A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
Iona is a small island in the Inner Hebrides off the Ross of Mull on the western coast of Scotland. It is known for Iona Abbey, though there are other buildings on the island. Iona Abbey was a centre of Gaelic monasticism for three centuries and is today known for its relative tranquility and natural environment, it is a place for spiritual retreats. Its modern Gaelic name means "Iona of Columba"; the Hebrides have been occupied by the speakers of several languages since the Iron Age, as a result many of the names of these islands have more than one possible meaning. Nonetheless few, if any, can have accumulated so many different names over the centuries as the island now known in English as "Iona"; the earliest forms of the name enabled place-name scholar William J. Watson to show that the name meant something like "yew-place"; the element Ivo-, denoting "yew", occurs in Ogham inscriptions and in Gaulish names and may form the basis of early Gaelic names like Eogan. It is possible that the name is related to the mythological figure, Fer hÍ mac Eogabail, foster-son of Manannan, the forename meaning "man of the yew".
Mac an Tàilleir lists the more recent Gaelic names of Ì, Ì Chaluim Chille and Eilean Idhe noting that the first named is "generally lengthened to avoid confusion" to the second, which means "Calum's Iona" or "island of Calum's monastery". The possible confusion results from "ì", despite its original etymology, becoming a Gaelic noun meaning "island". Eilean Idhe means "the isle of Iona" known as Ì nam ban bòidheach; the modern English name comes of yet another variant, either just Adomnán's attempt to make the Gaelic name fit Latin grammar or else a genuine derivative from Ivova. Ioua's change to Iona, attested from c.1274, results from a transcription mistake resulting from the similarity of "n" and "u" in Insular Minuscule. Despite the continuity of forms in Gaelic between the pre-Norse and post-Norse eras, Haswell-Smith speculates that the name may have a Norse connection, Hiōe meaning "island of the den of the brown bear", The medieval English language version was "Icolmkill". Murray claims that the "ancient" Gaelic name was Innis nan Druinich and repeats a Gaelic story that as Columba's coracle first drew close to the island one of his companions cried out "Chì mi i" meaning "I see her" and that Columba's response was "Henceforth we shall call her Ì".
Iona lies about 2 kilometres from the coast of Mull. It is about 2 kilometres wide and 6 kilometres long with a resident population of 125; the geology of the island consists of Precambrian Lewisian gneiss with Torridonian sedimentary rocks on the eastern side and small outcrops of pink granite on the eastern beaches. Like other places swept by ocean breezes, there are few trees. Iona's highest point is Dùn Ì, 101 metres, an Iron Age hill fort dating from 100 BC – AD 200. Iona's geographical features include the Bay at the Back of the Ocean and Càrn Cùl ri Éirinn, said to be adjacent to the beach where St. Columba first landed; the main settlement, located at St. Ronan's Bay on the eastern side of the island, is called Baile Mòr and is known locally as "The Village"; the primary school, post office, the island's two hotels, the Bishop's House and the ruins of the Nunnery are here. The Abbey and MacLeod Centre are a short walk to the north. Port Bàn beach on the west side of the island is home to the Iona Beach Party.
There are numerous offshore islets and skerries: Eilean Annraidh and Eilean Chalbha to the north, Rèidh Eilean and Stac MhicMhurchaidh to the west and Eilean Mùsimul and Soa Island to the south are amongst the largest. The steamer Cathcart Park carrying a cargo of salt from Runcorn to Wick ran aground on Soa on 15 April 1912, the crew of 11 escaping in two boats. On a map of 1874, the following territorial subdivision is indicated: Ceann Tsear Sliabh Meanach Machar Sliginach Sliabh Siar Staonaig In the early Historic Period Iona lay within the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata, in the region controlled by the Cenél Loairn; the island was the site of a important monastery during the Early Middle Ages. According to tradition the monastery was founded in 563 by the monk Columba known as Colm Cille, exiled from his native Ireland as a result of his involvement in the Battle of Cul Dreimhne. Columba and twelve companions founded a monastery there; the monastery was hugely successful, played a crucial role in the conversion to Christianity of the Picts of present-day Scotland in the late 6th century and of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria in 635.
Many satellite institutions were founded, Iona became the centre of one of the most important monastic systems in Great Britain and Ireland. Iona became a renowned centre of learning, its scriptorium produced important documents including the original texts of the Iona Chronicle, thought to be the source for the early Irish annals; the monastery is associated with the distinctive practices and traditions known as Celtic Christianity. In particular, Iona was a major supporter of the "Celtic" system for calculating the date of Easter at the time of the Easter controversy, whi
Constantine II of Scotland
Constantine, son of Áed was an early King of Scotland, known by the Gaelic name Alba. The Kingdom of Alba, a name which first appears in Constantine's lifetime, was situated in modern-day Scotland; the core of the kingdom was formed by the lands around the River Tay. Its southern limit was the River Forth, northwards it extended towards the Moray Firth and to Caithness, while its western limits are uncertain. Constantine's grandfather Kenneth I of Scotland was the first of the family recorded as a king, but as king of the Picts; this change of title, from king of the Picts to king of Alba, is part of a broader transformation of Pictland and the origins of the Kingdom of Alba are traced to Constantine's lifetime. His reign, like those of his predecessors, was dominated by the actions of Viking rulers in the British Isles the Uí Ímair. During Constantine's reign the rulers of the southern kingdoms of Wessex and Mercia the Kingdom of England, extended their authority northwards into the disputed kingdoms of Northumbria.
At first allied with the southern rulers against the Vikings, Constantine in time came into conflict with them. King Æthelstan was successful in securing Constantine's submission in 927 and 934, but the two again fought when Constantine, allied with the Strathclyde Britons and the Viking king of Dublin, invaded Æthelstan's kingdom in 937, only to be defeated at the great battle of Brunanburh. In 943 Constantine abdicated the throne and retired to the Céli Dé monastery of St Andrews where he died in 952, he was succeeded by his predecessor's son Malcolm I. Constantine's reign of 43 years, exceeded in Scotland only by that of King William the Lion before the Union of the Crowns in 1603, is believed to have played a defining part in the gaelicisation of Pictland, in which his patronage of the Irish Céli Dé monastic reformers was a significant factor. During his reign the words "Scots" and "Scotland" are first used to mean part of what is now Scotland; the earliest evidence for the ecclesiastical and administrative institutions which would last until the Davidian Revolution appears at this time.
Compared to neighbouring Ireland and Anglo-Saxon England, few records of 9th- and 10th-century events in Scotland survive. The main local source from the period is the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba, a list of kings from Kenneth MacAlpin to Kenneth II; the list survives in a 13th-century compilation. A list of kings with reign lengths, the other details contained in the Poppleton Manuscript version were added in the 10th and 12th centuries. In addition to this king lists survive; the earliest genealogical records of the descendants of Kenneth MacAlpin may date from the end of the 10th century, but their value lies more in their context, the information they provide about the interests of those for whom they were compiled, than in the unreliable claims they contain. For narrative history the principal sources are the Irish annals; the evidence from charters created in the Kingdom of England provides occasional insight into events in northern Britain. While Scandinavian sagas describe events in 10th-century Britain, their value as sources of historical narrative, rather than documents of social history, is disputed.
Mainland European sources concern themselves with affairs in Britain, less with events in northern Britain, but the life of Saint Cathróe of Metz, a work of hagiography written in Germany at the end of the 10th century, provides plausible details of the saint's early life in north Britain. While the sources for north-eastern Britain, the lands of the kingdom of Northumbria and the former Pictland, are limited and late, those for the areas on the Irish Sea and Atlantic coasts—the modern regions of north-west England and all of northern and western Scotland—are non-existent, archaeology and toponymy are of primary importance; the dominant kingdom in eastern Scotland before the Viking Age was the northern Pictish kingdom of Fortriu on the shores of the Moray Firth. By the 9th century, the Gaels of Dál Riata were subject to the kings of Fortriu of the family of Constantín mac Fergusa. Constantín's family dominated Fortriu after 789 and if Constantín was a kinsman of Óengus I of the Picts, from around 730.
The dominance of Fortriu came to an end in 839 with a defeat by Viking armies reported by the Annals of Ulster in which King Uen of Fortriu and his brother Bran, Constantín's nephews, together with the king of Dál Riata, Áed mac Boanta, "and others innumerable" were killed. These deaths led to a period of instability lasting a decade as several families attempted to establish their dominance in Pictland. By around 848 Kenneth MacAlpin had emerged as the winner. National myth made Kenneth MacAlpin the creator of the kingdom of Scotland, the founding of, dated from 843, the year in which he was said to have destroyed the Picts and inaugurated a new era; the historical record for 9th-century Scotland is meagre, but the Irish annals and the 10th-century Chronicle of the Kings of Alba agree that Kenneth was a Pictish king, call him "king of the Picts" at his death. The same style is used of sons Constantine I and Áed; the kingdom ruled by Kenneth's descendants—older works used the name House of Alpin to d
Kingdom of Alba
The Kingdom of Alba refers to the Kingdom of Scotland between the deaths of Donald II in 900 and of Alexander III in 1286, which led indirectly to the Scottish Wars of Independence. The name is one of convenience, as throughout this period the elite and populace of the Kingdom were predominantly Pictish-Gaels or Pictish-Gaels and Scoto-Norman, differs markedly from the period of the Stuarts, in which the elite of the kingdom were speakers of Middle English, which evolved and came to be called Lowland Scots. There is no precise Gaelic equivalent for the English terminology "Kingdom of Alba", as the Gaelic term Rìoghachd na h-Alba means'Kingdom of Scotland'. English-speaking scholars adapted the Gaelic name for Scotland to apply to a particular political period in Scottish history during the High Middle Ages. Little is known about the structure of the Scottish royal court in the period before the coming of the Normans to Scotland, before the reign of David I. A little more is known about the court of the 12th and 13th centuries.
In the words of Geoffrey Barrow, this court "was emphatically feudal, non-Celtic in character". Some of the offices were Gaelic in origin, such as the Hostarius, the man in charge of the royal bodyguard, the rannaire, the Gaelic-speaking member of the court whose job was to divide the food; the Seneschal or dapifer, had been hereditary since the reign of David I. The Steward had responsibility for the royal household and its management.. The Chancellor was in charge of the royal chapel; the latter was the king's place of worship, but as it happened, was associated with the royal scribes, responsible for keeping records. The chancellor was a clergyman, he held this office before being promoted to a bishopric; the Chamberlain had control and responsibility over royal finances The Constable was hereditary since the reign of David I and was in charge of the crown's military resources. The Butler The Marshal or marischal; the marischal differed from the constable in that he was more specialised, responsible for and in charge of the royal cavalry forces In the 13th century, all the other offices tended to be hereditary, with the exception of the Chancellor.
The royal household of course came with numerous other offices. The most important was the aforementioned hostarius, but there were others such as the royal hunters, the royal foresters and the cooks. King Donald II was the first man to have been called rí Alban, when he died at Dunnottar in 900; this meant king of Scotland. All his predecessors bore the style of King of Fortriu; such an apparent innovation in the Gaelic chronicles is taken to spell the birth of Scotland, but there is nothing special about his reign that might confirm this. Donald had the nickname dásachtach; this meant a madman, or in early Irish law, a man not in control of his functions and hence without legal culpability. The reason was the restlessness of his reign, continually spent fighting battles against Vikings, it is possible he gained his unpopularity by violating the rights of the church or through high taxes, but it is not known for certain. However, his negative nickname makes him an unlikely founder of Scotland. Donald's successor Constantine II is more regarded as a key figure in the formation of Alba.
Constantine reigned for nearly half a century. When he lost at Brunanburh, he was discredited and retired as a Culdee monk at St. Andrews. Despite this, the Prophecy of Berchán is full of praise for the king, in this respect is in line with the views of other sources. Constantine is credited in tradition as the man who, with bishop Ceallach of St Andrews, brought the Catholic Church in Scotland into conformity with that of the larger Gaelic world, although it is not known what this means. There had been Gaelic bishops in St Andrews for two centuries, Gaelic churchmen were amongst the oldest features of Caledonian Christianity; the reform may have been organizational, or some sort of purge of certain unknown and disliked legacies of Pictish ecclesiastical tradition. However, other than these factors, it is difficult to appreciate the importance of Constantine's reign; the period between the accession of Malcolm I and Malcolm II is marked by good relations with the Wessex rulers of England, intense internal dynastic disunity and, despite this successful expansionary policies.
Some time after an English invasion of cumbra land by King Edmund of England in 945, the English king handed the province over to king Malcolm I on condition of a permanent alliance. Some time in the reign of King Indulf, the Scots captured the fortress called oppidum Eden, i.e. certainly Edinburgh. It was the first Scottish foothold in Lothian; the Scots had had some authority in Strathclyde since the part of the 9th century, but the kingdom kept its own rulers, it is not clear that the Scots were always strong enough to enforce their authority. In fact, one of Indulf's successors, Cuilén, died at the hands of the men of Strathclyde while trying to enforce his authority. King Kenneth II began his reign by invading Britannia as an early ass
Eochaid, son of Rhun
Eochaid was a ninth-century Briton who may have ruled as King of Strathclyde and/or King of the Picts. He was a son of Rhun ab Arthgal, King of Strathclyde, descended from a long line of British kings. Eochaid's mother is recorded to have been a daughter of King of the Picts; this maternal descent from the royal Alpínid dynasty may well account for the record of Eochaid reigning over the Pictish realm after the death of Cináed's son, Áed, in 878. According to various sources, Áed was slain by Giric, a man of uncertain ancestry, accorded kingship after Áed's demise, it is uncertain if Eochaid and Giric were relatives, unrelated allies, or rivals. Whilst it is possible that they held the Pictish kingship concurrently as allies, it is conceivable that they ruled successively as opponents. Another possibility is that, whilst Giric reigned as King of the Picts, Eochaid reigned as King of Strathclyde. Eochaid's floruit dates about the time when the Kingdom of Strathclyde seems to have expanded southwards into lands possessed by the Kingdom of Northumbria.
The catalyst for this extension of British influence appears to have been the Viking conquest of this northern English realm. According to various sources and Giric were driven from the kingship in 889; the succeeding king, Domnall mac Custantín, was an Alpínid, could well have been responsible for the forced regime change. The terminology employed by various sources suggests that during the reigns of Eochaid and Giric, or during that of Domnall and his successors, the wavering Pictish kingdom—weakened by political upheaval and Viking invasions—redefined itself as a Gaelic realm: the Kingdom of Alba. Eochaid is not attested after 889. Nothing is recorded of the Kingdom of Strathclyde until the first quarter of the next century, when a certain Dyfnwal, King of Strathclyde is reported to have died. Whilst the parentage of this man is unknown, it is probable that he was a member of Eochaid's kindred, a descendant of him. A daughter of Eochaid may have been Lann, a woman recorded to have been the mother of Muirchertach mac Néill, King of Ailech.
Eochaid was a son of King of Strathclyde. Rhun's patrilineal ancestry is evidenced by a pedigree preserved within a collection of tenth-century Welsh genealogical material known as the Harleian genealogies. According to this source, he was descended from a long line of kings of Al Clud; the ninth- to twelfth-century Chronicle of the Kings of Alba evinces that Rhun was married to a daughter of Cináed mac Ailpín, King of the Picts, states that a product of the union was Eochaid himself. Eochaid's maternal ancestry may be exemplified in the name. There is no known British form of the Gaelic Eochaid. In theory, a Pictish form of the name would be * Ebdei. In 870, during the reign of Rhun's father, Arthgal ap Dyfnwal, King of Al Clud, the fortress of Al Clud was captured and destroyed by the insular Scandinavian kings Amlaíb and Ímar. In the following year, Amlaíb and Ímar returned to Ireland with a fleet of two hundred ships, a mass of captives identified as English and Pictish. Arthgal died in 872.
The Annals of Ulster, Chronicon Scotorum reveal that he was slain at the behest of Rhun's brother-in-law, Custantín mac Cináeda, King of the Picts. The circumstances surrounding Arthgal's assassination are unknown, Rhun's reign commenced not long after his death. Prior to its fall, the fortress of Al Clud served as the capital of Arthgal's Kingdom of Al Clud, afterwards the capital appears to have relocated up the River Clyde to the vicinity of Govan and Partick; the relocation is exemplified by a shift in royal terminology. Until the fall of Al Clud, for example, the rulers of the realm were styled after the fortress. Either Arthgal or Rhun could have been the first monarch to rule to the reconstructed realm of Strathclyde, it is uncertain when Rhun's life ended. One possibility is. Custantín's death is dated to 876 by the Annals of Ulster; the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba appears to locate his fall in Atholl, whilst several king-lists locate his demise to a place variously called Inverdufat, an otherwise uncertain location that might refer to Inverdovat in Fife.
It is uncertain. If Rhun and Custantín both died in 876, Eochaid could well have succeeded his father. Custantín's brother, Áed mac Cináeda, succeeded as King of the Picts, ruled as such upon his death two years later. Whilst the Annals of Ulster reports that Áed was killed by his own companions, several mediaeval king-lists state that he was slain by a certain Giric. Quite who reigned as king after Áed is uncertain, although there are several plausible possibilities. According to the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba, Eochaid succeeded Áed, held the kingship for eleven years; the chronicle adds that it was further said that Giric reigned during this period on account of the fact that he was Eochaid's alumnus and ordinator. A solar eclipse is noted during their reigns—an event dated to the feast of St Ciricius—and the two are stated to have been ejected from the kingdom; the chronicle reports. Since Áed indeed expired in 879, the chronicle's chronology is evidently accurate for the outset of Eochaid's reign.
As for the eclipse, the chronicle appears to place it in the
Inverurie is a Royal Burgh and town in Aberdeenshire, Scotland at the confluence of the rivers Ury and Don, about 16 miles north west of Aberdeen on the A96 road and is served by Inverurie railway station on the Aberdeen to Inverness Line. The nearest airport is Aberdeen Airport at Dyce. Inverurie is located in the valley of the River Don at the centre of Aberdeenshire and is known locally as the Heart of the Garioch, it sits between the River Don and the River Ury and is only 10 miles from the imposing hill of Bennachie. The town centre is triangular and is dominated by the grand Town Hall built in 1862. In the middle of the'square' is the Inverurie and District War Memorial, capped by a lone Gordon Highlander looking out over the town; the main shopping areas include the Market Place and West High Street which branches off from the centre towards the more residential part of the town. South of the River Don is the village of Port Elphinstone, part of the Royal Burgh of Inverurie and is so called due to the proximity of the Aberdeenshire Canal.
The word "Inverurie" comes from the Scottish Gaelic Inbhir Uraidh meaning "Confluence of the Ury" after the river which joins the Don just south of the town. In the 19th century, with the increased use of the postal service, many letters addressed to "Inverury" were being sent to "Inverary" in Argyll, on the west coast of Scotland; the town council ordained that the name to be used for council business should be "Inverurie" which they regarded as being the "ancient spelling". They asked the public to use this spelling in future and said that the Postmaster General had accepted the change; the town clerk made the official announcement on 20 April 1866. Inverurie is said to have been founded by David of Huntingdon, Earl of the Garioch, brother of Malcolm IV, great-great-grandfather of Robert the Bruce who defeated John Comyn, 3rd Earl of Buchan nearby at the Battle of Barra in May, 1308; the religious foundation pre-dates this by five centuries with the establishment of the Kirk of Inverurie now known as St Andrew's Parish Church However, the town's earliest known charter dates from 1558, with its modern development taking place after the building of the Aberdeenshire Canal linking Port Elphinstone with Aberdeen Harbour in 1806.
The Inverurie Locomotive Works led to a modest increase in size and prosperity, but it was not until the "Oil Boom" of the last quarter of the 20th century that the town developed into much of its present form. On a nearby hillside the Easter Aquhorthies recumbent stone circle dates back to the 3rd millennium BC. On the outskirts of the town the Brandsbutt Stone is a class I Pictish symbol stone with an ogham inscription. There have been three well known battles in the town: The Battle of Inverurie, the Battle of Harlaw between Donald of Islay, Lord of the Isles and an army commanded by Alexander Stewart, Earl of Mar; the House of Aquahorthies is at Burnhervie on the edge of Inverurie, built around 1797. The house served as a Catholic seminary until 1829 and since has been a private family home. During the Second World War, German planes would have been seen several times, due to the bombing of the nearby city of Aberdeen. Inverurie itself was bombed once. Bagnères-de-Bigorre since 2016. Inverurie is a market town, now with a monthly Farmer's Market, with many small shops and services.
Its main industries other than service and commerce are agriculture, oil and, until International Paper closed the mill in March 2009, paper manufacture. Coombes, a small sweet shop, was famed as being the oldest family-owned business in Scotland until the death of Colin Coombes in 1957 whereupon the business closed; the Great North of Scotland Railway constructed its locomotive construction and repair works on a 15-acre site at Inverurie. Agriculture continues to be a mainstay of Inverurie's economy, as it has done since the town's inception. Thainstone Mart, to the south east of the town, is the biggest livestock market in Scotland, rents out commercial units to various agricultural support services, oil industry storage yards and vehicle hire companies. Lying beside Thainstone Mart, the paper mill was a big employer until the mill was closed in 2009, is now the site of an industrial site and storage yards for oilfield equipment. Following the discovery of North Sea oil in the mid-1970s, several oil service companies appeared in Inverurie.
Many residents who work in this sector do so on offshore oil installations in the North Sea on a "two week on- two week off" or "four week on" or "six week on" basis in addition to those who work in the town itself. In recent years, Inverurie has seen increasing numbers of Aberdeen commuters going to live there making it "the fastest growing town in Great Britain", increasing congestion on the A96 trunk road to Aberdeen. A 98,000 sq ft retail park opened in June 2009 with stores including Homebase, Lidl, Iceland, Home Bargains and Currys trading; the site is located near the town centre, is close to the railway station and has 378 car parking spaces. The town is served by Inverurie Hospital; some Inverurie natives speak the Aberdeenshire Doric dialect of Scots, as well as Scottish English. Inverurie has been made the home to some refugee families from Syria. Other notable ethnicities include Polish and a small American base. Pictish is the ancient language of the area, which can be found in many placenames.
It appears to have been
Statistical Accounts of Scotland
The Statistical Accounts of Scotland are a series of documentary publications, related in subject matter though published at different times, covering life in Scotland in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. The Old Statistical Account of Scotland was published between 1791 and 1799 by Sir John Sinclair of Ulbster; the New Statistical Account of Scotland published under the auspices of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland between 1834 and 1845. These first two Statistical Accounts of Scotland are among the finest European contemporary records of life during the agricultural and industrial revolutions. A Third Statistical Account of Scotland was published between 1951 and 1992. Attempts at getting an accurate picture of the geography and economy of Scotland had been attempted in the 1620s and 1630s, using the network of about 900 ministers of the established Church of Scotland; the time and resources involved, not to mention the troubled times of the Civil Wars, led to limited results.
However, the Geographer Royal for Scotland, Sir Robert Sibbald took this forward between 1684 and the early 1690s. Sir Robert circulated some "General Queries" to parish ministers, but again this was the unsettled time of the Glorious Revolution and, though progress was made, the results provided a incomplete picture of the nation; the General Assembly proposed a "Geographical Description of Scotland" and took some action on this between 1720 and 1744, again during troubled times for the country, latterly involving the Jacobite rebellion under Bonnie Prince Charlie. Nonetheless, during 1743, the Moderator of the General Assembly, the Rev Robert Wallace organised the distribution of questionnaires, aimed at finding out how to devise a scheme for the support of the widows and orphans of clergy; this work helped to develop actuarial methods, explains the involvement of a society for ministers’ widows and orphans in work. The Rev Alexander Webster produced a population census of Scotland in 1755, based to some extent on Wallace's work.
In 1767, Sir James Denham-Steuart suggested a national survey in his "Enquiry into the principles of Œconomy" and this was taken up in 1781 by David Erskine, Earl of Buchan. However, by the time this came to fruition in 1792, it had been overtaken by the work of Sir John Sinclair of Ulbster. Sir John Sinclair of Ulbster had studied German state surveys and wished to use what he called for the first time these "statistical" methods to measure the quantum of happiness that existed in the nation and find ways of improving this. In this he was a remarkable example of Enlightenment idealism at work, he stressed the empirical ideal of that age by lauding its anxious attention to the facts and he set about completing the work left unachieved by the previous attempt mentioned above. The results are crucial to an understanding of Scotland on the eve of both the Industrial Revolution and the French Revolution. In 1790, Sir John sent structured questionnaires to over 900 parish ministers, covering the whole country.
This contained 160 questions in 4 sections, namely Geography and topography Population Agricultural and Industrial production Miscellaneous questionsThere were follow up questions in Appendices – six new questions in 1790 and four more in 1791. The general response was excellent, though the length and quality of submissions varied as can be seen by comparing those for two East Lothian parishes: Whittingehame and Stenton. Since the survey was not complete, Sir John sent out Statistical Missionaries in 1796; the project was finished by June 1799, though much had been published, Sir John was able to lay before the General Assembly a detailed portrait of the nation. Taken as a whole, the reports are of inestimable historical value; some are excellently written by ministers. The finished volumes were published in Edinburgh by William Creech; as mentioned above, early attempts at producing an accurate statistical account of Scotland were related to schemes to support the widows and orphans of the clergy.
In 1832 the Committee for the Society for the Sons and Daughters of the Clergy, with the blessing of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, took Sir John's work further. It was to be more modern and was to draw upon the specialist knowledge of local doctors and schoolmasters, it self-consciously set out not to produce a new statistical account, but a statistical account of a new country – one that the revolutions mentioned above had changed rapidly. It was, however much the child of the "Old Statistical Account". Indeed, the Rev Dr John Robertson, the Minister responsible for of the new account for Cambuslang, was the former assistant to the writer of the old account. Following a grant of some £8,000 from the Nuffield Foundation in 1947, the Third Statistical Account was initiated, followed a similar parish format to the earlier accounts; the first volume, covering Ayrshire, was published in 1951. It was more rigorous and wide-ranging than either of its predecessors, covering industry, transport and demographics.
Volume editors ensured a more generic approach than before, but so the spirit of the originals was retained if idiosyncrasies remained. The scale of the project, ongoing difficulties with funding and finding publishers meant that the project took over forty years to complete, with a gap of more than a decade following the publication of Edinburgh in 1966, it was not until 1992 that the last volume, The County of Roxburgh, was published, under the auspices o