Open-mid central unrounded vowel

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Open-mid central unrounded vowel
ɜ
ɛ̈
IPA number 326
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɜ
Unicode (hex) U+025C
X-SAMPA 3
Kirshenbaum V"
Braille ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠜ (braille pattern dots-345)
Listen

The open-mid central unrounded vowel, or low-mid central unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɜ⟩. The IPA symbol is not the digit ⟨3⟩ or the Cyrillic small letter Ze (з), the symbol is instead a reversed Latinized variant of the lowercase epsilon, ɛ. The value was specified only in 1993; until then, it had been transcribed ⟨ɛ̈⟩.

Features[edit]

IPA: Vowels
Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open

Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[2] lig [lɜχ] 'light' Also described as mid [ə],[3] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩. See Afrikaans phonology
Chinese Cantonese[4] / 'sam1' [sɜm˥] 'heart' Most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɐ⟩. See Cantonese phonology
Shanghainese[5] [kɜʔ4] "to reform" Allophone of /ə/ in syllables closed by a glottal stop; may be as open as [ɐ] for some speakers.[6]
Cotabato Manobo[7] [bätɜʔ] "child" Allophone of /a/ before glottal consonants; may be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩.[7]
Dinka Luanyjang[8] [orthographic
form needed
]
[lɜ́ŋ] "berry" Short allophone of /a/.[8]
Dutch[9] grappig [ˈχɾɑpɜχ] "funny" Possible realization of /ə/.[9] See Dutch phonology
English Received Pronunciation[10] bird [bɜːd] "bird" Sulcalized (the tongue is grooved like in [ɹ]). "Upper Crust RP" speakers pronounce a more open vowel [ɐː], but for most other speakers it is actually mid ([ɜ̝ː]). This vowel corresponds to rhotacized [ɝ] in rhotic dialects.
Norfolk[11] bet [bɜ̟ʔ] "bet" Somewhat fronted,[11] corresponds to /ɛ/ in other dialects.
General American[12][13] bust [bɜst] "bust" The most common realization of the vowel transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩ in American English. Nevertheless, it is not a standard pronunciation throughout the whole country.[10][14]
Ohio[14]
Most of Texas[14]
Northern Welsh[15] Some speakers.[15] Corresponds to [ə] (or a further back vowel) in other Welsh dialects.[16]
Scottish[17] [bɜ̠st] Somewhat retracted; may be more back [ʌ] instead.
German Chemnitz dialect[18] passe [ˈpɜsə] "[I] pass" Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩. See Chemnitz dialect phonology
Many speakers[19] herrlich [ˈhɜːlɪç] "fantastic" Common alternative to the diphthong [ɛɐ̯].[19] See Standard German phonology
Hausa[20] [example needed] Possible allophone of /a/, which can be as close as [ə] and as open as [ä].[20]
Jebero[21] [ˈkɘnmɜʔ] "indigenous person" Allophone of /a/ in closed syllables.[21]
Kaingang[22] [ˈɾɜ] "mark" Varies between central [ɜ] and back [ʌ].[23]
Kalagan Kaagan[24] [mɜˈt̪äs] "tall" Allophone of /a/; may be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩.[24]
Kallahan[25] [example needed]
Li'o Ke'o[26] [mɜre] "dark" Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.[26]
Mapudungun[27] error: {{lang}}: unknown language code: missing (help) [ˈfɘtɜ] "elderly person" Unstressed allophone of /ɐ/.[27]
Paicî[28] rë [ɾɜ] 'they' (prefix) May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩.
Romanian Standard[29] măr [mɜ̠r] "apple" Somewhat retracted.[29] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩. See Romanian phonology
Transylvanian dialects[30] a [aˈʂɜ] "such" Corresponds to [ä] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Sama Sibutu[31] [ˈsäpɜw] "roof" Allophone of /a/; may be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩.[31]
Temne[32] pȧs [pɜ́s] "brew" Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩.[32]
Xumi Upper[33] [Rbɜ] "pot, pan"
Yiddish Standard[34] ענלעך [ˈɛnlɜχ] "similar" Unstressed vowel.[34] See Yiddish phonology

References[edit]

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ Wissing (2012), p. 711.
  3. ^ Wissing (2016), section "The rounded and unrounded mid-central vowels".
  4. ^ Zee (1999), p. 59.
  5. ^ Chen & Gussenhoven (2015), p. 328.
  6. ^ Chen & Gussenhoven (2015), pp. 328, 330.
  7. ^ a b Kerr (1988), pp. 110, 113.
  8. ^ a b Remijsen & Manyang (2009), pp. 117, 119.
  9. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 129.
  10. ^ a b Ladefoged (1993), p. 82.
  11. ^ a b Lodge (2009), p. 168.
  12. ^ Gordon (2004b), p. 340.
  13. ^ Tillery & Bailey (2004), p. 333.
  14. ^ a b c Thomas (2001), pp. 27–28.
  15. ^ a b Tench (1990), p. 135.
  16. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 380–381.
  17. ^ Lodge (2009), p. 167.
  18. ^ Khan & Weise (2013), p. 236.
  19. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 52.
  20. ^ a b Schuh & Yalwa (1999), pp. 90–91.
  21. ^ a b Valenzuela & Gussenhoven (2013), p. 101.
  22. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677, 682.
  23. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676, 682.
  24. ^ a b Wendel & Wendel (1978), p. 198.
  25. ^ Santiago (2010), pp. 1, 8–10.
  26. ^ a b Baird (2002), p. 94.
  27. ^ a b Sadowsky et al. (2013), p. 92.
  28. ^ Gordon & Maddieson (1996), p. 118.
  29. ^ a b Sarlin (2014), p. 18.
  30. ^ Pop (1938), p. 30.
  31. ^ a b Allison (1979), p. 82.
  32. ^ a b Kanu & Tucker (2010), p. 249.
  33. ^ Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), p. 388.
  34. ^ a b Kleine (2003), p. 263.

Bibliography[edit]