🤢 🤣 🤤 🤥 🤦 🤧 🤨 🤩 🤪 🤫 🤬 🤭 🤮 🤯
U+1F93x 🤰 🤱 🤲 🤳 🤴 🤵 🤶 🤷 🤸 🤹 🤺 🤻 🤼 🤽 🤾
U+1F94x 🥀 🥁 🥂 🥃 🥄 🥅 🥆 🥇 🥈 🥉 🥊 🥋 🥌
U+1F95x 🥐 🥑 🥒 🥓 🥔 🥕 🥖 🥗 🥘 🥙 🥚 🥛 🥜 🥝 🥞 🥟
U+1F96x 🥠 🥡 🥢 🥣 🥤 🥥 🥦 🥧 🥨 🥩 🥪 🥫
U+1F97x
U+1F98x 🦀 🦁 🦂 🦃 🦄 🦅 🦆 🦇 🦈 🦉 🦊 🦋 🦌 🦍 🦎 🦏
U+1F99x 🦐 🦑 🦒 🦓 🦔 🦕 🦖 🦗
U+1F9Ax
U+1F9Bx
U+1F9Cx 🧀
U+1F9Dx 🧐 🧑 🧒 🧓 🧔 🧕 🧖 🧗 🧘 🧙 🧚 🧛 🧜 🧝 🧞 🧟
U+1F9Ex 🧠 🧡 🧢 🧣 🧤 🧥 🧦
U+1F9Fx
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

References

  1. ^ "FAQ - Emoji & Dingbats". unicode.org. Unicode, Inc. 
  2. ^ "Emoji and Dingbats". Unicode, Inc. 21 April 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Facial expressions show language barriers too". Science X network. Retrieved 13 March 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Paul H. Gil (June 2009). "Emoticons and Smileys 101". about.com. Retrieved 2 August 2009. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Yahoo messenger emoticons". Archived from the original on 10 July 2009. Retrieved 2 August 2009. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g "MSN messenger emoticons". Retrieved 2 August 2009. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h "List of Text Emoticons". cool-smileys.com. Retrieved 20 July 2012. 
  8. ^ "Texting Emoticons". vkqp.com. 2017. Retrieved 3 July 2017. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Orlowski, Andrew (27 January 2006). "Cingular applies to patent smileys". The Register. Retrieved 27 December 2011. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Williams, Alex (29 July 2007). "(-: Just Between You and Me ;-)". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 December 2011. 
  11. ^ a b c d e "Net For Beginners". Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  12. ^ "Tongue in Cheek". pc.net. Retrieved 2014-10-06. 
  13. ^ a b c Kent, Peter (2001). The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Internet. Indianapolis, IN: Penguin Books. p. 112. ISBN 0-7897-2523-1. Retrieved 27 December 2011. 
  14. ^ a b Doll, Jen (24 March 2011). "Oxford English Dictionary Now Includes Heart". Village Voice. Retrieved 26 August 2012. 
  15. ^ "[SOLVED] Is it possible to add a symbol to the character map?". LinuxQuestions.org. 2017-02-23. Retrieved 2017-07-10. 
  16. ^ "( ͡° ͜ʖ ͡°) / Lenny Face". Know Your Meme. 2017-06-23. Retrieved 2017-07-10. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar "List of emoticons". Microsoft. Archived from the original on 5 September 2011. Retrieved 17 December 2011. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "List of emoticons commonly used in e-mail". goo.ne.jp. 21 June 2006. Retrieved 24 December 2011.  or Y-N, Ken (14 August 2006). "Top thirty Japanese emoticons". WhatJapanThinks.com. Retrieved 7 February 2011. 
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  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Atwiki.jp https://web.archive.org/web/20090720133541/http://www14.atwiki.jp/aa_coldwar/pages/1.html. Archived from the original on 20 July 2009.  Missing or empty |title= (help)