Kőbánya is the 10th district of Budapest and one of the largest by territory. It is located in southeast Pest accessible from the downtown by Metro 3, whose terminus is named Kőbánya-Kispest, it has strong organized labour traditions. Today, the district is rebuilding itself into a living area for the middle class. Due to its large size, there are several diverse areas within Kőbánya, each with different architecture; the Kőbánya area was used to mine limestone for buildings in Buda and north-west Hungary. The extensive and un-plotted tunnel network, created during the past five centuries is a major source of problems today, causing buildings to sink and roadbeds collapse. There were clay-mining pits for the brick industry. Most of these holes have been filled with urban garbage during the 20th century covered with soil and built upon, which causes problems today; as an exception, one of the holes became a fishing lake due to collapse. A third of the economy in Kőbánya was in wine-making, until the vineyards were destroyed by the Phylloxera disease at the end of the 19th century.
A building which exemplifies the historical heritage of Kőbánya is the "Csősztorony" in the middle of the Óhegy area. The district recovered when beer-making enterprises moved into the area and the light beer "Kőbányai Világos" became a kind of national drink during the socialist regime; the historical Rákosmező area, whose exact location is no longer known, used to be the only legal tent site for feudal parliamentary sessions throughout the medieval ages. It is only known; the barren new Rákosmező area used to be the proving ground for Hungarian aviation pioneers around 1909-1912. Louis Bleriot flew there once during an air race. Kőbánya lies on plain. Óhegy and Újhegy are two higher-standing areas at the height of Gellért Hill on the other side of the Danube river. Óhegy is 148 m high. Kőbánya is a largery working to middle class ethnically Hungarian neighborhood. There is a significant Roma presence in the district scattered evenly over the entire district; as of recent, a number of small but visible immigrant communities are springing up, notably the Chinese.
Presently Kőbánya is home to pharmaceutical companies, a sizeable beer brewer. Manufacturing and the chemical industry collapsed. Tax evasion still occurs in the district, which hurts the district and the country; the centre of Kőbánya has a beautiful Catholic church built 1891–97 in eclectic-Art Nouveau style, dedicated to knight-king St. Ladislaus, it was designed by Ödön Lechner and a statue of the architect with a model of the church has been erected outside. The church has a tall bell-tower and the church's roof is covered in patented colorful Zsolnay "eozenic" porcelain tiles which were designed by Ignatz Oppenheimer. Next to it lies the "Pataky" culture centre and library, Szent László Gimnázium, the secondary school dedicated to King Ladislaus, it specializes in biology and languages. Many elementary schools in Kőbánya have been closed in recent years due to dwindling birthrate. On the opposite side of the church the "Mázsa tér" square is set to become a small high-rise are with six 60-meter tall apartment towers.
The Budapest general assembly or the Ferihegy airport authorities are considering blocking this ambitious plan. Újhegy have been covered with a vast housing estate of 10-story concrete houses during the 1970s and 1980s. A large area of Kőbánya land near Újhegy is occupied by a prison and the New Public Cemetery. Other large open spaces, namely the horse-racing circuit and the Expo area will be relocated outside the district to allow for housing projects. In the north-east corner of the 10th district is a large fashionable shopping mall called Árkád on the Örs vezér tere traffic junction. In the south-east corner is a public sporting park with indoor swimming pool and a small but deep fishing lake. In the north-west corner is a large public park called Népliget, in poor shape since 1990, due to social outcasts drawn there by the intercity bus junction. A large Planetarium is located in the park; the south-west corner of Kőbánya hosts the terminal station of the M3 underground line and a large mass transit junction.
This area is inhabited by many homeless people. Kőbánya has had a socialist party-dominated municipal assembly since 1990. Before 2002 the mayor was a member of the Christian Republic party. At that time a socialist bureaucrat became mayor; the inefficient and in-fighting Kőbánya council has become a symbol of corruption and feud, both too common to Hungarian politics. Kőbánya has been drawn into a financial and political scandal, domestically known as the "broker scandal" and lost huge investments, pushing the district into great debts. After much political manipulation, some of this sum was recovered, when the affected bank decided to pay to keep the nastier issues under wrap. Törekvés SE Kőbánya is twinned with: Vinkovci, Croatia Wolverhampton, England Litochoro, Greece Štúrovo, Slovakia Jarosław, Poland Bălan, Romania Letovice, Czech Republic Kőbánya cellar system List of districts in Budapest Aerial photographs of Kőbánya Picture Gallery of Kőbánya
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, the tenth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits. The city had an estimated population of 1,752,704 in 2016 distributed over a land area of about 525 square kilometres. Budapest is both a city and county, forms the centre of the Budapest metropolitan area, which has an area of 7,626 square kilometres and a population of 3,303,786, comprising 33 percent of the population of Hungary; the history of Budapest began when an early Celtic settlement transformed into the Roman town of Aquincum, the capital of Lower Pannonia. The Hungarians arrived in the territory in the late 9th century; the area was pillaged by the Mongols in 1241. Buda, the settlements on the west bank of the river, became one of the centres of Renaissance humanist culture by the 15th century; the Battle of Mohács in 1526 was followed by nearly 150 years of Ottoman rule. After the reconquest of Buda in 1686, the region entered a new age of prosperity.
Pest-Buda became a global city with the unification of Buda, Óbuda, Pest on 17 November 1873, with the name'Budapest' given to the new capital. Budapest became the co-capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a great power that dissolved in 1918, following World War I; the city was the focal point of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the Battle of Budapest in 1945, the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. Budapest is an Alpha − global city with strengths in commerce, media, fashion, technology and entertainment, it is Hungary's financial centre and the highest ranked Central and Eastern European city on Innovation Cities Top 100 index, as well ranked as the second fastest-developing urban economy in Europe. Budapest is the headquarters of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology, the European Police College and the first foreign office of the China Investment Promotion Agency. Over 40 colleges and universities are located in Budapest, including the Eötvös Loránd University, the Semmelweis University and the Budapest University of Technology and Economics.
Opened in 1896, the city's subway system, the Budapest Metro, serves 1.27 million, while the Budapest Tram Network serves 1.08 million passengers daily. Budapest is cited as one of the most beautiful cities in Europe, ranked as "the world's second best city" by Condé Nast Traveler, "Europe's 7th most idyllic place to live" by Forbes. Among Budapest's important museums and cultural institutions is the Museum of Fine Arts. Further famous cultural institutions are the Hungarian National Museum, House of Terror, Franz Liszt Academy of Music, Hungarian State Opera House and National Széchényi Library; the central area of the city along the Danube River is classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and has many notable monuments, including the Hungarian Parliament, Buda Castle, Fisherman's Bastion, Gresham Palace, Széchenyi Chain Bridge, Matthias Church and the Liberty Statue. Other famous landmarks include Andrássy Avenue, St. Stephen's Basilica, Heroes' Square, the Great Market Hall, the Nyugati Railway Station built by the Eiffel Company of Paris in 1877 and the second-oldest metro line in the world, the Millennium Underground Railway.
The city has around 80 geothermal springs, the largest thermal water cave system, second largest synagogue, third largest Parliament building in the world. Budapest attracts 4.4 million international tourists per year, making it a popular destination in Europe. The separate towns of Buda, Óbuda, Pest were in 1873 unified and given the new name Budapest. Before this, the towns together had sometimes been referred to colloquially as "Pest-Buda". Pest has been sometimes used colloquially as a shortened name for Budapest. All varieties of English pronounce the -s- as in the English word pest; the -u in Buda- is pronounced either /u/ like food or /ju/ like cue. In Hungarian, the -s- is pronounced /ʃ/ as in wash; the origins of the names "Buda" and "Pest" are obscure. The first name comes from: Buda was the name of the first constable of the fortress built on the Castle Hill in the 11th century or a derivative of Bod or Bud, a personal name of Turkic origin, meaning'twig'. or a Slavic personal name, the short form of Budimír, Budivoj.
Linguistically, however, a German origin through the Slavic derivative вода is not possible, there is no certainty that a Turkic word comes from the word buta ~ buda'branch, twig'. According to a legend recorded in chronicles from the Middle Ages, "Buda" comes from the name of its founder, brother of Hunnic ruler Attila. There are several theories about Pest. One states that the name derives from Roman times, since there was a local fortress called by Ptolemaios "Pession". Another has it that Pest originates in the Slavic word for пещера, or peštera. A third cites pešt, referencing a cave where fires burned or a limekiln; the first settlement on the territory of Budapest was built by Celts before 1 AD. It was occupied by the Romans; the Roman settlement – Aquincum – became the main city of Pannonia Inferior in 106 AD. At first it was a military settlement, the city rose around it, making it the focal point of the city's commercial life. Today this area corresponds to the Óbuda district within Budapest.
The Romans constructed roads, amphitheaters and houses with heated floors in this fortified military camp. The Roman city of Aquincum is the best-conserved of the Roman sites in Hungary; the archaeological site was turned into a museum with open-air sections. The Magyar tribes led by Árpád, forc
Hildegard "Hilde" Schrader was a German swimmer who won the 200 m breaststroke event at the 1928 Summer Olympics and 1927 European Championships. She set two world records in obsolete breaststroke events, one in the 400 m and one in the 200 yd. In 1994 she was inducted to the International Swimming Hall of Fame
Swimming at the 1996 Summer Olympics
The swimming competition at the 1996 Summer Olympics was held at the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center in Atlanta, United States. There were 762 competitors from 117 countries; this was the last Olympics. At the time of the games, the facility had a temporary 50m warm-up pool located behind the locker rooms and entry concourse; the open walls allowed for temporary seating to be in place during the games. A wall and new roof have since been placed on the facility. * Swimmers who participated in the heats only and received medals. * Swimmers who participated in the heats only and received medals. 762 swimmers from 117 nations competed. Swim rankings results
Swimming is an individual or team sport that requires the use of one's entire body to move through water. The sport takes place in open water. Competitive swimming is one of the most popular Olympic sports, with varied distance events in butterfly, breaststroke and individual medley. In addition to these individual events, four swimmers can take part in either a freestyle or medley relay. A medley relay consists of four swimmers; the order for a medley relay is: backstroke, breaststroke and freestyle. Swimming each stroke requires a set of specific techniques. There are regulations on what types of swimsuits, caps and injury tape that are allowed at competitions. Although it is possible for competitive swimmers to incur several injuries from the sport, such as tendinitis in the shoulders or knees, there are multiple health benefits associated with the sport. Evidence of recreational swimming in prehistoric times has been found, with the earliest evidence dating to Stone Age paintings from around 10,000 years ago.
Written references date from 2000 BC, with some of the earliest references to swimming including the Iliad, the Odyssey, the Bible, the Quran and others. In 1538, Nikolaus Wynmann, a Swiss professor of languages, wrote the first book about swimming, The Swimmer or A Dialogue on the Art of Swimming. Swimming emerged as a competitive recreational activity in the 1830s in England. In 1828, the first indoor swimming pool, St George's Baths was opened to the public. By 1837, the National Swimming Society was holding regular swimming competitions in six artificial swimming pools, built around London; the recreational activity grew in popularity and by 1880, when the first national governing body, the Amateur Swimming Association was formed, there were over 300 regional clubs in operation across the country. In 1844 two Native American participants at a swimming competition in London introduced the front crawl to a European audience. Sir John Arthur Trudgen picked up the hand-over stroke from some South American natives and debuted the new stroke in 1873, winning a local competition in England.
His stroke is still regarded as the most powerful to use today. Captain Matthew Webb was the first man to swim the English Channel, in 1875. Using the breaststroke technique, he swam the channel 21.26 miles in 45 minutes. His feat was not replicated or surpassed for the next 36 years, until T. W. Burgess made the crossing in 1911. Other European countries established swimming federations; the first European amateur swimming competitions were in 1889 in Vienna. The world's first women's swimming championship was held in Scotland in 1892. Men's swimming became part of the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens. In 1902, the Australian Richmond Cavill introduced freestyle to the Western world. In 1908, the world swimming association, Fédération Internationale de Natation, was formed. Women's swimming was introduced into the Olympics in 1912. Butterfly was developed in the 1930s and was at first a variant of breaststroke, until it was accepted as a separate style in 1952. Competitive swimming became popular in the 19th century.
The goal of high level competitive swimming is to break personal or world records while beating competitors in any given event. Swimming in competition should create the least resistance in order to obtain maximum speed. However, some professional swimmers who do not hold a national or world ranking are considered the best in regard to their technical skills. An athlete goes through a cycle of training in which the body is overloaded with work in the beginning and middle segments of the cycle, the workload is decreased in the final stage as the swimmer approaches competition; the practice of reducing exercise in the days just before an important competition is called tapering. Tapering is used to give the swimmer's body some rest without stopping exercise completely. A final stage is referred to as "shave and taper": the swimmer shaves off all exposed hair for the sake of reducing drag and having a sleeker and more hydrodynamic feel in the water. Additionally, the "shave and taper" method refers to the removal of the top layer of "dead skin", which exposes the newer and richer skin underneath.
This helps to "shave" off mere milliseconds on your time. Swimming is an event at the Summer Olympic Games, where male and female athletes compete in 16 of the recognized events each. Olympic events are held in a 50-meter pool, called a long course pool. There are forty recognized individual swimming events in the pool; the international governing body for competitive swimming is the Fédération Internationale de Natation, better known as FINA. In open water swimming, where the events are swum in a body of open water, there are 5 km, 10 km and 25 km events for men and women. However, only the 10 km event is included in the Olympic schedule, again for both women. Open-water competitions are separate to other swimming competitions with the exception of the World Championships and the Olympics. In competitive swimming, four major styles have been established; these have been stable over the last 30–40 years with minor improvements. They are: Butterfly Backstroke
Semmelweis University is a research-led medical school in Budapest, Hungary founded in 1769. Its 250 years of tradition and unique focus on health care make it one of the leading universities of medicine and health sciences in Hungary and the Central European region. With its six faculties and doctoral school it covers all aspects of medical and health sciences ranging from pathology through genetics, pharmacy, dietetics, nursing, health policy and management to conductor training. In addition to teaching, Semmelweis University is the largest provider of health care services in Hungary. Most of the departments cater for the most serious cases and patients requiring complex treatment, thus making the university a national health care provider. Research and innovation comprise an important part of the University’s three-fold mission; the target of research at the university are early diagnostics and therapy, disease prevention and active ageing. There are 300 research groups at the university including 31 international and 94 Hungarian research grants.
The roots of Semmelweis University reach back to the 18th century, when Empress Maria Theresa added a medical faculty to the only Hungarian university at the time, the University of Nagyszombat. As the first step the Empress, in a charter dated 17 July 1769, raised the university to the status of a “royal institute” and supplied it with grants to finance the Medical Faculty, to be established shortly thereafter; the actual formation of the new Faculty began following the Empress’s decree of 7 November 1769. The organising work was vested on her Dutch court physician, Gerard van Swieten, who had organised the Empire’s health care system and modernised the University of Vienna as well; the Medical Faculty opened with only five departments. It was given a building of its own in 1772, but soon the whole university left the small town of Nagyszombat behind, moving to the centre of the country: Buda. Although the university had been functioning continuously since its establishment, the ceremonial opening and re-foundation of the university, held in the Buda Castle, only took place in June of 1780, three years after the move.
When the city of Buda did not prove to be a suitable location for the university either, it moved on to Pest in 1784 and settled down in a former Jesuits’ monastery. Meanwhile, the number of departments and students at the Faculty increased, with the latter exceeding the impressive one thousand mark by the early 1830s. In addition to training physicians, the Faculty trained surgeon masters, civil surgeons, pharmacist masters and midwives; the language of instruction at the Medical Faculty was Latin well into the 19th century, although the university’s other faculties taught their courses in either German or Hungarian. The declaration of Hungarian as the official state language as part of the nationalist reforms of the 1840s found medical education wholly unprepared, as a sophisticated set of technical medical terminologies did not yet exist in Hungarian. Indeed, the professors of the Medical Faculty ended up contributing to the eventual creation of a modern medical vocabulary; the War of Independence affected the Faculty’s academic staff, some of whom emigrated, while others were imprisoned.
The long-term development plans, conceived in 1848 had to be taken off the agenda for a long time. Nonetheless, some modernisation did take place during this reactionary period. Although practitioners were still being trained in nine departments, the surgical master’s programme, filled to capacity and was discontinued. In 1872, the surgical guilds were dissolved; as a result of the Compromise of 1867, Hungarian became the country’s official language once again, as well as the only language of instruction at what was known by this time as the University of Budapest. As a direct consequence, foreign-speaking students that had arrived in large numbers now disappeared from the university, thus temporarily stripping the Medical Faculty of its multicultural character. At the same time, the training of doctors and pharmacists in Hungary was met with an new set of challenges; the civic and economic prosperity and the associated public health problems caused by rapid urbanization on the one hand, the fast-paced development of the medical field on the other, exerted a bilateral pressure on the Medical Faculty.
All these issues were answered through the development plans for the construction of a health institution network, the improvement of higher education to serve this network. In 1872, the surgical master and doctor of medicine programmes were merged, a unified medical training system was introduced. Following this development, in 1873, the construction of brand new sites for the Budapest Medical Faculty could commence; the construction work lasted until 1911, the end result was a scientific establishment, on par with contemporary standards in all respects. From the 1880s onward, the number of students enrolled in the Medical Faculty was over 1000, women have been allowed to be admitted to the medical and pharmacy courses since 1895. During World War I, many of the Faculty’s students and teachers joined the Austro-Hungarian army; the number of serviceable hospital beds was hastily increased to 2000, half of which were reserved for the wounded. The shift to a war economy brought significant financial constraints to the university as well but the majority of the construction work had been undert
Inge de Bruijn
Inge de Bruijn is a Dutch former competitive swimmer. She is a former world record-holder. De Bruijn was born in Netherlands. Inge is the sister of Olympic water polo player Matthijs de Bruijn. De Bruijn tried several sports before specializing in swimming. De Bruijn debuted at the World Aquatics Championships in January 1991, winning a bronze medal with the 4×100 m relay team, with which she won the gold medal at the European LC Championships in August of that year; the following year, de Bruijn made her Olympic debut at the 1992 Summer Olympics, finished 8th in the 100 m and 4×100 m freestyle events. She did not compete at the 1996 Summer Olympics. In 1999, she won the 50 m freestyle at the European Championships; the following year, after having swum several 50 m freestyle world records, she competed in the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia. She won the 50 and 100 m freestyle, the 100 m butterfly, setting world records in all three events, she won a silver medal with the 4×100 m freestyle relay team.
Her nickname became "Invincible Inky". She was named by Swimming World as the "Female World Swimmer of the Year" in both 2000 and 2001, she won titles in three events at the 2001 World Championships. At the 2003 World Championships, de Bruijn defended her 50 m freestyle and butterfly titles. At the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens she defended her gold medal in the 50 m free, took silver in the 100 m free, two bronze: one in the 100 m butterfly and another in the 4×100 m relay; this made her the oldest individual champion in Olympic swimming history. This record was only surpassed by Anthony Ervin at the age of 36, he won the gold medal for the men's 50m freestyle at the Rio 2016 Olympics. De Bruijn's 2004 title retains its place as the oldest female Olympic champion in swimming history. With an Olympic medal total of four gold, two silver and two bronze, she is the tied second most successful Dutch Olympian of all time. Moreover, her combined nine individual titles won at the Olympics and World Aquatics Championships were a record for female swimmers until Katie Ledecky won her 10th at the 2016 Summer Olympics.
In March 2007, de Bruijn announced her retirement from competitive swimming. A de Bruijn swam only in the heats De Bruijn resides in Eindhoven and trained in Portland, Oregon, she was the face for Dutch lingerie brand Sapph, along with kickboxer Remy Bonjasky, the face for the men's line of the brand. She appeared in a special episode of the Dutch naked dating reality television programme Adam Zkt. Eva VIP. List of Dutch records in swimming List of multiple Olympic gold medalists at a single Games List of multiple Olympic gold medalists List of top Olympic gold medalists in swimming List of individual gold medalists in swimming at the Olympics and World Aquatics Championships World record progression 50 metres freestyle World record progression 100 metres freestyle