Page semi-protected

/r/The_Donald

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
/r/The_Donald
The Donald.png
Type of site
Subreddit
Available in English
Founder(s) /u/jcm267
Website www.reddit.com/r/The_Donald
Users ~520,000 (as of November 2017)[1]
Launched June 27, 2015; 2 years ago (2015-06-27)

/r/The_Donald is a subreddit on Reddit where the participants create discussions and memes supportive of U.S. President Donald Trump.[2][3] Initially created in June 2015 following the announcement of Trump's presidential campaign, the community has grown to over 500,000 subscribers and, as of September 2017, was ranked as one of the most active communities on the website.[4][5][6][7]

Activities by members and moderators of the subreddit have been controversial, and site-wide administrators have taken steps, including an overhaul of the Reddit software, to prevent the subreddit from manipulating the algorithms that select content to be displayed on Reddit's /r/all forum, which the company's motto describes as "the front page of the Internet."[8]

The subreddit has been accused by mainstream media outlets of hosting conspiracy theories and content that is racist, misogynistic, antisemitic, or white supremacist.[9][10] Additionally, /r/The_Donald has been repeatedly accused of providing a "safe-harbor" where racists, white nationalists, and white supremacists press their views.[11] According to The Economist, "few corners of the internet are fouler", and its members "spew conspiracy theories, Islamophobia and anti-Semitism".[12][13]

History

On June 27, 2015, shortly after Donald Trump announced his campaign for the presidency at Trump Tower, the subreddit was created to be a place for "following the news related to Donald Trump during his presidential run."[14] The subreddit has grown to be known for frequent posting of memes, especially Pepe the Frog, and frequent use of slang terms such as "centipede" (a reference to a popular Trump highlight reel featuring the Knife Party song "Centipede"),[7][13][15][16] "MAGA," "nimble navigator," "no brakes," "cuck," "4D Chess," and "SJW."[7][17][18] Furthermore, users on the site refer to Trump as "God Emperor."[13] For a significant period of time, the subreddit repeatedly posted an image of Hillary Clinton kissing Robert Byrd, a former member of the Ku Klux Klan,[19][20] the image was accompanied by a photoshopped picture of an aged Byrd in Klan garb, which was meant to dishonestly portray Clinton and Byrd as Klan supporters. Byrd had severed ties with the Ku Klux Klan in 1952.[19]

On June 12, 2016, the day of the 2016 Orlando nightclub shooting, moderators of the /r/news subreddit began to remove many comments from its megathread pertaining to the shooting, leading to accusations of censorship.[21][22] Forbes reported that, in a "staggering" effect, /r/The_Donald was featured in 13 of the top 25 posts on /r/all that day, and that it gained over 16,000 subscribers during the weekend of the shooting. Forbes also reported that /r/news lost more than 85,000 subscribers.[22] Due to deliberate[23][24][25] manipulation by the forum's moderators and active users, the algorithm that dictated what content reached the /r/all page of Reddit resulted in a significant portion of the page being /r/The_Donald content. In response, Reddit administrators made changes to its algorithms on June 15, 2016, in an attempt to preserve the variety of /r/all;[14] in April 2016, /u/jcm267, the founder of the subreddit, attributed the popularity of the subreddit to moderator /u/CisWhiteMaelstrom. /u/jcm267 told MSNBC that /u/CisWhiteMaelstrom told him "we'd have hundreds of thousands of readers there and I was very skeptical about that, not because I thought Trump can't win, because I think he's the only GOPer with 'landslide victory' potential, but because Reddit is not a conservative place."[26] Subsequently, /u/CisWhiteMaelstrom deleted his Reddit account,[27] on November 2016, Reddit CEO Steve Huffman reported that the subreddit's moderator team had changed "at least four times" due to the community revolting.[7]

The subreddit has hosted "Ask Me Anythings" (AMAs) of notable right-wing, conservative and alt-right figures supportive of Trump including Scott Adams, Ann Coulter, Alex Jones, Helmut Norpoth, Curt Schilling, Peter Schweizer, Roger Stone, Milo Yiannopoulos,[28] Tucker Carlson,[29] and Corey Stewart.[30] Furthermore, Trump himself hosted an AMA on the subreddit on July 27, 2016,[31] which became one of /r/The_Donald's most upvoted posts.[32]

In September 2016, Palmer Luckey, the founder of Oculus VR, introduced a 501(c)(4) organization on /r/The_Donald called "Nimble America" with the stated purpose of creating and spreading pro-Trump Internet memes through "Facebook ads, billboards, and 'website ops.'"[33] Luckey stated that he had donated $10,000 to the organization and offered to match contributions from /r/The_Donald users for 48 hours after the announcement.[34] Luckey later apologized for any negative impact his actions had on public perception of Oculus, and stated that he acted independently, not as a representative of Oculus VR.[35]

The subreddit was also noted for investigating Clinton's leaked emails after their release by WikiLeaks,[7][11] their findings were subsequently reported by right-wing news media[36] while WikiLeaks acknowledged the subreddit in a tweet.[37] The subreddit also coordinated to vote on many online polls during the 2016 presidential debates.[4]

The subreddit frequently attempted to manipulate Amazon.com's booklist via vote brigading, or encouraging subscribers to cast a certain review en masse. In November 2016, the subreddit was reportedly mobilizing readers to leave one-star reviews on Amazon.com for Fox News anchor Megyn Kelly's autobiography, Settle for More, in response to what users considered biased reporting from her.[38] Amazon later removed many of the negative reviews.[39] Later, in September 2017, the subreddit attempted to buy copies of Trump's Great Again: How To Fix Our Crippled America to outsell Hillary Clinton's then-upcoming book What Happened. However, their plan backfired when several users bought other Trump books instead such as Trump: The Art of the Deal while Clinton's book reached #1 on the site,[40] the subreddit also spread a rumor that Clinton's book was actually the best-selling "contemporary women fiction" book.[41]

On November 22, 2016, the moderators of /r/The_Donald announced that they were going to start removing posts about some conspiracy theories, such as the debunked[42][43][6] Pizzagate conspiracy theory and a rumor that Julian Assange had disappeared, citing that such content was "drowning out thoughtful discussion or Trump-related content."[6] The next day, Steve Huffman admitted to editing the comments of /r/The_Donald users by replacing his username (/u/spez) within their comments insulting him with the usernames of /r/The_Donald moderators instead.[44] Huffman said of the change that "I had my fun with them, they had their fun with me, but we are not going to tolerate harassment for any others."[44] One week later, Huffman apologized for his actions, and offered a filter feature to the website, allowing users to exclude subreddits from their /r/all page.[45] Starting on February 2017, the subreddit was notably excluded from Reddit's updated homepage, /r/popular, along with other "narrowly-focused politically-related subreddits."[46][47][48]

In the beginning of January 2017, after BuzzFeed published an unsubstantiated 35-page document alleged to be a dossier of controversial but unverified information about then-President-Elect Trump,[49] members of the subreddit stated that the document was "fan fiction" sent to Republican political strategist Rick Wilson by members of the 4chan forum /pol/.[50] On January 11, 2017, Wilson denied the claims.[51] Later that day, Republican Senator John McCain confirmed that he had sent the dossier to FBI director James Comey several months earlier.[52]

On May 18, 2017, a moderator named /u/OhSnapYouGotServed posted a message claiming that the subreddit has been treated unfairly and that Reddit could not exist without /r/The_Donald. /u/OhSnapYouGotServed also suggested that all of their subscribers should move to Voat.[53] The next day, after three other moderators were banned from the site, the subreddit was temporarily set to "private" in a sign of protest. According to the lock message, the admins did not warn the three moderators before banning them,[54] the moderators stated that they "refused to comply by a special set of rules that were solely imposed on this subreddit to marginalize the only community which doesn’t conform to the echo chamber of Reddit and corporate media." The subreddit was made public again the next day.[53]

In July 2017, it was discovered that a congressional staffer for congressman Matt Gaetz asked for users on /r/The_Donald to crowdsource information for a congressional amendment that would look into alleged misconduct on the parts of Hillary Clinton and James Comey. Gaetz confirmed the user was a staffer in an interview with Wired, stating that "it is the responsibility of our staff to gather as much information as possible when researching a subject and provide that information for consideration. We pride ourselves on seeking as much citizen input as possible."[55]

Members of the subreddit maintained a Discord server called "Centipede Central", which peaked at 16,000 active users[56][57] and was among the largest servers on Discord,[58] the server was criticized for leaking personal information of anti-Trump activists,[57][59] which caused The_Donald to sever ties with the group. The server was eventually shut down in a coup in October 2017, which scattered its members to smaller communities.[56]

Relationship to Trump

External image
Donald Trump preparing his AMA on his private jet before landing in Toledo.[60]

The Trump campaign's digital director, Brad Parscale, stated in June 2016 that he visits the subreddit daily.[61] Throughout the election, members in Trump's war room at Trump Tower monitored the subreddit to see new trends,[15][62] during the 2016 Democratic National Convention on July 27, 2016, Trump hosted an AMA on the subreddit.[31] Moderators of the subreddit stated that they banned more than 2,000 accounts during Trump's AMA session.[63] Trump also posted several pre-debate messages on the subreddit.[64][65]

Throughout Trump's 2016 campaign, as well as the beginning of Trump's presidency, journalists noted that several of Trump's tweets contained images that originally appeared on the subreddit,[66] on July 6, 2016, in response to his deleted tweet containing the Star of David, Trump accused Disney of antisemitism on Twitter, which was accompanied with a photo of a sticker book based on the Disney film Frozen. Justin Miller of The Daily Beast noted that the image Trump used in his tweet originated on the subreddit less than 24 hours before.[14][67] Similarly, on March 3, 2017, Trump tweeted an image of Chuck Schumer posing with Vladimir Putin to allege hypocrisy. According to BuzzFeed, the image was posted less than 24 hours earlier on the subreddit,[68] on May 11, 2017, after firing James Comey, Trump responded to Rosie O'Donnell's 2016 tweet calling Comey to be fired with "We finally agree on something Rosie." Brandon Wall, a reporter for Buzzfeed, alleged that Trump browsed /r/The_Donald because O'Donnell's tweet was posted on the subreddit 20 minutes before Trump's response.[69][70][71] Although The Washington Post acknowledged that Trump tweeted images previously viral on the subreddit, they also noted that O'Donnell's tweet did not go viral until Trump responded;[62] in July 2017, a video tweeted out by Trump was noted to have appeared on the subreddit about four days earlier.[72] However, the White House denied that the video directly came from Reddit.[73]

Prominence on Reddit website

Algorithm

Through the use of "sticky posts," the moderators of the forum were "gaming" the algorithms[74][75] in order to dominate the content on the /r/all page, which is a representation of the most popular content on the website.[3] Additionally, users are often apt to flood the website with waves of identical images or posts, a direct violation of site-wide policies regarding spam; in response, Huffman rolled out a change to the /r/all algorithm; he noted that /r/The_Donald was among several Reddit communities over the years that "attempt to dominate the conversation on Reddit at the expense of everyone else."[14] Ongoing problems with members of the subreddit brigading and harassing other subreddits forced Reddit staff to modify the site's software algorithms to limit the offending posts to the subreddit, the Reddit team introduced /r/popular to replace /r/all, which included most popular subreddits except for The_Donald, and as a result the subreddit could no longer reach the front page.[76][77] In February 2017, Reddit overhauled their algorithms even further to prevent content from the subreddit (among other communities) from ever being seen by logged out users or people who do not have a Reddit account.[46]

Conflict with Reddit management

The subreddit received additional coverage on November 24, 2016, when Huffman admitted to editing /r/The_Donald users' comments that were critical of him, in response to harassment[78] by the community.[79][80][81] On November 30, 2016, Huffman announced that sticky threads from /r/The_Donald would no longer show up on /r/all.[8] Huffman's rules were criticized by some Redditors, including both Trump and non-Trump supporters,[44] while others felt the sanctions did not go far enough and called upon Huffman to ban the subreddit entirely.[3] While members of the subreddit claimed they were the victims of censorship, Huffman said the actions were about "banning behavior, not ideas."[3]

The harassment directed at Huffman by /r/The_Donald users led to changes in the manner in which Reddit deals with problematic communities and users, since being harassed by the community, Huffman stated that Reddit is going to start actively policing problematic users: "We're taking a different strategy now. We are focusing more on, like, taking care of the individual users instead of doing it at the community level which was largely our strategy before."[82]

In March 2017, users of /r/The_Donald accused Reddit of discriminating against them when Reddit's advertising platform portrayed /r/The_Donald as having 6,000,000 subscribers instead of the 385,000 displayed on the subreddit live counter available to the public,[83] the Reddit Director of Communications stated that the subscriber discrepancy was a simple labeling error wherein the count for "daily unique visitors" was mistakenly labeled as "subscribers" and that the error would be partially fixed by the end of the day.

Controversies

Pizzagate conspiracy theory

A conspiracy theory involving the Democratic Party, Hillary Clinton, John Podesta and the Comet Ping Pong pizzeria attracted attention on /r/The_Donald. Several members of the community created the /r/pizzagate subreddit which was subsequently banned by Reddit administrators for breaking site rules regarding sharing personal information of others;[84][85] in December 2016, the subreddit gained media attention when it linked a knee injury sustained by NBA player Andrew Bogut to the conspiracy theory.[86]

Seth Rich murder

/r/The_Donald has devoted a significant number of posts to the murder of Seth Rich,[13][87] with several members having planned a march on Washington D.C..[88] In July 2017, The Economist noted that there had been over 10,000 posts dedicated to the topic.[13]

CNN wrestling video

On July 2, 2017, Donald Trump tweeted a video of himself wrestling Vince McMahon with the CNN logo superimposed over McMahon's face. Various sources, including the New York Times, NBC News, BBC, and The Washington Post, noted that the clip appeared on the subreddit about four days earlier.[72][89][90][91] However, on July 3, the White House denied that the video directly came from Reddit.[73]

The Washington Post also noted that the Reddit user who posted the video, /u/HanAssholeSolo, also wrote about stabbing Muslims[92] while Vox added that the poster attempted to remove his racist comments, including many that said the N-word and an image of Jewish CNN employees, each being labeled with a Star of David, in a post titled "Something strange about CNN...can't quite put my finger on it."[2][93] Meanwhile, the Anti-Defamation League referred to the user as an "extremist" after analyzing hos posts,[94] the ADL also identified the user as "a parent and a veteran in his 40s living in Tennessee" based on the personal information within his post history.[95] Based on the aforementioned posts, Vox reported that some members of the forum have interpreted the tweet as support for their racist beliefs.[2] Eventually, after being identified by CNN's Andrew Kaczynski, the user posted an apology in the subreddit on July 4.[96] Immediately afterwards, his apology was locked and deleted by the subreddit's moderators[96][97][98] while the user deleted his Reddit account.[99][100] CNN was accused by Julian Assange, Jack Posobiec, and Mark Dice of blackmailing the user, while the hashtag, #CNNBlackmail, trended on Twitter.[101] Kaczynski responded by stating that his line was "misinterpreted" and that the user said that he was not threatened prior to his apology;[102] in response to the controversy, /u/ShadowMan3001, one of the moderators of the subreddit, told Kevin Roose of The New York Times that CNN's intent in possibly releasing the user's identity was "a glaring example of their absolute lack of not only journalistic integrity, but basic morality."[103]

Similar subreddits

In response to the popularity of /r/The_Donald, similar subreddits regarding other politicians have been created.[104]

/r/AskTrumpSupporters

/r/AskTrumpSupporters is a subreddit wherein Trump supporters would answer questions from non-Trump supporters.[105] Although the subreddit was created by moderators of /r/The_Donald, /r/AskTrumpSupporters eventually broke off from /r/The_Donald and revamped its rules. According to one moderator, the goal of the subreddit is to "[not] promote an echo chamber, but to combat misconceptions by media and 80 percent of Reddit." However, the community has been accused by users of /r/The_Donald of being "CTR" or "Shareblue" "shills" as its users often have political viewpoints perceived by /r/The_Donald as "leftist." Despite this, the subreddit was part of a pro-Trump network that included /r/The_Donald and /r/AskThe_Donald.[106] The subreddit also compiled a list of questions for Trump during his AMA in 2016. /r/AskTrumpSupporters was replaced by /r/AskThe_Donald, which shared the same moderation team.[107] /r/AskThe_Donald is a similar subreddit wherein supporters and non-supporters of Trump can ask Trump supporters and "vetted non-supporters" various political questions, primarily pertaining to the presidency of Trump.

/r/The_Schulz

/r/The_Schulz is a semi-serious subreddit created for the German politician Martin Schulz, the former President of the European Parliament and a member of the SPD. According to Spiegel Online, /r/The_Schulz was created as a satire against /r/The_Donald.[108] Like /r/The_Donald, the subreddit frequently uses slang terms, most notably "MEGA," or "Make Europe Great Again,"[108][109][110] and "keine bremsen" (German for "no brakes"),[110] since its creation in November 2016, the subreddit has been featured in many articles, both inside and outside of Germany.[110][111][112] On January 30, 2017, Schulz gave the subreddit a shout-out on his YouTube channel,[109][113] as of January 2017, /r/The_Schulz has over 10,000 subscribers.[109]

Others

Other notable subreddits include /r/Le_Pen (for the French National Front leader Marine Le Pen),[111][114][115][116] /r/The_Farage (for former British UKIP leader Nigel Farage),[9] /r/The_Wilders (for Dutch Party for Freedom leader Geert Wilders),[111] and /r/The_Hofer (for Austrian politician Norbert Hofer).[115]

There were also anti-Trump subreddits that were created in response to the subreddit, most notably /r/EnoughTrumpSpam.[27][14][117][118] While changing the /r/all algorithm for /r/The_Donald, Huffman noted that "/r/EnoughTrumpSpam was hit harder than any other community when we rolled out the changes. That's Reddit for you."[14] Along with /r/The_Donald, /r/EnoughTrumpSpam was also excluded from /r/popular.[46][48] Meanwhile, /r/TrumpCriticizesTrump is a subreddit dedicated to pointing out Trump's alleged contradictions through his older tweets, press releases, and speeches.[119][120] Other notable anti-Trump subreddits include /r/MarchAgainstTrump[47][121] and /r/esist.[36][121][122]

Online media reception

The subreddit was criticized by Vice, which stated in an article that the subreddit was "authoritarian," "racist," "misogynistic," "homophobic," "Islamophobic," and a "hypocritical 'free speech' rallying point."[14][123] The publication Slate described /r/The_Donald as a "hate speech forum"[124] and The Verge has described it as a "notoriously fetid troll swamp."[125] According to The New York Times, "[m]embers respond to accusations of bigotry with defiant claims of persecution at the hands of critics, it is an article of faith among posters that anti-racists are the real bigots, feminists are the actual sexists, and progressive politics are, in effect, regressive."[28] The subreddit was also criticized for spreading fake news promoting conspiracy theories [6][44] such as "Pizzagate."[79] In February 2017, Medium analyzed how the subreddit was able to spread fake news throughout similar subreddits and conspiracy sites,[104] the subreddit is also connected to the alt-right[2][126][127][128] while an article by The Washington Post connected the moderators of closely related Trump subreddits to racist subreddits such as "/r/Quranimals" and "/r/Rapefugees."[9] The National Memo noted that "moderators have made the occasional attempt to rid /r/The_Donald of overt racism and anti-Semitism"[12] and The Economist emphasized that the moderators "at least try" to remove anti-semitism from the subreddit.[13] Meanwhile, Motherboard interviewed a moderator of the subreddit, who said "[t]he people from /pol/ who can behave, which is probably most of them, stay, the people who don't behave usually wind up getting banned for rule 3."[14] The New York Times also noted that, in addition to the subreddit's "no racism/anti-Semitism" policy, the subreddit also warns against "dissenters or SJWs" posting on there and that "concern trolling" is also banned.[7] Gizmodo commented that the subreddit "revealed how easy the site's ageing algorithm is to game," comparing their actions to the profitability of fake news posted on Facebook.[129] Gizmodo also referred the subreddit as "Trump supporters' de facto base of power on Reddit."[130] Politico described the subreddit as "a message board that acted as a conduit between 4chan and the mainstream Web."[15]

In February 2017, after Kellyanne Conway brought up the false Bowling Green massacre, SFGate noted that the subreddit's response to the incident was "varied – and rather muted." Some users shared the video uncritically while others thought that the incident was an intentional part of a larger strategy by the Trump administration.[131] Similarly, in May 2017, users on the subreddit began reposting memes pertaining to the murder of Seth Rich that occurred in Washington D.C..[87] Mashable described the postings as a distraction since the users began posting just hours after "The Washington Post broke the news that Trump had divulged classified intelligence to Russian representatives."[132] It was later reported by Gizmodo that, at one point, 20 of the top 26 posts on the subreddit pertained to the Seth Rich murder;[130] in the aftermath of the 2017 Las Vegas shooting, members of the subreddit initially thought that the suspect in the was Muslim and wrote comments about banning Muslims and refugees. However, after the identity of the shooter was revealed, the members saw the shooting as a "false flag" and posted various conspiracy theories.[10][133] Using latent semantic analysis, FiveThirtyEight analyzed the relationship between the /r/The_Donald and 50,323 other active subreddits based on 1.4 billion comments made over a two-year period from 2015 to 2016, and found the community was related to a number of "hate-based subreddits," such as the respectively banned /r/fatpeoplehate and /r/coontown.[11]

See also

References

  1. ^ "/r/The_Donald metrics". Reddit Metrics. Archived from the original on July 12, 2017. Retrieved November 7, 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c d Romano, Aja (July 3, 2017). "Trump's anti-CNN tweet originated from Reddit's largest right-wing extremist forum". Vox. Archived from the original on July 9, 2017. Retrieved July 4, 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c d Lee, Dave (November 30, 2016). "Reddit Moves against 'Toxic' Trump Fans". BBC News. Archived from the original on December 1, 2016. Retrieved December 1, 2016. A subreddit ... created and used by supporters of the US President-Elect... r/The_Donald was supported by Mr Trump. During the campaign, he carried out an ‘AMA’ - Ask Me Anything - session with supporters. 
  4. ^ a b Khalid, Amrita (September 15, 2017). "Behind the fringe pro-Trump community at war with the mainstream". The Daily Dot. Retrieved September 28, 2017. 
  5. ^ "'Alt-right' threads shut down by Reddit". BBC. February 2, 2017. Archived from the original on February 3, 2017. Retrieved February 3, 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c d Jackson, Jasper (November 22, 2016). "Moderators of pro-Trump Reddit group linked to fake news crackdown on posts". The Guardian. Archived from the original on November 25, 2016. Retrieved November 25, 2016. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f Lagorio-chafkin, Christine (November 19, 2016). "Reddit and the God Emperor of the Internet"Free access subject to limited trial, subscription normally required. The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 24, 2016. Retrieved November 25, 2016. 
  8. ^ a b Lecher, Colin. "Reddit will punish hundreds of 'toxic users' and hide some posts from pro-Trump community". The Verge. Archived from the original on November 30, 2016. Retrieved November 30, 2016. 
  9. ^ a b c Dewey, Caitlin (July 20, 2016). "The people running this Trump fan club also promote eugenics and call Muslims 'animals'". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 13, 2017. Retrieved January 11, 2017. 
  10. ^ a b Wyrich, Andrew (October 4, 2017). "How Trump's biggest fans responded before and after learning the Las Vegas shooter was white". The Daily Dot. Retrieved October 8, 2017. 
  11. ^ a b c Martin, Trevor (March 23, 2017). "Dissecting Trump's Most Rabid Online Following". FiveThirtyEight. Archived from the original on March 23, 2017. Retrieved March 24, 2017. 
  12. ^ a b Gais, Hannah (July 29, 2016). "Sump Trump: Looking For Votes In Reddit's Basement". The National Memo. Archived from the original on January 13, 2017. Retrieved January 11, 2017. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f "The origin of the specious"Free access subject to limited trial, subscription normally required. The Economist. July 4, 2017. Archived from the original on July 10, 2017. Retrieved July 10, 2017. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h Koebler, Jason (July 12, 2016). "How r/the_donald Became a Melting Pot of Frustration and Hate". Motherboard. Archived from the original on November 15, 2016. Retrieved November 24, 2016. 
  15. ^ a b c Schreckinger, Ben (March–April 2017). "World War Meme". POLITICO Magazine. Archived from the original on May 19, 2017. Retrieved May 17, 2017. 
  16. ^ Abbruzzese, Jason (February 25, 2016). "Trump's suddenly a hit on Reddit". Mashable. Archived from the original on February 5, 2017. Retrieved February 4, 2017. 
  17. ^ O'Neill, Patrick Howell (May 2, 2016). "How to speak like a Donald Trump supporter". The Daily Dot. Archived from the original on November 8, 2016. Retrieved November 25, 2016. 
  18. ^ Kostarelis, Stefan (May 16, 2017). "REPORTS: Trump just accidentally gave highly classified info to a Russian minister". Techly. Archived from the original on May 16, 2017. Retrieved May 25, 2017. 
  19. ^ a b Chung, Frank (May 19, 2016). "Trump's troll army takes aim at Clinton". news.com.au. Archived from the original on January 13, 2017. Retrieved January 11, 2017. 
  20. ^ Evon, Dan (March 2, 2016). "Hillary Clinton Kissed by Former Klan Member". snopes. Retrieved January 11, 2017. 
  21. ^ Koebler, Jason (June 13, 2016). "Orlando Shooting Response Shows Reddit Can't Be the 'Front Page of the Internet'". Motherboard. Archived from the original on July 6, 2017. Retrieved July 18, 2017. 
  22. ^ a b Alfonso III, Fernando (June 15, 2016). "How This Reddit Image-Sharing Site Is Benefiting from the Orlando Massacre, Donald Trump". Forbes. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved July 18, 2017. 
  23. ^ Hicks, William (June 14, 2016). "Reddit Changing Algorithm to Increase Frontpage 'Diversity,' Neuter The_Donald". Heat Street. Archived from the original on January 16, 2017. Retrieved January 14, 2017. 
  24. ^ Ohlheiser, Abby (November 30, 2016). "Reddit will limit the reach of a pro-Trump board and crack down on its 'most toxic users'". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on January 14, 2017. Retrieved January 14, 2017. 
  25. ^ Lagorio-Chafkin, Christine (November 30, 2016). "Why Reddit Is Cracking Down on Some of Its Most Active Users". Inc.com. Retrieved January 14, 2017. 
  26. ^ Sarlin, Benjy (April 14, 2016). "How an army of pro-Donald Trump trolls are taking over Reddit". MSNBC. Archived from the original on February 3, 2017. Retrieved February 4, 2017. 
  27. ^ a b Sarlin, Benjy (July 1, 2016). "Trump's Reddit Fan Club Grapples With Crackdown, Infighting". NBC News. Archived from the original on May 31, 2017. Retrieved May 21, 2017. 
  28. ^ a b Herrman, Josh (April 9, 2016). "Donald Trump Finds Support in Reddit's Unruly Corners"Free access subject to limited trial, subscription normally required. The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 26, 2016. 
  29. ^ Resnick, Gideon (January 13, 2017). "Tucker Carlson: 'Good Reporters' Heckle Obama, 'Rude' Reporters Interrupt Trump". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on January 17, 2017. Retrieved January 18, 2017. 
  30. ^ Vozzella, Laura (March 24, 2017). "GOP chair slams Va. gubernatorial contender for calling rival a 'cuckservative'". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on March 27, 2017. Retrieved March 27, 2017. 
  31. ^ a b King, Hope (July 25, 2016). "Donald Trump will host Reddit AMA". CNNMoney. Archived from the original on November 16, 2016. Retrieved November 24, 2016. 
  32. ^ "top scoring links : The_Donald". Reddit. May 20, 2017. Archived from the original on August 22, 2017. Retrieved May 20, 2017. 
  33. ^ Resnick, Gideon (September 22, 2016). "Palmer Luckey: The Facebook Near-Billionaire Secretly Funding Trump's Meme Machine". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on December 23, 2016. Retrieved December 24, 2016. 
  34. ^ Hern, Alex (September 23, 2016). "Oculus Rift founder Palmer Luckey spends fortune backing pro-Trump 'shitposts'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on January 10, 2017. Retrieved December 24, 2016. 
  35. ^ Grubb, Jeff (September 23, 2016). "Palmer Luckey: 'I am deeply sorry that my actions' hurt Oculus". VentureBeat. Archived from the original on December 27, 2016. Retrieved December 24, 2016. 
  36. ^ a b Gilmour, David (April 25, 2017). "The anti-Trump resistance is helping reporters dig up dirt on the president". The Daily Dot. Archived from the original on April 25, 2017. Retrieved May 17, 2017. 
  37. ^ Collins, Ben (November 4, 2016). "WikiLeaks' Latest 'Find' Is a Conspiracy Theory From Trump's Subreddit". The Daily Beast. Retrieved September 18, 2017. 
  38. ^ Battaglio, Stephen (November 16, 2016). "Trump supporters try to undermine Megyn Kelly's book with an onslaught of negative reviews on Amazon". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on November 24, 2016. Retrieved November 24, 2016. 
  39. ^ Zillman, Claire (November 25, 2016). "Amazon Reviews Are Being Hijacked by Commentary on Donald Trump". Fortune. Archived from the original on November 26, 2016. Retrieved November 25, 2016. 
  40. ^ Neilan, Dan (September 13, 2017). "Trump trolls crafted a secret plan to ruin Clinton book sales, totally botched it". The A.V. Club. Retrieved September 18, 2017. 
  41. ^ Ahmed, Tufayel (September 14, 2017). "Right-wing wants you to believe Amazon listed Hillary's book under 'women's fiction'—but it didn't". Newsweek. Retrieved September 18, 2017. 
  42. ^ Huang, Gregor Aisch, Jon; Kang, Cecilia (December 10, 2016). "Dissecting the #PizzaGate Conspiracy Theories". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 10, 2016. Retrieved December 10, 2016. 
  43. ^ LaCapria, Kim (December 2, 2016). "A detailed conspiracy theory known as "Pizzagate" holds that a pedophile ring is operating out of a Clinton-linked pizzeria called Comet Ping Pong". Snopes. Retrieved November 30, 2016. 
  44. ^ a b c d Ohlheiser, Abby; Tsukayama, Hayley (November 26, 2016). "Reddit's CEO regrets trolling Trump supporters by secretly editing their posts". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 6, 2016. Retrieved December 6, 2016. 
  45. ^ Kravets, David (November 30, 2016). "Reddit CEO who altered comments apologizes, unveils subreddit filtering". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on January 18, 2017. Retrieved January 12, 2017. 
  46. ^ a b c Menegus, Bryan (February 6, 2017). "Reddit Is Finally Fixing its Trump Spam Problem". Gizmodo. Archived from the original on May 19, 2017. Retrieved May 17, 2017. 
  47. ^ a b McCormick, Rich (February 15, 2017). "Reddit overhauls its front page for new users and lurkers". The Verge. Archived from the original on June 13, 2017. Retrieved May 17, 2017. 
  48. ^ a b Scarola, Cory (February 16, 2017). "Reddit Gave Its Homepage a Makeover". Inverse. Archived from the original on August 20, 2017. Retrieved May 17, 2017. 
  49. ^ Carroll, Rory (January 11, 2017). "BuzzFeed publishes unsubstantiated Trump report, raising ethics questions". The Guardian. Archived from the original on January 14, 2017. Retrieved January 14, 2017. 
  50. ^ Mezzofiore, Gianluca (January 11, 2017). "4chan believes it has proof that Trump sex act claims are fake". Mashable. Archived from the original on January 12, 2017. Retrieved January 12, 2017. 
  51. ^ Murdock, Jason (January 11, 2017). "4Chan pranksters: We trolled the CIA by making up Trump golden shower story". International Business Times UK. Archived from the original on January 12, 2017. Retrieved January 12, 2017. 
  52. ^ Baragona, Justin (January 11, 2017). "John McCain Confirms He Delivered Trump/Russia Dossier to James Comey". mediaite.com. Archived from the original on January 13, 2017. Retrieved January 14, 2017. 
  53. ^ a b Asarch, Steven (May 20, 2017). "Reddit News: The Donald Sub Set To Private, Maybe Done For Good [UPDATE: It's Back]". International Business Times. Archived from the original on May 20, 2017. Retrieved May 20, 2017. 
  54. ^ "The_Donald: private". reddit. May 20, 2017. Archived from the original on May 20, 2017. Retrieved May 20, 2017. 
  55. ^ Feinberg, Ashley. "A GOP Staffer Crowdsourced a Resolution From a Conspiracy Subreddit". Wired. Archived from the original on July 28, 2017. Retrieved July 28, 2017. 
  56. ^ a b Koebler, Jason (October 4, 2017). "Internet's Most Popular Donald Trump Chat Room Destroyed in Anime-Related 'Coup'". Motherboard. Retrieved October 8, 2017. 
  57. ^ a b Broderick, Ryan (May 21, 2017). "Trump Supporters Have Built A Document With The Addresses And Phone Numbers Of Thousands Of Anti-Trump Activists". BuzzFeed. Archived from the original on May 22, 2017. Retrieved May 23, 2017. 
  58. ^ Menegus, Bryan (November 29, 2016). "Reddit Is Tearing Itself Apart". Gizmodo. Archived from the original on May 23, 2017. Retrieved May 23, 2017. 
  59. ^ McKay, Tom (May 21, 2017). "Trump supporters have compiled data on thousands who signed anti-fascist petition". mic.com. Retrieved May 23, 2017. 
  60. ^ Koebler, Jason (July 27, 2016). "Here Is the First Known Photo of Donald Trump Using a Computer". Motherboard. Archived from the original on January 26, 2017. Retrieved January 18, 2017. 
  61. ^ Collins, Ben; Judy, Ken (November 8, 2016). "Analysis: Woman-Haters and Pickup Artists Love Trump on Reddit". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on December 28, 2016. Retrieved December 28, 2016. 
  62. ^ a b Ohlheiser, Abby (May 11, 2017). "Welp, Trump just dunked on Rosie O'Donnell on Twitter". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 16, 2017. Retrieved May 17, 2017. 
  63. ^ Conditt, Jessica. "Moderators banned 2,200 accounts during Donald Trump's AMA". Engadget. Archived from the original on July 29, 2016. Retrieved August 2, 2016. 
  64. ^ Powell, Austin (October 10, 2016). "Trump Posts to Reddit, Prompting Massive Rigging of Online Debate Polls". The Daily Dot. Retrieved October 8, 2017. 
  65. ^ Sankin, Aaron (October 19, 2016). "Reddit Explodes After Trump Posts Pregame Debate Message". The Daily Dot. Retrieved October 8, 2017. 
  66. ^ Graham, David A. (July 3, 2017). "Why Trump Keeps Returning to Reddit". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on July 3, 2017. Retrieved July 4, 2017. 
  67. ^ Dennis, Catrina (July 7, 2016). "Trump's Star of David "Frozen" Defense Was Stolen from a Reddit Post". Inverse. Archived from the original on July 6, 2017. Retrieved July 18, 2017. 
  68. ^ Warzel, Charlie (March 3, 2017). "From Reddit To Trump's Twitter — In Less Than 24 Hours". BuzzFeed. Archived from the original on May 27, 2017. Retrieved July 4, 2017. 
  69. ^ Cameron, Dell (May 11, 2017). "Rosie O'Donnell Says A Former FBI Agent Changed Her Mind About James Comey". Gizmodo. Archived from the original on May 17, 2017. Retrieved May 17, 2017. 
  70. ^ LaFrance, Adrienne (May 11, 2017). "Is Donald Trump a Secret Redditor?". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on May 18, 2017. Retrieved May 17, 2017. 
  71. ^ Kircher, Madison Malone (May 11, 2017). "Is Donald Trump Getting His News From Reddit?". Select All. Archived from the original on May 15, 2017. Retrieved May 17, 2017. 
  72. ^ a b Nakamura, David (July 2, 2017). "Trump appears to promote violence against CNN with tweet". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 2, 2017. Retrieved July 2, 2017. 
  73. ^ a b Shankar, Dakshayani (July 3, 2017). "WH says Trump didn't obtain CNN wrestling video from Reddit". ABC News. Archived from the original on July 4, 2017. Retrieved July 4, 2017. 
  74. ^ Koebler, Jason. "One of Reddit's Top Posts Is a Bunch of Swastikas, Again". Motherboard. Archived from the original on January 2, 2017. Retrieved January 2, 2017. 
  75. ^ Matsakis, Louise (May 5, 2016). "Reddit's Theorists Give Up Trying to Explain Donald Trump's Reddit Takeover". Motherboard. Retrieved September 28, 2017. 
  76. ^ Griffin, Andrew (February 16, 2017). "The Reddit front page just changed. And it's hugely controversial". The Independent. Archived from the original on February 16, 2017. Retrieved February 16, 2017. 
  77. ^ Coldewey, Devin (February 16, 2017). "Reddit tweaks and renames public front page". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on February 16, 2017. Retrieved February 16, 2017. 
  78. ^ News, I4U. "Reddit CEO Has Confessed Editing Insulting Comments". I4U News. Archived from the original on January 16, 2017. Retrieved January 14, 2017. 
  79. ^ a b Yeung, Ken. "Reddit CEO apologizes for editing comments critical of him following Pizzagate ban". VentureBeat. Archived from the original on November 24, 2016. Retrieved November 24, 2016. 
  80. ^ Weingerger, Matt. "The CEO of Reddit confessed to modifying posts from Trump supporters after they wouldn't stop sending him expletives". Business Insider. Archived from the original on November 24, 2016. Retrieved November 24, 2016. 
  81. ^ Russell, Jon. "Reddit CEO admits he secretly edited comments from Donald Trump supporters". Techcrunch. Archived from the original on November 24, 2016. Retrieved November 24, 2016. 
  82. ^ Reddit's Troll-in-Chief Steve Huffman - VICE News Tonight on HBO. December 21, 2016. Archived from the original on December 24, 2016. 
  83. ^ Lott, Maxim (March 31, 2017). "Reddit defends against accusations of ad fraud and Trump censorship". Fox News Channel. Archived from the original on April 5, 2017. Retrieved April 5, 2017. 
  84. ^ Ohlheiser, Abby (November 24, 2016). "Fearing yet another witch hunt, Reddit bans 'Pizzagate'". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 30, 2016. Retrieved December 31, 2016. 
  85. ^ Kang, Cecilia (November 21, 2016). "Fake News Onslaught Targets Pizzeria as Nest of Child-Trafficking"Free access subject to limited trial, subscription normally required. The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 8, 2016. 
  86. ^ Ducey, Kevin (December 30, 2016). "No, Andrew Bogut's knee injury is not an anti-Pizzagate conspiracy". Sports Illustrated. Archived from the original on January 2, 2017. Retrieved January 5, 2017. 
  87. ^ a b Gilmour, David (May 19, 2017), "Reddit and 4chan Trump supporters set out to prove Seth Rich murder conspiracy", The Daily Dot, archived from the original on May 20, 2017 
  88. ^ Whitehouse, John (May 27, 2017). "How the murder of a DNC staffer turned into a right-wing conspiracy". Salon. Archived from the original on May 27, 2017. Retrieved May 27, 2017. 
  89. ^ Silva, Daniella (July 2, 2017). "Trump tweets video of himself body slamming 'CNN'". NBC News. Archived from the original on July 2, 2017. Retrieved July 2, 2017. 
  90. ^ "Donald Trump posts video clip of him 'beating' CNN in wrestling". BBC News. July 2, 2017. Archived from the original on July 4, 2017. Retrieved July 2, 2017. 
  91. ^ Grynbaum, Michael M. (July 2, 2017). "Trump Tweets a Video of Him Wrestling 'CNN' to the Ground". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 2, 2017. Retrieved July 2, 2017. 
  92. ^ Selk, Avi (July 2, 2017). "A Reddit user who wrote about stabbing Muslims is claiming credit for Trump's CNN video". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 2, 2017. Retrieved July 3, 2017. 
  93. ^ Smith, Allan (July 3, 2017). "The Reddit user taking credit for Trump's CNN body-slam video has a history of posting inflammatory comments". Business Insider. Archived from the original on July 3, 2017. Retrieved July 4, 2017. 
  94. ^ Pearce, Matt (July 3, 2017). "Once again, Trump tweets a meme linked to a brazen racist". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on July 4, 2017. Retrieved July 5, 2017. 
  95. ^ D'Angelo, Chris (July 4, 2017). "Journalist Who Exposed The Racist Creator Of Trump's CNN Tweet Gets Death Threats". HuffPost. Archived from the original on July 5, 2017. Retrieved July 5, 2017. 
  96. ^ a b Kaczynski, Andrew (July 4, 2017). "How CNN found the Reddit user behind the Trump wrestling GIF". CNN. Archived from the original on July 5, 2017. Retrieved July 5, 2017. 
  97. ^ Berke, Jeremy (July 4, 2017). "'I am in no way this kind of person': Reddit user who created Trump's CNN body-slam meme apologizes for his racist and anti-Semitic posts". Business Insider. Archived from the original on July 5, 2017. Retrieved July 5, 2017. 
  98. ^ Mack, David (July 4, 2017). "The Reddit User Who Made The Trump/CNN Wrestling Video Has Posted An Apology". BuzzFeed. Archived from the original on July 5, 2017. Retrieved July 5, 2017. 
  99. ^ Kostarelis, Stefan (July 5, 2017). "Redditor who created THAT Trump vs CNN video apologises and deletes his account". Techly. Archived from the original on July 5, 2017. Retrieved July 5, 2017. 
  100. ^ Ferreras, Jesse (July 5, 2017). "Reddit user who took credit for Trump GIF apologizes, account deleted after CNN finds him". Global News. Archived from the original on July 5, 2017. Retrieved July 5, 2017. 
  101. ^ Bell, Chris (July 5, 2017). "CNN accused of 'blackmailing' Trump gif maker". BBC News. Archived from the original on July 6, 2017. Retrieved July 5, 2017. 
  102. ^ Irby, Kate (July 5, 2017). "CNN identified the creator of the Trump wrestling gif. Now it's accused of blackmail". The Miami Herald. Archived from the original on July 6, 2017. Retrieved July 5, 2017. 
  103. ^ Roose, Kevin (July 5, 2017). "How a CNN Investigation Set Off an Internet Meme War". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 6, 2017. Retrieved July 6, 2017. 
  104. ^ a b Nimmo, Ben (February 9, 2017). "Spread it on Reddit". Medium. Archived from the original on February 10, 2017. Retrieved February 10, 2017. 
  105. ^ McLevy, Alex (July 11, 2017). "Trump fans and critics are respectfully connecting on Reddit, of all places". Archived from the original on July 11, 2017. Retrieved July 12, 2017. 
  106. ^ Gilmour, David (July 10, 2017). "Meet Ask Trump Supporters, the only place where Trump fans and haters actually talk". The Daily Dot. Archived from the original on July 11, 2017. Retrieved July 10, 2017. 
  107. ^ Khalid, Amrita (July 27, 2016). "Donald Trump's Reddit AMA surprises no one". The Daily Dot. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved July 10, 2017. 
  108. ^ a b Reinbold, Fabian (January 31, 2017). "Netz-Kult um den SPD-Kandidaten: Schulz? MEGA!" [Network cult for the SPD candidate: Schulz? MEGA!]. Der Spiegel (in German). Archived from the original on February 11, 2017. Retrieved February 9, 2017. 
  109. ^ a b c Wagner, Jennifer (January 30, 2017). "'The Schulz': Kanzlerkandidat Martin Schulz wird zum Internet-Hit" ['The Schulz' Chancellor candidate Martin Schulz becomes an Internet hit]. Berliner Zeitung (in German). Archived from the original on August 20, 2017. Retrieved February 9, 2017. 
  110. ^ a b c Cresci, Elena (February 9, 2017). "Mega: how German chancellor hopeful Martin Schulz became a meme". The Guardian. Archived from the original on February 10, 2017. Retrieved February 10, 2017. 
  111. ^ a b c Barredo, Álex (November 30, 2016). "La ultraderecha se organiza en Reddit y 4Chan en favor de Marine Le Pen" [The far-right is organized on Reddit and 4chan to support Le Pen with memes and misinformation]. Hipertextual (in Spanish). Archived from the original on December 24, 2016. Retrieved December 24, 2016. 
  112. ^ Karnitschnig, Matthew (February 8, 2017). "Germany's new front-runner: The Schulz". POLITICO. Archived from the original on February 9, 2017. Retrieved February 9, 2017. 
  113. ^ Haubner, Lia (January 31, 2017). "Martin Schulz zeigt, dass er als erster Kanzlerkandidat Social Media verstanden hat" [Martin Schulz shows that he was the first chancellor candidate to understand social media] (in German). Refinery29. Archived from the original on February 11, 2017. Retrieved February 9, 2017. 
  114. ^ Toor, Amar (February 6, 2017). "France's alt-right has turned Pepe the frog into Pepe Le Pen". The Verge. Archived from the original on February 7, 2017. Retrieved February 9, 2017. 
  115. ^ a b Matalon, Vincent (November 22, 2016). "'Une bonne blague est plus convaincante qu'un tract': sur les réseaux sociaux, les pro-Trump se rangent derrière Marine Le Pen" ['A good joke is more convincing than a tract': on social networks, pro-Trump ranks behind Marine Le Pen]. Franceinfo (in French). Archived from the original on December 24, 2016. Retrieved December 24, 2016. 
  116. ^ Broderick, Ryan (May 8, 2017). "A Complete Timeline Of How Trump Supporters Tried — And Failed — To Hijack The French Election". BuzzFeed. Archived from the original on May 17, 2017. Retrieved May 17, 2017. 
  117. ^ Koebler, Jason (July 28, 2016). "The Donald Trump Subreddit Is in Active Revolt Against Reddit's CEO". Motherboard. Archived from the original on November 27, 2016. Retrieved January 12, 2017. 
  118. ^ Ohlheiser, Abby (June 17, 2016). "Trump's meme brigade took over Reddit. Now Reddit is trying to stop them". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 11, 2017. Retrieved February 10, 2017. 
  119. ^ Sarlin, Benjy; Petulla, Sam (June 9, 2017). "How President Trump's old tweets haunt him today". NBC News. Retrieved August 22, 2017. 
  120. ^ Wyrich, Andrew (June 8, 2017). "Meet the community tracking every time Trump contradicts himself on Twitter". The Daily Dot. Retrieved August 22, 2017. 
  121. ^ a b Resnick, Gideon (January 30, 2017). "Reddit's Anti-Trump Civil War". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on May 15, 2017. Retrieved May 17, 2017. 
  122. ^ Menegus, Bryan (March 17, 2017). "The Grassroots Campaign to Make Reddit Less Toxic". Gizmodo. Archived from the original on July 6, 2017. Retrieved July 2, 2017. 
  123. ^ Sarlin, Benjy (July 27, 2016). "Donald Trump to Drop In on Reddit, Where He's Already a Phenomenon". NBC News. Archived from the original on November 13, 2016. Retrieved November 24, 2016. 
  124. ^ Mathis-Lilley, Ben (July 28, 2016). "Meanwhile, Donald Trump Did a Q&A Wednesday Night on a Hate Speech Forum". Slate. Archived from the original on December 6, 2016. Retrieved December 6, 2016. 
  125. ^ Kaitlyn, Tiffany (January 11, 2017). "The ultimate conspiracy: a conspiracy against Reddit's conspiracy community?". The Verge. Archived from the original on January 11, 2017. Retrieved January 12, 2017. 
  126. ^ Sarlin, Benjy (August 25, 2016). "5 Things to Know About the 'Alt-Right'". NBC News. Archived from the original on December 5, 2016. Retrieved December 6, 2016. 
  127. ^ Mezzofiore, Gianluca (November 11, 2016). "Trump subreddit is ready to wage 'meme war' in Europe". Mashable. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 6, 2016. 
  128. ^ Woolf, Nicky (November 23, 2016). "Donald Trump's 'alt-right' supporters express dismay at disavowal". The Guardian. Archived from the original on December 16, 2016. Retrieved December 20, 2016. 
  129. ^ Menegus, Bryan (January 1, 2017). "Why Trolls Won In 2016". Gizmodo. Archived from the original on January 1, 2017. Retrieved January 2, 2017. 
  130. ^ a b Menegus, Bryan (May 23, 2017). "Sean Hannity Tweets Out Ludicrous Seth Rich Conspiracy From Kim Dotcom [Updated]". Gizmodo. Archived from the original on May 25, 2017. Retrieved May 25, 2017. 
  131. ^ Bump, Philip (February 3, 2017). "Analysis: What came after Conway's 'Bowling Green massacre' statement". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on February 3, 2017. Retrieved February 3, 2017. 
  132. ^ Abbruzzese, Jason (May 16, 2017). "The alt-right unearths an ugly conspiracy theory to distract from Trump's Russia meltdown". Mashable. Archived from the original on May 17, 2017. Retrieved May 17, 2017. 
  133. ^ Kostarelis, Stefan (October 4, 2017). "Trump supporters learn Vegas shooter was white... proceed to lose their minds". Techly. Retrieved October 8, 2017. 

External links