NGO Monitor is a non-governmental organization based in Jerusalem, which analyzes and reports on the output of the international NGO community from a pro-Israel perspective. It has been characterized as being pro-Israel and as right-wing, the organization was founded in 2001 by Gerald M. Steinberg under the auspices of the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. NGO Monitor became a legally and financially independent organization in 2007, other journalsits have praised the organization for investigating and exposing self-described human rights groups as being what they call anti-Israeli groups. A number of academics have written that NGO Monitors aims and activities are political in nature, the organizations leader Gerald M. Steinberg has reportedly worked for the Israeli Foreign Ministry and the Office of the Prime Minister while heading NGO Monitor. NGO Monitor is the project of the Organization for NGO Responsibility. Its president is Gerald M. Steinberg, professor of Political Science at Bar-Ilan University, the Wechsler Family Foundation is one of the founding donors of NGO Monitor.
Other acknowledged supporters are Nina Rosenwald and Newt Becker, since its separation from the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs and its formation as an independent organization in 2007, NGO Monitor has drawn on a wider range of funding sources. In 2010, the received a $500,000 grant from Research + Evaluation = Promoting Organizational Responsibility and Transparency. Private donors in the US were asked on the NGO Monitors website to donate via REPORT, other donors have been The Center for Jewish Community Studies, American Friends of NGO Monitor, Orion Foundation, Peter Simpson, Nir Ben Josef, Real Property Investment, DR. Tuchmen, Jewish Federations of North America and the Wechsler Family Foundation, NGO Monitors financial reports for 2009 to 2012, which includes donations above NIS20,000, are available on its website. The donations in question were channeled through the Jewish Agency for Israel and Matan, NGO Monitor staff have co-authored two books relating to NGOs, Best Practices for Human Rights and Humanitarian NGO Fact-Finding and The Goldstone Report Reconsidered, A Critical Analysis.
NGO Monitor released a document comparing Amnesty Internationals response to the twenty years of ethnic, rashid Khalidi describes NGO Monitor as an organisation that opposes legal means against Israel while at the same time being a proponent of the use of legal means against those who criticise Israel. Sabine Lang writes that NGO Monitor has focused on the use of means to limit funding to NGOs. The EU commented that the Middle East is an unstable region, Steinberg said that for over 10 years the EU has been keeping the information regarding funding of NGOs in complete secrecy. My conclusion is that they have something to hide, in addition to a violation of basic principles of government transparency, the secret funding is trying to manipulate the democratic process in Israel. Michael Sfard, a lawyer specializing in human rights law said Steinberg invents demons. All the data about the donations of foreign countries to Israeli human rights organizations are published on the Web sites of the organizations, as required by law.
In 2013, NGO Monitor issued a report on the findings of the 2011 Israeli law requiring Israeli non-governmental organizations to disclose financial contributions from foreign donors, the report assessed that foreign funding of Israeli NGOs totalled NIS34,355,579 in 2012
Apartheid was a system of institutionalised racial segregation and discrimination in South Africa between 1948 and 1991, when it was abolished. The countrys first multiracial elections under a universal franchise were held three years in 1994, Apartheid as a policy was embraced by the South African government shortly after the ascension of the National Party during the countrys 1948 general elections. Apartheid was enforced in South West Africa until it gained independence as Namibia in 1990, with the rapid growth and industrialisation of the British Cape Colony in the nineteenth century, racial policies and laws became increasingly rigid. Cape legislation that discriminated specifically against black Africans began appearing shortly before 1900, the policies of the Boer republics were racially exclusive, for instance, the Transvaal constitution barred nonwhite participation in church and state. Places of residence were determined by racial classification, from 1960 to 1983,3.5 million nonwhite South Africans were removed from their homes, and forced into segregated neighbourhoods, in one of the largest mass removals in modern history.
Most of these targeted removals were intended to restrict the population to ten designated tribal homelands, known as bantustans. The government announced that relocated persons would lose their South African citizenship as they were absorbed into the bantustans, Apartheid sparked significant international and domestic opposition, resulting in some of the most influential global social movements of the twentieth century. It was the target of frequent condemnation in the United Nations, some reforms of the apartheid system were undertaken, including allowing for Indian and coloured political representation in parliament, but these measures failed in appeasing most activist groups. In 1990, prominent ANC leaders such as Nelson Mandela were released from detention, Apartheid legislation was abolished in mid-1991, pending multiracial elections set for April 1994. Apartheid is an Afrikaans word meaning separateness, or the state of being apart and its first recorded use was in 1929. The governors and assemblies that governed the process in the various colonies of South Africa were launched on a different and independent legislative path from the rest of the British Empire.
In the days of slavery, slaves required passes to travel away from their masters, in 1797 the Landdrost and Heemraden of Swellendam and Graaff-Reinet extended pass laws beyond slaves and ordained that all Khoikhoi moving about the country for any purpose should carry passes. Ordinance No.49 of 1828 decreed that prospective black immigrants were to be granted passes for the purpose of seeking work. These passes were to be issued for Coloureds and Khoikhoi, but not for other Africans, the United Kingdoms Slavery Abolition Act 1833 abolished slavery throughout the British Empire and overrode the Cape Articles of Capitulation. To comply with the act the South African legislation was expanded to include Ordinance 1 in 1835 and this was followed by Ordinance 3 in 1848, which introduced an indenture system for Xhosa that was little different from slavery. The Glen Grey Act of 1894, instigated by the government of Prime Minister Cecil John Rhodes limited the amount of land Africans could hold, in 1905 the General Pass Regulations Act denied blacks the vote, limited them to fixed areas and inaugurated the infamous Pass System.
The Asiatic Registration Act required all Indians to register and carry passes, one of the first pieces of segregating legislation enacted by Jan Smuts United Party government was the Asiatic Land Tenure Bill, which banned land sales to Indians. The United Party government began to move away from the enforcement of segregationist laws during World War II
American Jews, known as Jewish Americans, are Americans who are Jews, either by religion, ethnicity, or nationality. The Jewish community in the United States is composed predominantly of Ashkenazi Jews and their US-born descendants, Minority Jewish ethnic divisions are represented, including Sephardic Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and a smaller percentage of converts to Judaism. The American Jewish community manifests a wide range of Jewish cultural traditions, depending on religious definitions and varying population data, the United States is home to the largest or second largest Jewish community in the world. In 2012, the American Jewish population was estimated at between 5.5 and 8 million, depending on the definition of the term and this constitutes between 1. 7% and 2. 6% of the total U. S. population. Jews have been present in what is today the United States of America since the mid-17th century, they were small in number, with at most 200 to 300 having arrived by 1700. The majority were Sephardic Jewish immigrants of Spanish and Portuguese ancestry, until after 1720 when Ashkenazi Jews from Central, after passage of the Plantation Act of 1740, Jews were specifically permitted to become British citizens and immigrate to the colonies.
Until about 1830, South Carolina had more Jews than anywhere else in North America and they primarily became merchants and shop-owners. Jewish migration to the United States increased dramatically in the early 1880s, as a result of persecution, many Jews emigrated from Romania. Over 2,000,000 Jews landed between the late 19th century and 1924, when the Immigration Act of 1924 restricted immigration, most settled in the New York metropolitan area, establishing the worlds major concentrations of Jewish population. In 1915 the circulation of the daily Yiddish newspapers was half a million in New York City alone, in addition thousands more subscribed to the numerous weekly papers and the many magazines. American Jewish writers of the time urged assimilation and integration into the wider American culture,500,000 American Jews fought in World War II, and after the war younger families joined the new trend of suburbanization. There, Jews became increasingly assimilated and demonstrated rising intermarriage, more recent waves of Jewish emigration from Russia and other regions have largely joined the mainstream American Jewish community.
Americans of Jewish descent have been successful in many fields. Scholars debate whether the historical experience for Jews in the United States has been such a unique experience as to validate American exceptionalism. Korelitz shows how American Jews during the late 19th and early 20th centuries abandoned a racial definition of Jewishness in favor of one that embraced ethnicity. The key to understanding this transition from a racial self-definition to a cultural or ethnic one can be found in the ‘’Menorah Journal’’ between 1915 and 1925, siporin uses the family folklore of ethnic Jews to their collective history and its transformation into an historical art form. They tell us how Jews have survived being uprooted and transformed, many immigrant narratives bear a theme of the arbitrary nature of fate and the reduced state of immigrants in a new culture. By contrast, ethnic family narratives tend to show the more in charge of his life
Merav Michaeli is an Israeli Knesset member and a former journalist, TV anchor, radio broadcaster and activist. Merav Michaeli was born in Petah Tikva and she is the granddaughter of Rudolf Kastner. MK Michaeli is currently Chair of the Caucus for Female Knesset Members, Michaeli has taught university classes and lectured extensively on the topics of feminism and communications. A longtime advocate for womens and minority rights, she is known for her ability to challenge conventional views. Michaelis inaugural speech in the Knesset may be viewed here, in September 2012, Michaeli spoke at TEDxJaffa on the theme of paradigm shift, in which she argued for society to cancel marriage. In October 2012, she announced that she was joining the Labor Party, on November 29 Michaeli won fifth place on the Labor Partys roster. Her partner is the producer and comedian Lior Schleien. Merav Michaeli on the Knesset website
The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, and the most widely read weekly journal of liberal/progressive political and cultural news and analysis. It is published by The Nation Company, L. P. at 33 Irving Place and it is associated with The Nation Institute. The Nation has bureaus in Washington, D. C, London and South Africa, with departments covering architecture, corporations, environment, legal affairs, music and disarmament, and the United Nations. Circulation peaked at 187,000 in 2006 but by 2010 had dropped to 145,000 in print, the Nation was established in July 1865 on Newspaper Row at 130 Nassau Street in Manhattan. The publisher was Joseph H. Richards, and the editor was Edwin Lawrence Godkin, dennett interviewed Confederate veterans, freed slaves, agents of the Freedmens Bureau, and ordinary people he met by the side of the road. The articles, since collected as a book, have been praised by The New York Times as examples of masterly journalism, closely related to this was the publications advocacy of the elimination of protective tariffs in favor of lower prices of consumer goods associated with a free trade system.
Wendell Phillips Garrison, son of William Lloyd Garrison, was Literary Editor from 1865 to 1906, the magazine would stay at Newspaper Row for 90 years. In 1881, newspaperman-turned-railroad-baron Henry Villard acquired The Nation and converted it into a literary supplement for his daily newspaper the New York Evening Post. The offices of the magazine were moved to the Evening Posts headquarters at 210 Broadway, in 1900, Henry Villards son, Oswald Garrison Villard, inherited the magazine and the Evening Post, selling off the latter in 1918. Villards takeover prompted the FBI to monitor the magazine for roughly 50 years, the FBI had a file on Villard from 1915. Villard sold the magazine in 1935 and it became a nonprofit in 1943. Almost every editor of The Nation from Villards time to the 1970s was looked at for subversive activities and ties. S, during the 1930s, The Nation showed enthusiastic support for Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal. This organization was responsible for academic responsibilities, including conducting research and organizing conferences.
Nation Associates became responsible for the operation and publication of the magazine on a nonprofit basis, before Pearl Harbor, The Nation repeatedly called on the United States to enter World War II to resist Fascism, and after the US entered the war, supported the American war effort. It supported the use of the bomb on Hiroshima. During the late 1940s and again in the early 1950s, a merger was discussed by The Nations Freda Kirchwey, the new publication would have been called The Nation and New Republic. Kirchwey was the most hesitant, and both attempts to merge failed, the two magazines would take very different paths, with The Nation having a higher circulation and The New Republic moving more to the right. In the 1950s, The Nation was attacked as pro-communist because of its advocacy of friendship with the Soviet Union, one of the magazines writers, Louis Fischer resigned from the magazine afterwards, claiming The Nations foreign coverage was too pro-Soviet
New Israel Fund
The New Israel Fund is a U. S. -based non-profit organization established in 1979, and describes its objective as social justice and equality for all Israelis. The New Israel Fund claims it has provided $300 million to over 900 Israeli civil society organization that it describes as cutting-edge and its financial support for civil society groups like Adalah has drawn criticism from many associated with Israels political right. NIF describes itself as the organization committed to democratic change within Israel. It views Israel as the expression of the right of self-determination of the Jewish people and as a democracy dedicated to the full equality of all its citizens. It advocates for civil and human rights, religious tolerance and pluralism, the New York Times wrote that NIF advocates for equality and democracy in Israel. Daniel Sokatch, CEO, says that in line with their values of democracy and equality. The New Israel Fund is a registered 501 nonprofit philanthropic organization in the United States, the New Israel Funds headquarters are located in New York City.
The New Israel Fund has offices in Jerusalem, boston, Miami, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Toronto and Basel. Rachel Liel, formerly director of Shatil, became Israel Executive Director on 1 November 2009, attorney Talia Sasson, best known for her authorship of the report detailing Israeli government support of illegal settlements, succeeded Rabbi Lurie as NIF president in June 2015. The board consists of 21 community leaders, activists and philanthropists from the United States, Canada, other board members include law professor Peter Edelman, economist Franklin Fisher, and Bedouin scholar Amal ElSana Alhjooj. In 2014, NIF contributed about US$24 million to groups in Israel, in September 2010, NIF published guidelines defining who is eligible to receive its grants on its website for the first time. In her words, NIF wont support organizations working to deny the Jewish peoples right to sovereign self-determination, in 2014 NIF had a budget of $31,057,80, and awarded $14. The New Israel Fund has trained more than 46 Israeli lawyers over the course of 20 years in human rights law, the lawyers are provided with the opportunity to get a LLM degree at the American University Washington College of Law specializing in human rights law.
Graduates of the program have successfully argued cases in Israel around social justice, for environmental protections, to police brutality. Initial funding stood at more than $2 million in 2014, granted or seed-funded to eight new initiatives, from tanks to media monitoring to online engagement. The New Israel Fund was established in 1979 and is credited with seed-funding almost every significant cause-related progressive NGO in Israel, since its inception the fund has provided over US $250 million to more than 900 organizations. The decision, known as the Alice Miller case, opened the door for women to serve in combat roles within the Israeli army. In January 2011, the Supreme Court of Israel ruled that publicly-funded buses cannot enforce a policy of gender segregation, IRAC, a grantee of NIF, initiated the legal efforts to integrate the bus lines
Far-left politics or extreme-left politics is a branch of politics further to the left of the left-right spectrum than the standard political left. Far-left politics are generally the province of extra-governmental groups and those espousing them are typically opposed to their governments, dr. March sees four major subgroups within contemporary European far-left politics, democratic socialists, populist socialists and social populists. Hloušek and Kopeček add secondary characteristics to those identified by March and Mudde, such as anti-Americanism, anti-globalization, opposition to NATO and these people include both authoritarians and libertarians. McClosky and Chong surveyed a number of militant, revolutionary groups in the US and they argue that, like far-right extremists. The term ultra-leftism has two overlapping uses, one usage is a generally pejorative term for certain types of positions on the far left that are extreme or intransigent. The term is used—pejoratively or not—to refer to a current of Marxist communism.
Ultra-left currents within left communism are often subject to criticisms from other factions of the left, the left communist organization International Communist Current refuses to work with leftist groups except for other left communists or anarchists. Gilles Dauvé, a left communist theorist, argues that all bourgeois regimes should be opposed, the term ultra left is rarely used in English, in which people tend to speak broadly of left communism as a minor variant of traditional Marxism. In opposition to Bolshevism, the left generally places heavy emphasis upon the autonomy. The term has been popularised in the United States by the Socialist Workers Party, a number of far-left parties gave birth to militant organisations during the 1960s and 1970s, such as the Red Brigades and the Red Army Faction. These groups generally aimed to overthrow capitalist systems and replace them with socialist societies
Jerusalem is a city located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is considered a city in the three major Abrahamic religions of Judaism and Islam. During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, the part of Jerusalem called the City of David was settled in the 4th millennium BCE. In 1538, walls were built around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent, today those walls define the Old City, which has been traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian and Muslim Quarters. The Old City became a World Heritage Site in 1981, and is on the List of World Heritage in Danger, Modern Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old Citys boundaries. These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, the sobriquet of holy city was probably attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic times. The holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint which Christians adopted as their own authority, was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesuss crucifixion there, in Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Mecca and Medina.
As a result, despite having an area of only 0, outside the Old City stands the Garden Tomb. Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the captured and annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it into Jerusalem, one of Israels Basic Laws, the 1980 Jerusalem Law, refers to Jerusalem as the countrys undivided capital. All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset, the residences of the Prime Minister and President, the international community does not recognize Jerusalem as Israels capital, and the city hosts no foreign embassies. Jerusalem is home to some non-governmental Israeli institutions of importance, such as the Hebrew University. In 2011, Jerusalem had a population of 801,000, of which Jews comprised 497,000, Muslims 281,000, a city called Rušalim in the Execration texts of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt is widely, but not universally, identified as Jerusalem.
Jerusalem is called Urušalim in the Amarna letters of Abdi-Heba, the name Jerusalem is variously etymologized to mean foundation of the god Shalem, the god Shalem was thus the original tutelary deity of the Bronze Age city. The form Yerushalem or Yerushalayim first appears in the Bible, in the Book of Joshua, according to a Midrash, the name is a combination of Yhwh Yireh and the town Shalem. The earliest extra-biblical Hebrew writing of the word Jerusalem is dated to the sixth or seventh century BCE and was discovered in Khirbet Beit Lei near Beit Guvrin in 1961. The inscription states, I am Yahweh thy God, I will accept the cities of Judah and I will redeem Jerusalem, or as other scholars suggest, the mountains of Judah belong to him, to the God of Jerusalem
Alliance 90/The Greens
Alliance 90/The Greens, often simply Greens, is a green political party in Germany, formed from the merger of the German Green Party and Alliance 90 in 1993. The focus of the party is on ecological and its leaders are Simone Peter and Cem Özdemir. In the 2013 federal elections, the party came fourth with 8. 4% of the votes and 63 out of 630 seats in the Bundestag, the Green Party was initially founded in West Germany as Die Grünen in January 1980. It rose out of the energy, peace, new left. Grüne Liste Umweltschutz were the names of branches in Lower Saxony. These groups were founded in 1977 and took part in several elections, most of them merged with The Greens in 1980. In 1993 it renamed to Alliance 90/The Greens Berlin after the merger with East Berlins Greens, the Hamburg state branch of the Green Party was called Grün-Alternative Liste Hamburg from its foundation in 1982 until 2012. In 1984 it became the official Hamburg branch of The Greens, in the 1970s, environmentalists and peace activists politically organised amongst thousands of action groups.
The political party The Greens was founded January 13,1980 in Karlsruhe to give this movement political, opposition to pollution, use of nuclear power, NATO military action, and certain aspects of industrialised society were principal campaign issues. The Greens originated from civil initiatives, new movements of the protests of 1968. It was at this congress, that the Greens lay their ideological foundations, proclaiming the famous Four Pillars of the Green Party, in 1982, the conservative factions of the Greens broke away to form the Ecological Democratic Party. Those who left the party at the time might have felt similarly about some of these issues, but did not identify with the forms of protest that Green party members took part in. After some success at elections, the party won 27 seats with 5. 7% of the vote in the Bundestag. The newly formed party was able to draw on this movement to recruit support. Around this time, Joschka Fischer emerged as the leader of the party. Until 1987, the Greens comprised a faction involved in pedophile activism and this faction campaigned for repealing §176 of the German penal code, dealing with child sexual abuse.
This group was controversial within the party itself, and was seen as responsible for the poor election result of 1985. In November 2014 the political scientist Franz Walter presented the report about his research on a press conference
Israel and the apartheid analogy
Some commentators extend the analogy to include treatment of Arab citizens of Israel, describing their citizenship status as second-class. Opponents of the claim that the comparison is factually, morally. Opponents state that the West Bank and Gaza are not part of sovereign Israel and they took Israel away from the Arabs after the Arabs lived there for a thousand years. In that, I agree with them, like South Africa, is an apartheid state. Since then, a number of sources have used the analogy in their examination of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. In 1967, after the Six-Day War, David Ben-Gurion stated that unless Israel managed to rid itself of the territories and their Arab population as soon as possible, it would become an apartheid state. In the early 1970s, Arabic language magazines of the PLO, in 1979 the Palestinian sociologist Elia Zureik argued that while not de jure an apartheid state, Israeli society was characterized by a latent form of apartheid. The analogy has gained traction following Israels construction of the West Bank Barrier.
By 2013 the analogy between the West Bank and Bantustans of apartheid-era South Africa was widely drawn in international circles, in the United States, where the notion had previously been taboo, Israels rule over the occupied territories was increasingly compared to apartheid. Hafrada is the description of the policy of the government of Israel to separate the Palestinian population in Palestinian territories from the Israeli population. The word has been compared to the term Apartheid by scholars and commentators, aaron Klieman has distinguished between partition plans based on hafrada, which he translated as detachment, and hipardut, translated as disengagement. Since its first public introductions, the concept-turned-policy or paradigm has dominated Israeli political and cultural discourse and debate. In 2014, United Nations Special Rapporteur Richard A. Falk used the term in his Report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Palestinian territories occupied since 1967.
Israel is perceived as a Western democracy and is likely to be judged by the standards of such a state. Western commentators, may feel an affinity to a like minded polity than to an autocratic Third World state. In contrast, the similar Israeli dispossession of Palestinians is perceived as self-defense, in their self-concept, Zionists are simply returning to their ancestral homeland from which they were dispersed two millennia ago. Originally most did not intend to exploit native labor and resources and Moodley stress, because people give meaning to their lives and interpret their worlds through these diverse ideological prisms, the perceptions are real and have to be taken seriously. Adam and Moodley contend that the relationship of South African apartheid to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict has been misinterpreted as justifying suicide bombing and glorifying martyrdom, the second question, regarding apartheid, was the major focus of the study
Tel Aviv-Yafo is a major city in Israel, located on the countrys Mediterranean coastline. It is the center and the technology hub of Israel, with a population of 432,892. Tel Aviv is the largest city in the Gush Dan region of Israel, Tel Aviv is a focal point in the high-tech concentration known as the Silicon Wadi. Tel Aviv is governed by the Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality, headed by Ron Huldai, Tel Aviv is a global city, and is the thirty eighth most important financial center in the world. Tel Aviv is known to have the third-largest economy of any city in the Middle East after Abu Dhabi and Kuwait City, the city receives over a million international visitors annually. Known as The City that Never Sleeps and a party capital, it has a lively nightlife, the city was founded in 1909 by Jewish immigrants on the outskirts of the ancient port city of Jaffa. It is named after the Hebrew translation of Theodor Herzls 1902 novel, the modern citys first neighbourhoods had already been established in 1886, the first being Neve Tzedek.
Immigration by mostly Jewish refugees meant that the growth of Tel Aviv soon outpaced Jaffas, Tel Aviv and Jaffa were merged into a single municipality in 1950, two years after the establishment of the State of Israel. Tel Avivs White City, designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003, Tel Aviv is the Hebrew title of Theodor Herzls Altneuland, translated from German by Nahum Sokolow. The name was chosen in 1910 from several suggestions, including Herzliya and it was found fitting as it embraced the idea of a renaissance in the ancient Jewish homeland. Aviv is Hebrew for spring, symbolizing renewal, and tel is a man-made mound accumulating layers of civilization built one over the other and symbolizing the ancient. Although founded in 1909 as a settlement on the sand dunes North of Jaffa. The marketing pamphlets advocating for its establishment in 1906, wrote, In this city we will build the streets so they have roads and sidewalks and electric lights. Every house will have water wells that will flow through pipes as in every modern European city.
Since 1886, Jewish settlers had founded new neighborhoods outside Jaffa on the current territory of Tel Aviv, the first was Neve Tzedek, built on lands owned by Aharon Chelouche and inhabited primarily by Mizrahi Jews. Other neighborhoods were Neve Shalom, Yafa Nof, Ohel Moshe, Kerem HaTeimanim, once Tel Aviv received city status in the 1920s, those neighborhoods joined the newly formed municipality, now becoming separated from Jaffa. The Second Aliyah led to further expansion, in 1906, a group of Jews, among them residents of Jaffa, followed the initiative of Akiva Aryeh Weiss and banded together to form the Ahuzat Bayit society. The societys goal was to form a Hebrew urban centre in an environment, planned according to the rules of aesthetics