Close-mid central rounded vowel

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Close-mid central rounded vowel
ɵ
ö
IPA number 323
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɵ
Unicode (hex) U+0275
X-SAMPA 8
Kirshenbaum @.
Braille ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠕ (braille pattern dots-135)
Listen

The close-mid central rounded vowel, or high-mid central rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɵ⟩, a lowercase barred letter o, and should not be confused with the Greek letter theta, ⟨θ⟩, which in IPA corresponds to a consonant sound, the voiceless dental fricative. It was added to the IPA in 1993; before that, this vowel was transcribed ⟨ö⟩.

The character ɵ has been used in several Latin-derived alphabets such as the one for Yañalif, but in that language it denotes a different sound than it does in the IPA, the character is homographic with Cyrillic Ө. The Unicode code point is U+019F Ɵ LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH MIDDLE TILDE (HTML Ɵ).

This sound rarely contrasts with the near-close near-front rounded vowel. For this reason, it may be sometimes transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʏ⟩. An example of a language contrasting /ɵ/ with /ʏ/ is the Hamont dialect of Limburgish, but in phonemic transcription, the sounds are normally transcribed with /ʏ/ and /y/, respectively.[2] Some speakers of the Chemnitz dialect of German also contrast /ɵ/ with /ʏ/; the former vowel generally corresponds to standard German /ʊ/, whereas the latter vowel occurs only in certain cognates of standard German words and can be unrounded to [ɪ].[3]

The physically possible close-mid central compressed vowel has not been reported to occur in any language,[4] but could be transcribed as a centralized close-mid front rounded vowel [ø̈], which is normally compressed. Other possible transcriptions are ⟨ɘ͡β̞⟩⟩ (simultaneous [ɘ] and labial compression) and [ɘᵝ] ([ɘ] modified with labial compression).

Features[edit]

IPA: Vowels
Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open

Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Chinese Cantonese /'ceot7' [tsʰɵt˥] 'to go out' See Cantonese phonology
Dutch Standard[5][6] hut [ɦɵt] 'hut' Also described as near-front [ʏ̞].[7][8] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʏ⟩ or, more rarely, with ⟨ʉ⟩, ⟨ɵ⟩ or ⟨œ⟩. See Dutch phonology
English Cardiff[9] foot [fɵt] 'foot' More often unrounded [ɘ];[10] corresponds to [ʊ] in other dialects. See English phonology
Cultivated South African[11] Younger, especially female speakers.[11] Other speakers have a less front vowel [ʊ]. May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʊ̟⟩ or ⟨ʉ̞⟩. See South African English phonology
Received Pronunciation[12] [fɵʔt] Younger speakers. Others pronounce [ʊ]. See English phonology
Hull[13] goat [ɡɵːt] 'goat' Corresponds to /oʊ/ in other dialects.
New Zealand[14] bird [bɵːd] 'bird' Somewhat fronted; may be lower ([ø̞̈ː ~ œ̈ː]). See New Zealand English phonology
German Chemnitz dialect[15] Wunder [ˈʋɵn̪(t̪)o̽ˤ] 'wonder' Contrasts with /ʏ/ (in certain cognates of standard German words) for some speakers.[3] See Chemnitz dialect phonology
Hiw[16] yöykö [jɵjkɵŋ] 'forget'
Icelandic[17] vinur [ˈʋɪ̞ːnɵɾ] 'friend' Also described as near-front [ʏ̞].[18] Most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʏ⟩. See Icelandic phonology
Irish Munster[19] dúnadh [ˈd̪ˠuːn̪ˠө̠˔] 'closing' Slightly raised and slightly retracted; allophone of /ə/ adjacent to broad consonants, when the vowel in the preceding syllable is either /uː/ or /ʊ/.[19] See Irish phonology
Limburgish Hamont dialect[2] Rùs [²ʀɵs] 'a Russian' May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʏ⟩.[2][20] See Hamont dialect phonology
Maastrichtian[20] un [ɵn] 'onion'
Mongolian[21] өгөх [ɵɡɵx] 'to give'
Norwegian Urban East[22] søt [sɵːt] 'sweet' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨øː⟩; also described as close-mid near-front [ø̠ː],[23] mid near-front [ø̽ː][24] and ranging from mid near-front [ø̽ː] to open-mid near-front [œ̠ː].[25] See Norwegian phonology
Russian[26] тётя About this sound [ˈtʲɵtʲə]  'aunt' Allophone of /o/ in the environment of palatalized consonants. See Russian phonology
Tajik[27] кӯҳ [kʰɵːh] 'mountain' Merges with /u/ in central and southern dialects.
Toda ? [pɵːr̘] 'name'
Uzbek tgʻri [t̪ɤɵʁˈɾɪ] 'true'
West Frisian Southwestern dialects[28] fuotten [ˈfɵtn̩] 'feet' Corresponds to [wo] in other dialects.[28] See West Frisian phonology
Xumi Lower[29] [RPʎ̟ɐtsɵ] 'to filter tea' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʉ⟩.[29]
Upper[30] [Htɵ] 'way to do things' Allophone of /o/ after alveolar consonants; may be realized as [o] or [ɤ] instead.[30]

The vowel transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɵ⟩ in Central Standard Swedish is actually mid ([ɵ̞]).[31]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ a b c Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  3. ^ a b Khan & Weise (2013), p. 238.
  4. ^ Note that Swedish has a slightly higher near-close central compressed vowel, as well as a slightly lower mid central compressed vowel.
  5. ^ van Heuven & Genet (2002), cited in Gussenhoven (2007:10)
  6. ^ Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  7. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 47.
  8. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), p. 128.
  9. ^ Collins & Mees (1990:92–93)
  10. ^ Collins & Mees (1990:92)
  11. ^ a b Lass (2002), pp. 115-116.
  12. ^ "Received Pronunciation Phonology". The British Library. 
  13. ^ Williams & Kerswill (1999), pp. 143 and 146.
  14. ^ Bauer et al. (2007), pp. 98–99.
  15. ^ Khan & Weise (2013), p. 236.
  16. ^ François (2013), p. 207.
  17. ^ Einarsson (1945:10), cited in Gussmann (2011:73)
  18. ^ Árnason (2011), p. 60.
  19. ^ a b Ó Sé (2000).
  20. ^ a b Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  21. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005), pp. 62, 66–67.
  22. ^ Kristoffersen (2000), pp. 16–17, 33–35, 37, 343.
  23. ^ Vanvik (1979), pp. 13, 20.
  24. ^ Popperwell (2010), pp. 16, 35.
  25. ^ Strandskogen (1979), p. 23.
  26. ^ Jones & Ward (1969), pp. 62–63.
  27. ^ Ido (2014), pp. 91–92.
  28. ^ a b Hoekstra (2003:202), citing Hof (1933:14)
  29. ^ a b Chirkova & Chen (2013), pp. 369–370.
  30. ^ a b Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), p. 389.
  31. ^ Engstrand (1999), p. 140.

Bibliography[edit]