Close central rounded vowel

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Close central rounded vowel
ʉ
ü
IPA number 318
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʉ
Unicode (hex) U+0289
X-SAMPA }
Kirshenbaum u"
Braille ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠥ (braille pattern dots-136)
Listen

The close central rounded vowel, or high central rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʉ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is }. Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as "barred u".

The close central rounded vowel is the vocalic equivalent of the rare labialized post-palatal approximant [ẅ].[2]

In most languages this rounded vowel is pronounced with protruded lips (endolabial). However, in a few cases the lips are compressed (exolabial).

There is also a near-close central rounded vowel in some languages.

Close central protruded vowel[edit]

The close central protruded vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ⟨ʉ⟩, and that is the convention used in this article. As there is no dedicated diacritic for protrusion in the IPA, symbol for the close central rounded vowel with an old diacritic for labialization, ⟨  ̫⟩, can be used as an ad hoc symbol ⟨ʉ̫⟩ for the close central protruded vowel. Another possible transcription is ⟨ʉʷ⟩ or ⟨ɨʷ⟩ (a close central vowel modified by endolabialization), but this could be misread as a diphthong.

Features[edit]

IPA: Vowels
Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open

Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded

  • Its vowel height is close, also known as high, which means the tongue is positioned as close as possible to the roof of the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • Its vowel backness is central, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a front vowel and a back vowel.
  • Its roundedness is protruded, which means that the corners of the lips are drawn together, and the inner surfaces exposed.

Occurrence[edit]

Note: Because central rounded vowels are assumed to have protrusion, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have compression.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Angami Khonoma[3] su [sʉ⁴] 'deep' Allophone of /u/ after /s/.[3]
Armenian Some Eastern dialects[4] յուղ [jʉʁ] 'oil' Allophone of /u/ after /j/.
Berber Ayt Seghrouchen[5] ? [lːæjˈɡːʉɾ] 'he goes' Allophone of /u/ after velar consonants.
English Australian[6] choose [t͡ʃʉːz] 'choose' In Australian English it is fronted [ʉ̟ː]. In Cockney and Estuary English it is often a diphthong [ʊʉ̯~əʉ̯]. In Scotland and the Scouse accent it can be more front, while in Geordie it can be more back. The exact length also varies between dialects. See Australian English phonology, English phonology, New Zealand English phonology and South African English phonology
Central Eastern American[7]
Cockney[8]
Estuary[9]
Modern RP speakers[10]
New Zealand[11]
Norfolk[12]
Scottish[13]
Scouse[14]
Some speakers of Geordie[15]
South African[16]
Southern American[17]
Ulster[18] Long allophone of /u/.[18] See English phonology
German Chemnitz dialect[19] Buden [ˈpʉːtn̩] 'booths' See Chemnitz dialect phonology
Hausa[20] [example needed] Allophone of /u/.[20]
Ibibio Dialect of the Uruan area and Uyo[21] fuuk [fʉ́ʉk] 'cover many things/times' Allophone of /u/ between consonants.[21]
Some dialects[21] [example needed] Phonemic; contrasts with /u/.[21]
Irish Munster[22] ciúin [cʉ̠ːnʲ] 'quiet' Somewhat retracted; allophone of /u/ between slender consonants.[22] See Irish phonology
Ulster[23] úllaí [ʉ̜ɫ̪i][stress?] 'apples' Often only weakly rounded;[23] may be transcribed in IPA with ⟨u⟩.
Kurdish Southern Kurdish müçig [mʉː't͡ʃɯg] 'dust' see Kurdish phonology
Lüsu[24] [lʉ5553] 'Lüsu'
Russian[25] кюрий [ˈkʲʉrʲɪj] 'curium' Allophone of /u/ between palatalized consonants. See Russian phonology
Scots[26] buit [bʉt] 'boot' May be near-front [ʏ] instead.[26]
Swedish Bohuslän[27] yla [²ʉᶻːlä] 'howl' A fricated vowel that corresponds to [y̫ː] in Central Standard Swedish.[27] See Swedish phonology
Närke[27]
Tamil[28] வால் [väːlʉ] 'tail' Epenthetic vowel inserted in colloquial speech after word-final liquids; can be unrounded [ɨ] instead.[28] See Tamil phonology

Close central compressed vowel[edit]

Close central compressed vowel
ÿ
ɏ
ɨ͡β̞
ɨᵝ

As there is no official diacritic for compression in the IPA, the centering diacritic is used with the front rounded vowel [y], which is normally compressed. Another possibility is ⟨ɏ⟩, a centralized [y] by analogy with the other close central vowels. Other possible transcriptions are ⟨ɨ͡β̞⟩ (simultaneous [ɨ] and labial compression) and ⟨ɨᵝ⟩ ([ɨ] modified with labial compression[29]).

Features[edit]

  • Its vowel height is close, also known as high, which means the tongue is positioned as close as possible to the roof of the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • Its vowel backness is central, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a front vowel and a back vowel.
  • Its roundedness is compressed, which means that the margins of the lips are tense and drawn together in such a way that the inner surfaces are not exposed.

Occurrence[edit]

This vowel is typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʉ⟩. It occurs in some dialects of Swedish, but see also close front compressed vowel. The close back vowels of Norwegian and Swedish are also compressed. See close back compressed vowel. Medumba has a compressed central vowel [ɨᵝ] where the corners of the mouth are not drawn together.[30]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Japanese Some younger speakers[31] 空気/kūki [kÿːki] 'air' Near-back [] for other speakers.[31] See Japanese phonology
Norwegian Urban East[32][33] hus [hÿːs] 'house' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʉː⟩. Also described as near-front [y̠ː].[34] See Norwegian phonology
Swedish Some dialects ful [fÿːl] 'ugly' More front [ ~ ʏː] in Central Standard Swedish; typically transcribed in IPA as ⟨ʉː⟩. See Swedish phonology

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ Instead of "post-palatal", it can be called "retracted palatal", "backed palatal", "palato-velar", "pre-velar", "advanced velar", "fronted velar" or "front-velar".
  3. ^ a b Blankenship et al. (1993), p. 129.
  4. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 14.
  5. ^ Abdel-Massih (1971), p. 20.
  6. ^ Harrington, Cox & Evans (1997).
  7. ^ Jilka, Matthias. "North American English Dialects" (PDF). Stuttgart: Institut für Linguistik/Anglistik, University of Stuttgart. p. 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2014. 
  8. ^ Matthews (1938), p. 78.
  9. ^ Przedlacka (2001), p. 42.
  10. ^ "Received Pronunciation Phonology". 
  11. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009).
  12. ^ Lodge (2009), p. 168.
  13. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 7.
  14. ^ Watson (2007), p. 357.
  15. ^ Watt & Allen (2003), p. 269.
  16. ^ Lass (2002), p. 116.
  17. ^ Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006), p. ?.
  18. ^ a b Jilka, Matthias. "Irish English and Ulster English" (PDF). Stuttgart: Institut für Linguistik/Anglistik, University of Stuttgart. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2014. 
  19. ^ Khan & Weise (2013), p. 236.
  20. ^ a b Schuh & Yalwa (1999), p. 90.
  21. ^ a b c d Urua (2004), p. 106.
  22. ^ a b Ó Sé (2000), p. ?.
  23. ^ a b Ní Chasaide (1999), p. 114.
  24. ^ Chirkova & Chen (2013), p. 75.
  25. ^ Jones & Ward (1969), pp. 67–68.
  26. ^ a b Stuart-Smith (2004), p. 54.
  27. ^ a b c Riad (2014), p. 21.
  28. ^ a b Keane (2004), p. 114.
  29. ^ e.g. in Flemming (2002) Auditory representations in phonology, p. 83.
  30. ^ [1]
  31. ^ a b Okada (1999), p. 118.
  32. ^ Strandskogen (1979), pp. 15, 21.
  33. ^ Popperwell (2010), pp. 16, 29.
  34. ^ Vanvik (1979), pp. 13, 18.

Bibliography[edit]