Major League Baseball All-Star Game
The Major League Baseball All-Star Game known as the "Midsummer Classic", is an annual professional baseball game sanctioned by Major League Baseball contested between the All-Stars from the American League and National League selected by fans for starting fielders, by managers for pitchers, by managers and players for reserves. The game occurs on either the second or third Tuesday in July, is meant to mark a symbolic halfway-point in the MLB season. Both of the major leagues share an All-Star break, with no regular-season games scheduled on the day before or two days after the All-Star Game itself; some additional events and festivities associated with the game take place each year close to and during this break in the regular season. No official MLB All-Star Game was held in 1945 including the official selection of players due to World War II travel restrictions. Two All-Star Games were held each season from 1959 to 1962; the most recent All-Star Game was held on July 17, 2018, at Nationals Park, home of the National League's Washington Nationals.
The 2019 and 2020 All-Star Games are scheduled to be held in Cleveland and Los Angeles, respectively. A Major League Baseball All-Star is a professional baseball player, named to either the American League or National League All-Star Team. Major league All-Star namings began in July 1933. Fans have participated in the selection of the players who fill the AL and NL All-Star rosters. Between 1935 and 1946, each All-Star team's manager selected their entire teams. From 1959 through 1962, All-Stars played in two All-Star Games each season. On January 29, 1936, Babe Ruth became the first of the original thirty-six All-Stars to be inducted in the National Baseball Hall of Fame. Hank Aaron holds the record for the most All-Star Game appearances. In 2017, each All-Star team had 32 players, with fans voting for the starting players, the players selecting the reserve players for each position and five starting pitchers and three relief pitchers; the final All-Star player vote still exists, but the MLB commissioner's office will now fill out the remaining roster spots instead of the managers.
The 90th Installment will be played in Progressive Field, home of the AL central's Cleveland Indians. The first All-Star Game was held on July 6, 1933, as part of the 1933 World's Fair in Chicago, at Comiskey Park and was initiated by Arch Ward sports editor for the Chicago Tribune. Intended to be a one-time event, its great success resulted in making the game an annual one; the venue for the All-Star Game is chosen by Major League Baseball. The criteria for the venue are subjective. Over time, this has resulted in certain cities being selected more at the expense of others due to timely circumstances: Cleveland Stadium and the original Yankee Stadium are tied for the most times a venue has hosted the All-Star game, both hosting four games. New York City has hosted more than any other city, having done so nine times in five different stadiums. At the same time, the New York Mets failed to host for 48 seasons, while the Los Angeles Dodgers have not hosted since 1980 and will do so in 2020. Among current major league teams, the Tampa Bay Rays have yet to host the All-Star game.
In the first two decades of the game there were two pairs of teams that shared ballparks, located in Philadelphia and St. Louis; this led to some shorter-than-usual gaps between the use of those venues: The Cardinals hosted the game in 1940, the Browns in 1948. The Athletics hosted the game in 1943, the Phillies in 1952; the venues traditionally alternate between the American National League every year. This tradition has been broken several times: The first time was in 1951, when the AL Detroit Tigers were chosen to host the annual game as part of the city's 250th birthday; the second was when the two-game format during the 1959–1962 seasons resulted in the AL being one game ahead in turn. This was corrected in 2007, when the NL San Francisco Giants were the host for the 2007 All-Star Game, which set up the 2008 game to be held at the AL's original Yankee Stadium in its final season, it was broken when again the NL hosted the four straight games from 2015-2018. The AL will host its next game in 2019 in Cleveland.
The "home team" has traditionally been the league in which the host franchise plays its games, but the American League was designated the home team for the 2016 All Star Game, despite its being played in Petco Park, home of the National League's San Diego Padres. This decision was made following the announcement of Miami as host for the 2017 All Star Game, the third straight year in which the game is hosted in a National League ballpark. Since 1934, the managers of the game are the managers of the previous year's league pennant winners and World Series clubs; the coaching staff for each team is selected by its manager. This honor is given to the manager, not the team, so it is possible that the All-Star manager could no longer be
Cuba the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet, it is east of the Yucatán Peninsula, south of both the U. S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti and north of both Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Havana is capital; the area of the Republic of Cuba is 110,860 square kilometres. The island of Cuba is the largest island in Cuba and in the Caribbean, with an area of 105,006 square kilometres, the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants; the territory, now Cuba was inhabited by the Ciboney Taíno people from the 4th millennium BC until Spanish colonisation in the 15th century. From the 15th century, it was a colony of Spain until the Spanish–American War of 1898, when Cuba was occupied by the United States and gained nominal independence as a de facto United States protectorate in 1902.
As a fragile republic, in 1940 Cuba attempted to strengthen its democratic system, but mounting political radicalization and social strife culminated in a coup and subsequent dictatorship under Fulgencio Batista in 1952. Open corruption and oppression under Batista's rule led to his ousting in January 1959 by the 26th of July Movement, which afterwards established communist rule under the leadership of Fidel Castro. Since 1965, the state has been governed by the Communist Party of Cuba; the country was a point of contention during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, a nuclear war nearly broke out during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Cuba is one of few Marxist–Leninist socialist states, where the role of the vanguard Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution. Independent observers have accused the Cuban government of numerous human rights abuses, including arbitrary imprisonment. Culturally, Cuba is considered part of Latin America, it is a multiethnic country whose people and customs derive from diverse origins, including the aboriginal Taíno and Ciboney peoples, the long period of Spanish colonialism, the introduction of African slaves and a close relationship with the Soviet Union in the Cold War.
Cuba is a sovereign state and a founding member of the United Nations, the G77, the Non-Aligned Movement, the African and Pacific Group of States, ALBA and Organization of American States. The country is a middle power in world affairs, it has one of the world's only planned economies, its economy is dominated by the exports of sugar, tobacco and skilled labor. According to the Human Development Index, Cuba has high human development and is ranked the eighth highest in North America, though 67th in the world, it ranks in some metrics of national performance, including health care and education. It is the only country in the world to meet the conditions of sustainable development put forth by the WWF. Historians believe the name Cuba comes from the Taíno language, however "its exact derivation unknown"; the exact meaning of the name is unclear but it may be translated either as'where fertile land is abundant', or'great place'. Fringe theory writers who believe that Christopher Columbus was Portuguese state that Cuba was named by Columbus for the town of Cuba in the district of Beja in Portugal.
Before the arrival of the Spanish, Cuba was inhabited by three distinct tribes of indigenous peoples of the Americas. The Taíno, the Guanahatabey and the Ciboney people; the ancestors of the Ciboney migrated from the mainland of South America, with the earliest sites dated to 5,000 BP. The Taíno arrived from Hispanola sometime in the 3rd century A. D; when Columbus arrived they were the dominant culture in Cuba, having an estimated population of 150,000. The Taíno were farmers, while the Ciboney were farmers as well as hunter-gatherers. After first landing on an island called Guanahani, Bahamas, on 12 October 1492, Christopher Columbus commanded his three ships: La Pinta, La Niña and the Santa María, to land on Cuba's northeastern coast on 28 October 1492. Columbus claimed the island for the new Kingdom of Spain and named it Isla Juana after Juan, Prince of Asturias. In 1511, the first Spanish settlement was founded by Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar at Baracoa. Other towns soon followed, including San Cristobal de la Habana, founded in 1515, which became the capital.
The native Taíno were forced to work under the encomienda system, which resembled a feudal system in Medieval Europe. Within a century the indigenous people were wiped out due to multiple factors Eurasian infectious diseases, to which they had no natural resistance, aggravated by harsh conditions of the repressive colonial subjugation. In 1529, a measles outbreak in Cuba killed two-thirds of those few natives who had survived smallpox. On 18 May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto departed from Havana at the head of some 600 followers into a vast expedition through the Southeastern United States, starting at La Florida, in search of gold, treasure and power. On 1 September 1548, Dr. Gonzalo Perez de Angulo was appointed governor of Cuba, he arrived in Santiago, Cuba on 4 November 1549 and declared the liberty of all natives. He became Cuba's first permanent governor to reside in Havana instead of Santiago, he built Havana's first church made of maso
2005 World Series
The 2005 World Series was the championship series of Major League Baseball's 2005 season. The 101st edition of the World Series, it was a best-of-seven playoff between the American League champion Chicago White Sox and the National League champion Houston Astros. Although the series was a sweep, all four games were quite close, being decided by two runs or fewer; the series was played between October 22–26, 2005. Home-field advantage was awarded to Chicago by virtue of the AL's 7–5 victory over the NL in the 2005 MLB All-Star Game; the Astros were attempting to become the fourth consecutive wild card team to win the Series, following the Anaheim Angels, Florida Marlins and Boston Red Sox. Both teams were attempting to overcome decades of disappointment, with a combined 132 years between the two teams without a title; the Astros were making their first Series appearance in 44 years of play, while the White Sox had waited twice as long for a title, having last won the Series in 1917, had not been in the Series since 1959, three years before the Astros' inaugural season.
Like the 1982 World Series between the St. Louis Cardinals and the Milwaukee Brewers, the 2005 World Series is one of only two World Series in the modern era with no possibility for a rematch between the two opponents, because the Astros moved to the AL in 2013. However, the Brewers did meet the Cardinals in the 2011 NL Championship Series; the Astros would return to the World Series in 2017 as an AL franchise, where they would win in seven games against the Los Angeles Dodgers. The Chicago White Sox finished the regular season with the best record in the American League at 99–63. After starting the season on a tear, the White Sox began to fade in August, when a 15 1⁄2 game lead fell all the way to 1 1⁄2. However, the Sox were able to hold off the Cleveland Indians to win the American League Central Division by six games, sweeping Cleveland in three games on the season's final weekend. In the Division Series, the White Sox swept the defending champion Boston Red Sox; the League Championship Series began with the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim winning Game 1, but a controversial uncaught third strike in Game 2 helped the Sox start a run and win Games 2–5, all on complete games pitched by starters Mark Buehrle, Jon Garland, Freddy García, José Contreras, clinching their first American League pennant in 46 years.
Manager Ozzie Guillén led the White Sox to a World Series victory, their first in 88 years. Slugger Frank Thomas was not on the post-season roster because he was injured, but the team honored his perennial contributions to the franchise during Game 1 of the Division Series against the Boston Red Sox when he was chosen to throw out the ceremonial first pitch. "What a feeling," Thomas said. "Standing O all around the place. People cheering me. I had tears in my eyes. To know the fans cared that much about me – it was a great feeling. One of my proudest moments in the game." The Houston Astros won the Wild Card for the second straight year, once again clinching it on the final day of the season. The Astros embarked on a memorable Division Series rematch against the Atlanta Braves. With the Astros in the lead two games to one, the teams played an eighteen-inning marathon in Game 4, the longest postseason game in history. In this game, Roger Clemens made only the second relief appearance of his career, the first in postseason play.
Chris Burke's walk-off home run ended the game in the bottom of the eighteenth. For the second straight year, the Astros played the St. Louis Cardinals in the League Championship Series. Like the White Sox, the Astros dropped Game 1, but were able to regroup and win Games 2–4. With the Astros on the verge of clinching their first National League pennant in Game 5, Albert Pujols hit a mammoth three-run home run off Brad Lidge in the top of the ninth inning to take the lead, subsequently stave off elimination. However, behind NLCS MVP Roy Oswalt, the Astros were able to defeat the Cards 5–1 in Game 6 and earned a trip to the World Series; this was the Astros' first World Series appearance in franchise history. Playing in their first World Series home game since 1959, the White Sox took an early lead with a home run from Jermaine Dye in the first inning. After Mike Lamb's home run tied the game in the second, the Sox scored two more in the second when Juan Uribe doubled in A. J. Pierzynski after Carl Everett had scored on a groundout earlier in the inning.
The Astros responded in the next inning when Lance Berkman hit a double, driving in Adam Everett and Craig Biggio. In the White Sox half of the fourth, Joe Crede hit. In the bottom of the eighth, Scott Podsednik hit a triple with Pierzynski on second off of Russ Springer for an insurance run. Roger Clemens recorded his shortest World Series start, leaving after the second inning with 53 pitches, including 35 for strikes, due to a sore hamstring that he had injured as the loss went to Wandy Rodríguez. José Contreras pitched seven innings. Before exiting, Contreras allowed a leadoff double by Willie Taveras with no outs. Neal Cotts entered the game in the top of the eighth inning, it marked the first time in five games. Cotts pitched 2⁄3 innings before Bobby Jenks was called upon by manager Ozzie Guillén to relieve him. Guillen signaled for the large pitcher by holding his arms out wide and up high. In the postgame conference, the Sox manager joked that he wa
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play with 15 teams in each league; the NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000; the organization oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises 256 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseball's first all-professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869; the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era. Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal.
The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier; the 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL new stadiums and artificial turf surfaces began to change the game in the 1970s and 1980s. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team. Today, MLB is composed of 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season and five teams in each league advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series between the two league champions that dates to 1903. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television and the Internet throughout North America and in several other countries throughout the world.
MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution; this document has undergone several incarnations since its creation in 1876. Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sport's umpiring crews, negotiates marketing and television contracts. MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball; this is due in large part to the 1922 U. S. Supreme Court ruling in Federal Baseball Club v. National League, which held that baseball is not interstate commerce and therefore not subject to federal antitrust law; this ruling has been weakened only in subsequent years. The weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLB's primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916.
The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner Rob Manfred. The chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives: president, chief communications officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer, chief baseball officer; the multimedia branch of MLB, based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media. This branch oversees each of the 30 teams' websites, its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, but it is under the same ownership group and revenue-sharing plan. MLB Productions is a structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media. MLB owns 67 percent of MLB Network, with the other 33 percent split between several cable operators and satellite provider DirecTV, it operates out of studios in Secaucus, New Jersey, has editorial independence from the league. In 1920, the weak National Commission, created to manage relationships between the two leagues, was replaced with the much more powerful Commissioner of Baseball, who had the power to make decisions for all of professional baseball unilaterally.
From 1901 to 1960, the American and National Leagues fielded eight teams apiece. In the 1960s, MLB expansion added eight teams, including the first non-U. S. Team. Two teams were added in the 1970s. From 1969 through 1993, each league consisted of an West Division. A third division, the Central Division, was formed in each league in 1994; until 1996, the two leagues met on the field only during the All-Star Game. Regular-season interleague play was introduced in 1997. In March 1995 two new franchises, the Arizona Diamondbacks and Tampa Bay Devil Rays, were awarded by MLB, to begin play in 1998; this addition brought the total number of franchises to 30. In early 1997, MLB decided to assign one new team to each league: Tampa Bay joined the AL and Arizona joined the NL; the original plan was to have an odd number of teams in each league, but in order for every team to be able to play daily, this would have required interleague play to be scheduled throughout the entire season. However, it
2001 National League Championship Series
The 2001 National League Championship Series saw the Arizona Diamondbacks defeat the Atlanta Braves in five games to win the National League pennant in the franchise's fourth year of existence. The Diamondbacks went on to defeat the New York Yankees in seven games to win the World Series; the Diamondbacks won their division with a 92–70 record. The strength of their team was the pitching duo of Randy Johnson and Curt Schilling; the primary weapon for Arizona on offense was Luis Gonzalez, who belted 57 home runs during the season. The Diamondbacks had outlasted the St. Louis Cardinals in the NLDS to reach their first NLCS; the Atlanta Braves won their tenth straight division title, but it had not been by a wide margin in 2001. They struggled to an 88–74 record, their worst since 1990. Greg Maddux had another big season for the Braves. Chipper Jones was the leader of the Atlanta offense, batting.330 during the season to go along with his 38 home runs. After their embarrassing defeat to the St. Louis Cardinals in the 2000 NLDS, the underdog Braves blitzed the Houston Astros in the 2001 NLDS, sweeping them in three games.
To date, this is the Braves' most recent NLCS appearance. Arizona won the series, 4–1. Tuesday, October 16, 2001 at Bank One Ballpark in Phoenix, Arizona The 2001 NLCS began with a pitching matchup of multiple-Cy Young Award winners Randy Johnson and Greg Maddux. Reggie Sanders plated a run in the first with a single to give Arizona a 1–0 lead; the Diamondbacks went ahead 2–0 after Luis Gonzalez drove in Craig Counsell, who doubled with two outs with a single in the fifth. Though Maddux went seven innings, Johnson pitched a complete-game three-hit shutout with eleven strikeouts. Wednesday, October 17, 2001 at Bank One Ballpark in Phoenix, Arizona The Braves responded to Johnson's dominating performance with one of their own from Tom Glavine. Marcus Giles led the game off with a home run for the Braves off Miguel Batista. Glavine went seven innings, scattering five hits and giving up one run in the sixth when Reggie Sanders walked with two outs and scored two batters on Matt Williams's single. In the top of the seventh, Andruw Jones walked two outs off of Batista before Javy López hit a two-run homer to make it 3–1.
Atlanta scored five runs in the eighth with two outs to break the game open. Julio Franco singled and Chipper Jones walked off of Mike Morgan before both scored on Brian Jordan's double. Greg Swindell allowed a two-run home run to B. J. Surhoff. Bobby Witt relieved Swindell and allowed back-to-back singles to Jones and Lopez before Rey Sanchez's RBI single made it 8–1 Braves. Steve Karsay and John Smoltz pitched perfect eighth and ninth as the Braves' win tied the series 1–1 heading to Atlanta. Friday, October 19, 2001 at Turner Field in Atlanta Curt Schilling, who earned an MVP award in the 1993 NLCS against the Braves, got the start in Game 3 in Atlanta. Braves starter John Burkett gave up two runs in the third; that would be all Schilling would need. Atlanta got a run in the fourth when Marcus Giles hit a leadoff double and scored on Chipper Jones's one-out single, but with the bases loaded with one out, Steve Reed relieved Burkett and a Chipper Jones error at third base on Matt Williams's groundball allowed two runs to score.
Mike Remlinger allowed an RBI single to Finley. Ahead 5–1, Schilling cruised the rest of the way, tossing a complete game and striking out twelve men. Saturday, October 20, 2001 at Turner Field in Atlanta Looking to tie the series, Bobby Cox started Greg Maddux on short rest. For two innings, the move appeared to work; the Braves struck first off of Diamondback starter Albie Lopez when Marcus Giles walked to lead off the first and scored on RBI double by Chipper Jones. Next inning, a lead off homer by Andruw Jones made it 2–0 Braves. However, the wheels came off for Atlanta in the third when two errors, a single, fielder's choice allowed Arizona to load the bases with two outs. Steve Finley's single scored two with Finley going to second on another error Matt Williams and Mark Grace hit back-to-back RBI singles to put Arizona up 4–2. Manager Bob Brenly went for the jugular in the fourth, pinch hitting David Dellucci for Lopez to lead off the inning. Dellucci singled Tony Womack singled before Craig Counsell hit a two-run double to left to make it 6–2.
Brian Anderson, who picked up the win, pitched 3 1⁄3. The Braves scored in the seventh off of Mike Morgan on Brian Jordan's RBI single with the run charged to Anderson, but in the eighth, Arizona got the run back off of Steve Karsay when Womack singled with one out and scored on Counsell's double; the Braves loaded the bases in the bottom half on three straight leadoff singles off of Jason Marquis, but Byung-Hyun Kim in relief allowed just one run on Javy López's double play. In the ninth, Jason Marquis struck out the first two men he faced, but a walk and error was followed by Counsell's RBI single. Luis Gonzalez's three-run homer broke the game open at 11–4 Arizona, all four runs unearned. Kim pitched a perfect bottom of the ninth as the win put Arizona in control of the series, ahead three games to one with a rested Randy Johnson set to pitch. Sunday, October 21, 2001 at Turner Field in Atlanta Game 1 winner Randy Johnson and Game 2 winner Tom Glavine faced off as Arizona looked to advance to their first World Series appearance.
Former Brave Danny Bautista broke a scoreless tie in the fourth by singling home Mark Grace. The Braves promptly tied the game when veteran Julio Franco led off the fourth with a home run, the first run Johnson had allowed the whole series. However, Arizona answered right back in the top of the fifth when Erubiel Durazo hit
Gerry Davis (umpire)
Gerald Sidney Davis is an umpire in Major League Baseball. Having worked in the National League from 1982 to 1999, he became a member of the unified umpiring staff for Major League Baseball in 2000, he has been a crew chief since 1999. He has umpired nine League Championship Series and eleven League Division Series, he has worked in the All-Star Game four times. Davis has worn uniform number 12 throughout his career; as of the start of the 2019 season, Davis is MLB's second-most senior umpire, although Davis has the longest uninterrupted tenure due to West being forced to sit out two seasons after the failed mass resignation strategy of former Major League Umpires Association executive director Richie Phillips in July 1999. Davis, along with all National League umpires at the time, tendered his resignation, but rescinded it, was not chosen as one of the 22 MLB umpires to lose their jobs by commissioner Bud Selig and MLB executive vice president Sandy Alderson. Davis' 2019 crew consists of Brian Knight and Pat Hoberg.
Davis began umpiring in the minor leagues in 1976. He worked in the Midwest League, Eastern League and American Association before being promoted to the majors in 1982, he has officiated in 22 postseasons, including the World Series in 1996, 1999, 2004, 2009 and 2012. He umpired the All-Star Game in 1989, 1997, 2002 and 2012. In the 2014 season, Davis's crew was Phil Cuzzi, Brian Knight, a AAA fill-in umpire, until Quinn Wolcott was hired as a full-time umpire in July 2014 due to the retirement of Gary Darling. In 2016, his crew includes Rob Drake and a AAA Call-Up Umpire. Davis was reprimanded by Major League Baseball on September 1, 2014 for making'crybaby' faces at Oakland A's players; the league statement said, "We expect our umpires to remain professional on the field at all times." Davis was the second base umpire for the perfect game pitched by Randy Johnson on May 18, 2004. On September 19 at Tropicana Field, instant replay overturned a call on the field for the first time in the major leagues.
A fly ball hit by Tampa Bay Rays' first baseman Carlos Peña, the umpires ruled, was interfered with by a fan sitting in the front row of the stands, when the ball hit the hands of the fan and fell back onto the field of play. After Joe Maddon requested the umpires hold a conference to discuss the play, the umpires, headed by Gerry Davis, decided to look at instant replay. Just over four minutes Davis returned to the field and signaled that the ball was a home run. Davis was the home plate umpire for the last game played at Shea Stadium on September 28, 2008. With his assignment to the 2012 World Series, Davis set an officiating record for most postseason games umpired in major league history with 115 and since this mark has moved forward to 128 games. On April 23, 2014, Davis ejected New York Yankees starting pitcher Michael Pineda for having pine tar on his neck. On July 26, 2017, Davis asked Texas Rangers third baseman Adrián Beltré to move closer to the on-deck circle. After Beltré jokingly moved the on-deck batting circle, Davis ejected him.
Davis owns Gerry Davis Sports, which specializes in umpiring equipment and clothing. Gerry Davis Sports sells specially designed leg guards which give a small area at the top for the hands to rest, consistent with Davis's unique umpiring stance; these leg guards eschew the normal straps with metal hooks, in favor of straps with plugs that hook into little notches. List of Major League Baseball umpires Major League profile Gerry Davis Sports Retrosheet
The World Series is the annual championship series of Major League Baseball in North America, contested since 1903 between the American League champion team and the National League champion team. The winner of the World Series championship is determined through a best-of-seven playoff, the winning team is awarded the Commissioner's Trophy; as the series is played during the fall season in North America, it is sometimes referred to as the Fall Classic. Prior to 1969, the team with the best regular season win-loss record in each league automatically advanced to the World Series; as of 2018, the World Series has been contested 114 times, with the AL winning 66 and the NL winning 48. The 2018 World Series took place between the Los Angeles Dodgers and Boston Red Sox from October 23–28, with the Red Sox winning in five games to earn their ninth title; this was the first World Series meeting between these two teams since 1916. Having lost to the Houston Astros in the 2017 World Series, the Dodgers became the 11th team to lose the World Series in consecutive seasons.
In the American League, the New York Yankees have played in 40 World Series and won 27, the Philadelphia/Kansas City/Oakland Athletics have played in 14 and won 9, the Boston Red Sox have played in 13 and won 9, including the first World Series. In the National League, the St. Louis Cardinals have appeared in 19 and won 11, the New York/San Francisco Giants have played in 19 and won 8, the Brooklyn/Los Angeles Dodgers have appeared in 20 and won 6, the Cincinnati Reds have appeared in 9 and won 5; as of 2018, no team has won consecutive World Series championships since the New York Yankees in 1998, 1999, 2000—the longest such drought in Major League Baseball history. Until the formation of the American Association in 1882 as a second major league, the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players and the National League represented the top level of organized baseball in the United States. All championships were awarded to the team with the best record at the end of the season, without a postseason series being played.
From 1884 to 1890, the National League and the American Association faced each other in a series of games at the end of the season to determine an overall champion. These series were disorganized in comparison to the modern World Series, with the terms arranged through negotiation of the owners of the championship teams beforehand; the number of games played ranged from as few as three in 1884, to a high of fifteen in 1887. Both the 1885 and 1890 Series ended in each team having won three games with one tie game; the series was promoted and referred to as "The Championship of the United States", "World's Championship Series", or "World's Series" for short. In his book Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded: August 27, 1883, Simon Winchester mentions in passing that the World Series was named for the New York World newspaper, but this view is disputed; the 19th-century competitions are, not recognized as part of World Series history by Major League Baseball, as it considers 19th-century baseball to be a prologue to the modern baseball era.
Until about 1960, some sources treated the 19th-century Series on an equal basis with the post-19th-century series. After about 1930, many authorities list the start of the World Series in 1903 and discuss the earlier contests separately. Following the collapse of the American Association after the 1891 season, the National League was again the only major league; the league championship was awarded in 1892 by a playoff between half-season champions. This scheme was abandoned after one season. Beginning in 1893—and continuing until divisional play was introduced in 1969—the pennant was awarded to the first-place club in the standings at the end of the season. For four seasons, 1894–1897, the league champions played the runners-up in the post season championship series called the Temple Cup. A second attempt at this format was the Chronicle-Telegraph Cup series, played only once, in 1900. In 1901, the American League was formed as a second major league. No championship series were played in 1901 or 1902 as the National and American Leagues fought each other for business supremacy.
After two years of bitter competition and player raiding, the National and American Leagues made peace and, as part of the accord, several pairs of teams squared off for interleague exhibition games after the 1903 season. These series were arranged by the participating clubs. One of them matched the two pennant winners, Pittsburgh Pirates of the NL and Boston Americans of the AL, it had been arranged well in advance by the two owners, as both teams were league leaders by large margins. Boston upset Pittsburgh by five games to three, winning with pitching depth behind Cy Young and Bill Dinneen and with the support of the band of Royal Rooters; the Series brought much civic pride to Boston and proved the new American League could beat the Nationals. The 1904 Series, if it had been held, would have been between the AL's Boston Americans and the NL's New York Giants. At that point there was no gover