Huntsville is a city in and the county seat of Walker County, Texas. The population was 38,548 as of the 2010 census, it is the center of the Huntsville micropolitan area. Huntsville is 70 miles north of Houston in the East Texas Piney Woods on Interstate 45, which runs between Houston and Dallas, it is home to Sam Houston State University, the Texas Department of Criminal Justice, Huntsville State Park, HEARTS Veterans Museum of Texas. The city served as the residence of Sam Houston, recognized in Huntsville by the Sam Houston Memorial Museum and a statue on Interstate 45; the city had its beginning about 1836, when Pleasant and Ephraim Gray opened a trading post on the site. Ephraim Gray became first postmaster in 1837, naming it after his hometown, Alabama. Huntsville became the home of Sam Houston, who served as President of the Republic of Texas, Governor of the State of Texas, Governor of Tennessee, U. S. Senator, Tennessee congressman. Houston led the Texas Army in the Battle of San Jacinto, the decisive victory of the Texas Revolution.
He has been noted for his life among the Cherokees of Tennessee, – near the end of his life – for his opposition to the American Civil War, a unpopular position in his day. Huntsville has two of Houston's homes, his grave, the Sam Houston Memorial Museum. Houston's life in Huntsville is commemorated by his namesake Sam Houston State University, by a 70 ft statue. Huntsville was the home of Samuel Walker Houston, a prominent African-American pioneer in the field of education, he was born into slavery on February 12, 1864 to a slave owned by Sam Houston. Samuel W. Houston founded the Galilee Community School in 1907, which became known as the Houstonian Normal and Industrial Institute, in Walker County, Texas. In 1995, on the grounds of the old Samuel W. Houston Elementary School, the Huntsville Independent School District, along with the Huntsville Arts Commission and the high school's Ex-Students Association, commissioned the creation of The Dreamers, a monument to underscore the black community's contributions to the growth and development of Huntsville and Walker County.
As of the census of 2010, there were 35,078 people, 10,266 households, 7,471 families residing in the city. The population density was 1438.3/km sq. There were 11,508 housing units at an average density of 1143.8/km sq. The racial makeup of the city was 65.78% White, 26.14% African American, 0.33% Native American, 1.11% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 4.91% from Race other races, 1.65% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 16.22% of the population. There were 10,266 households out of which 25.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.0% were married couples living together, 12.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 46.7% were non-families. 30.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.97. In the city, the population was spread out with 15.1% under the age of 18, 29.3% from 18 to 24, 30.8% from 25 to 44, 16.3% from 45 to 64, 8.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females, there were 152.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 163.8 males. The prison population is included in the city's population, which results in a skewed sex ratio; the median income for a household in the city was $27,075, the median income for a family was $40,562. Males had a median income of $27,386 versus $22,908 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,576. About 13.1% of families and 23.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.9% of those under age 18 and 14.7% of those age 65 or over. Huntsville is located at 30°42′41″N 95°32′54″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a land area of 35.86 square miles in 2010. At the area code level, land area covers 559.661 sq. mi. and water area 7.786 sq. mi. Huntsville is about 70 miles north of Houston, it is part of the Texas Triangle megaregion. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters.
According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Huntsville has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. As of 2005 the largest employer in Huntsville is the Texas Department of Criminal Justice, with 6,744 employees. In 1996 the TDCJ had 5,219 employees in Huntsville. Robert Draper of the Texas Monthly described Huntsville as the "company town" of the TDCJ; as of 1996 the TDCJ employed over twice the number of people employed by Sam Houston State University, the city's second-largest employer. As of 2005 Sam Houston State remained the second-largest employer in Huntsville, with 2,458 employees; the university has a strong role in the study of criminology. The third-largest employer is the Huntsville Independent School District, with 974 employees; the fourth-largest employer, Huntsville Memorial Hospital, has 540 employees. 517 employees work for Wal-Mart. As of 2007 Huntsville's average income was lower than Texas's average income. Huntsville has the headquarters of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice, the Tex
United Church of Christ
The United Church of Christ is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination based in the United States, with historical confessional roots in the Congregational and Lutheran traditions, with 4,956 churches and 853,778 members. The United Church of Christ is a historical continuation of the General Council of Congregational Christian churches founded under the influence of New England Pilgrims and Puritans. Moreover, it subsumed the third largest Reformed group in the country, the German Reformed; the Evangelical and Reformed Church and the General Council of the Congregational Christian Churches united in 1957 to form the UCC. These two denominations, which were themselves the result of earlier unions, had their roots in Congregational, Lutheran and Reformed denominations. At the end of 2014, the UCC's 5,116 congregations claimed 979,239 members in the U. S. In 2015, Pew Research estimated that 0.4 percent, or 1 million adult adherents, of the U. S. population self-identify with the United Church of Christ.
The UCC maintains full communion with other mainline Protestant denominations. Many of its congregations choose to practice open communion; the denomination places high emphasis on participation in worldwide interfaith and ecumenical efforts. The national settings of the UCC have favored liberal views on social issues, such as civil rights, LGBT rights, women's rights, abortion. However, United Church of Christ congregations are independent in matters of doctrine and ministry and may not support the national body's theological or moral stances, it is self-described as "an pluralistic and diverse denomination". The United Church of Christ was formed when two Protestant churches, the Evangelical and Reformed Church and the General Council of the Congregational Christian Churches united in 1957; this union adopted an earlier general statement of unity between the two denominations, the 1943 "Basis of Union". At this time, the UCC claimed about two million members. In 1959, in its General Synod, the UCC adopted a broad "Statement of Faith".
The UCC adopted its constitution and by-laws in 1961. There is no UCC hierarchy or body that can impose any doctrine or worship format onto the individual congregations within the UCC. While individual congregations are supposed to hold guidance from the general synod "in the highest regard", the UCC's constitution requires that the "autonomy of the Local Church is inherent and modifiable only by its own action". Within this locally focused structure, there are central beliefs common to the UCC; the UCC uses four words to describe itself: "Christian, Reformed and Evangelical". While the UCC refers to its evangelical characteristics, it springs from mainline Protestantism as opposed to Evangelicalism; the word evangelical in this case more corresponds with the original Lutheran origins meaning "of the gospel" as opposed to the Evangelical use of the word. UCC is theologically liberal, the denomination notes that the "Bible, though written in specific historical times and places, still speaks to us in our present condition".
The motto of the United Church of Christ comes from John 17:21: "That they may all be one". The denomination's official literature uses broad doctrinal parameters, emphasizing freedom of individual conscience and local church autonomy. In the United Church of Christ, creeds and affirmations of faith function as "testimonies of faith" around which the church gathers rather than as "tests of faith" rigidly prescribing required doctrinal consent; as expressed in the United Church of Christ constitution: The United Church of Christ acknowledges as its sole Head, Jesus Christ, Son of God and Savior. It acknowledges as kindred in Christ all, it looks to the Word of God in the Scriptures, to the presence and power of the Holy Spirit, to prosper its creative and redemptive work in the world. It claims as its own the faith of the historic Church expressed in the ancient creeds and reclaimed in the basic insights of the Protestant Reformers, it affirms the responsibility of the Church in each generation to make this faith its own in reality of worship, in honesty of thought and expression, in purity of heart before God.
In accordance with the teaching of our Lord and the practice prevailing among evangelical Christians, it recognizes two sacraments: Baptism and the Lord's Supper or Holy Communion. The denomination, looks to a number of historic confessions as expressing the common faith around which the church gathers, including: The Apostles' Creed, The Nicene Creed, The Heidelberg Catechism, Luther's Small Catechism, The Kansas City Statement of Faith, The Evangelical Catechism, The Statement of Faith of the United Church of Christ. In 2001, Hartford Institute for Religion Research did a "Faith Communities Today" study that included a survey of United Church of Christ beliefs. Among the results of this were findings that in the UCC, 5.6% of the churches responding to the survey described their members as "very liberal or progressive", 3.4% as "very conservative", 22.4% as "somewhat liberal or progressive", 23.6% as "somewhat conservative". Those results suggested a nearly equal balance between conservative congregations.
The self-described "moderate" group, was the largest at 45%. Other statistics found by the Hartford Institute show that 53.2% of members say "the Bible" is the highest sourc
Del Rio, Texas
Del Rio is a city in and the county seat of Val Verde County, Texas. It is 152 miles west of San Antonio; as of 2015, the city had a population of 40,549. Del Rio is connected to Ciudad Acuña by the Lake Amistad Dam International Crossing and Del Río – Ciudad Acuña International Bridge, it is home to Laughlin Air Force Base, the busiest United States Air Force pilot-training complex in the world. The Spanish established a small settlement south of the Rio Grande in present-day Mexico, some Spaniards settled on what became the United States side of the Rio Grande as early as the 18th century. Paula Losoya Taylor built the first hacienda in the area in 1862. U. S. development on the north shore of the Rio Grande did not begin until after the American Civil War. The San Felipe Springs, about 8 mi east of the Rio Grande on the U. S. side of the border, produces 90×10^6 US gal of water a day. Developers acquired several thousand acres of land adjacent to the springs, to San Felipe Creek formed by the springs, from the state of Texas in exchange for building a canal system to irrigate the area.
The developers sold tracts of land surrounding the canals to recover their investment and show a profit. The initial investors formed the San Felipe Agricultural and Irrigation Company in 1868; the organization completed construction of a network of irrigation canals in 1871. Residents referred to the developing town as San Felipe Del Rio because local lore said the name came from early Spanish explorers who offered a mass at the site on St. Philip's Day, 1635. In 1883, local residents requested a post office be established; the United States Postal Department shortened "San Felipe del Rio" to "Del Rio" to avoid confusion with San Felipe de Austin. In 1885, Val Verde County was organized and Del Rio became the county seat; the City of Del Rio was incorporated on November 15, 1911. The San Felipe community was started by the Arteaga family. Arteaga Street and Arteaga Park are named after them. Many historical artifacts from Del Rio from the 19th century, are preserved at the Whitehead Memorial Museum downtown.
Del Rio is known as the American address of legendary Mexican radio stations XERA and XERF just over the U. S.-Mexico border in Ciudad Acuña. Legendary deejay Wolfman Jack operated XERF in the 1960s, using a Del Rio address to sell various products advertised on the station. In 1942, the Army Air Corps opened Laughlin Field 9 mi east of Del Rio, as a training base for the Martin B-26, but the base was deactivated in 1945; as the Cold War pressures built, along with new border-control issues, Laughlin Field was rebuilt and renamed Laughlin Air Force Base and was again used as a home for flight training. In the mid-1950s, the Strategic Air Command noted that Laughlin's remoteness allowed for secret operations, opened its strategic reconnaissance program there with the RB-57, a bomber modified for high-altitude reconnaissance. SAC soon transitioned to the high-altitude U-2 Dragonlady and based all of them in Laughlin AFB. In 1962, Laughlin-based U-2s took the first photographs of land-based medium-range ballistic missile sites being constructed in Cuba.
The presence of these missiles precipitated what became known as "the Cuban Missile Crisis". In July 1963, the U-2s were relocated to Davis–Monthan Air Force Base near Tucson and Laughlin's mission transitioned to the Undergraduate Pilot Training mission in the T-37 and T-38 aircraft. Laughlin AFB provides training in the T-1A Jayhawk, the T-6A Texan II, the T-38 aircraft. Laughlin plays a large part in the Del Rio community as the area's largest employer; the United States Border Patrol is the city's second-largest employer. At one time, Del Rio was in the running to become the home of the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center for agents of the U. S. Border Patrol and Federal Air Marshal Service, but lost to the current site in New Mexico; the proposed site was located on property belonging to Laughlin AFB. Since the base has unused land, the Air Force is able to lease it to other federal law enforcement agencies for such projects; this benefits the city of Del Rio both financially and economically.
For example, Del Rio was one of five cities in the United States selected for an FBI regional headquarters' office, that building is adjacent to the six-story Roswell Hotel in downtown Del Rio. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 52.3 km2, of which 52.2 km2 are land and 0.1 km2, or 0.24%, is covered by water. Del Rio lies on the northwestern edges of the Tamaulipan mezquital called the South Texas brush country, it is near the southwestern corner of the Edwards Plateau, the western fringe of the famous, oak savanna-covered Texas Hill Country. The creek supplied fresh water for drinking and irrigation to early settlers of Del Rio, the springs are still the town's water supply; the Del Rio region, west to about the Pecos River, has a mix of desert shrub and steppe vegetation, depending on soil type, with the gray-leafed cenizo, several different acacias and grama grasses dominant members of local flora. The terrain is level, but some areas are dissected with substantial canyons and drainages, though none of the upland areas is high or large enough to be considered a mountain
Cairo is the southernmost city in the U. S. state of Illinois, is the county seat of Alexander County. Cairo is located at the confluence of the Mississippi rivers. Fort Defiance, a Civil War camp, was built at the confluence in 1862 by Union General Ulysses S. Grant to control strategic access to the river. Cairo has the lowest elevation of any location in Illinois and is the only Illinois city to be surrounded by levees, it is in the area of Southern Illinois known as Little Egypt. Several blocks in the town comprise the Cairo Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Old Customs House is on the NRHP. The city is part of the Cape Girardeau -- MO -- IL Metropolitan Statistical Area. Being bypassed by transportation changes and industrial restructuring cost many jobs: the population at the 2010 census was 2,831; the city's peak population was 15,203 in 1920. The entire city was evacuated during the 2011 Mississippi River Floods, after the Ohio River rose higher than the 1937 flood levels, with the possibility of 15 feet of water inundating Cairo.
The United States Army Corps of Engineers breached levees in the Mississippi flood zone below Cairo in Missouri to prevent flooding in Cairo and other more populous areas further upstream along both the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. The first municipal charter for Cairo and for the Bank of Cairo were issued in 1818, but without any settlement and without any depositors. A second and successful effort to establish a town was made by the Cairo City and Canal Company in 1836–37, with a large levee built to encircle the site. However, this effort collapsed with few settlers remaining. Charles Dickens visited Cairo in 1842, was unimpressed; the city would serve as his prototype for the nightmare City of Eden in his novel Martin Chuzzlewit. In 1846, 10,000 acres in Cairo were purchased by the trustees of the Cairo City Property Trust, a group of investors who planned to make it the terminus of the projected Illinois Central Railroad, which arrived there in 1855. Cairo had been growing as an important river port for steamboats, which traveled all the way south to New Orleans.
The city had been designated as a port of delivery by Act of Congress in 1854. A new city charter was written in 1857, Cairo flourished as trade with Chicago to the north spurred development. By 1860, the population exceeded 2,000. In January 1862, during the Civil War, General Ulysses S. Grant occupied the city, he and Admiral Andrew Hull Foote made it their headquarters, they had Fort Defiance constructed to protect the confluence. Cairo became an important Union supply training center for the remainder of the war, but Grant's military occupation caused much of the city's trade to be diverted by railroad to Chicago. Cairo failed to regain this important trade after the war, as more railroads converged on Chicago and it developed at a rapid pace, attracting stockyards, meat processing, heavy industries. Instead, agriculture and sawmills now dominated the Cairo economy; the strategic importance of Cairo's geographic location during the Civil War sparked prosperity in the town. Several banks were founded during the war years, the growth in banking and steamboat traffic continued after the war.
In 1869 construction began on the United States Custom House and Post Office, designed by Alfred B. Mullet, the Supervising Architect; the custom house was completed in 1872. It served as a custom house, post office, United States Court; the U. S. District Court for the Southern District of Illinois met at the building until 1905. From 1905 to 1942, the Custom House was used for the U. S. District Court for the Eastern District of Illinois; the building housed the U. S. Circuit Court for the Eastern District of Illinois from 1905 to 1912. At the height of Cairo's prosperity, the post office in the building was the third busiest in the United States, it is one of only seven of Mullet's Victorian structures remaining in the nation, the building has been converted for use as a museum. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. After the Civil War, the city became a hub for railroad shipping in the region, which added to its economy. By 1900 several railroad lines branched from Cairo. In addition to shipping and railroads, a major industry in Cairo was the operation of ferries.
Into the late 19th century, nearly 250,000 railroad cars could be ferried across the river in as little as six months. Vehicles were ferried, as there were no automobile bridges in the area in the early 20th century; the ferry industry created numerous jobs in Cairo to handle large amounts of cargo and numerous passengers through the city. Wealthy merchants and shippers built numerous fine mansions in the 19th and early 20th century, including the Italianate Magnolia Manor, completed in 1872, the Second Empire Riverlore Mansion, built by Capt. William P. Halliday in 1865. Across the street from the customs house, the Cairo Public Library was constructed in 1883 of Queen Anne-style architecture, finished with stained glass windows and ornate woodwork; the library was dedicated on July 19, 1884 as the A. B. Safford Memorial Library. Anna E. Safford donated it to the city; these and other significant buildings are listed on the National Register. For protection from seasonal flooding, Cairo is enclosed by a series of levees and flood walls, due to its low elevation between the rivers.
Several buildings, including the old custom house, were designed to be built to a higher street level, to be at the same height as the top of the levees. That plan was scrapped as the cost of fill to raise the streets and surrounding land to that height proved to be impractical. In 1914 a large flood gate was co
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives, 1990s
The FBI's Ten Most Wanted Fugitives during the 1990s is a list, maintained for a fifth decade, of the Ten Most Wanted Fugitives of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation. The FBI in the past has identified individuals by the sequence number in which each individual has appeared on the list; some individuals have appeared twice, a sequence number was permanently assigned to an individual suspect, soon caught, captured, or removed, before his or her appearance could be published on the publicly released list. In those cases, the public would see only gaps in the number sequence reported by the FBI. For convenient reference, the wanted suspect's sequence number and date of entry on the FBI list appear below, whenever possible; the following fugitives made up the top Ten list to begin the 1990s: One spot on the list of ten remained unfilled from a capture late in the year 1989. It was filled in the first month of the last year of the decade in 1990; the list of the most wanted fugitives listed during the 1990s fluctuated throughout the decade with some fugitives making reappearances on the list.
In 1992, there were no additions made by the FBI for the second time in its history. As before, spots on the list were occupied by fugitives, listed in prior years, still remained at large; the list includes: As the decade closed, the following were still at large as the Ten Most Wanted Fugitives: William S. Sessions Acting Director: Floyd I. Clarke Louis J. Freeh As a decade, the 1990s list stands out above others for its inclusion of a large number of notorious suspects, including several major terrorists and domestic. In 1993 and 1994, the FBI was scrutinized for its role in the Ruby Waco incidents. In 1999, the most notorious suspect in American history, Osama bin Laden, was added to the list for the 1998 embassy attacks. Although many 1990s terrorists have appeared on the top 10 list of fugitives, it was not until the aftermath of 9/11 in 2001 that the FBI began maintaining a separate list of Most Wanted Terrorists. FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives, 2010s FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives, 2000s FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives, 1980s FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives, 1970s FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives, 1960s FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives, 1950s Current FBI top ten most wanted fugitives at FBI site
Texas Ranger Division
The Texas Ranger Division called the Texas Rangers, is a U. S statewide investigative law enforcement agency with statewide jurisdiction in Texas, based in the capital city of Austin. Over the years, the Texas Rangers have investigated crimes ranging from murder to political corruption, acted in riot control and as detectives, protected the governor of Texas, tracked down fugitives, functioned as a paramilitary force at the service of both the Republic and the state of Texas; the Texas Rangers were unofficially created by Stephen F. Austin in a call-to-arms written in 1823 and were first headed by Captain Morris. After a decade, on August 10, 1835, Daniel Parker introduced a resolution to the Permanent Council creating a body of rangers to protect the border; the unit was dissolved by the federal authorities during the post–Civil War Reconstruction Era, but was reformed upon the reinstitution of home government. Since 1935, the organization has been a division of the Texas Department of Public Safety.
As of 2015, there are 162 commissioned members of the Ranger force. The Rangers have taken part in many of the most important events of Texas history, such as stopping the assassination of presidents William Howard Taft and Porfirio Díaz in El Paso, in some of the best-known criminal cases in the history of the Old West, such as those of gunfighter John Wesley Hardin, bank robber Sam Bass, outlaws Bonnie and Clyde. Scores of books have been written about the Rangers, from well-researched works of nonfiction to pulp novels and other such fiction, making the Rangers significant participants in the mythology of the Wild West; the Lone Ranger the best-known example of a Texas Ranger–derived fictional character, draws his alias from having once been a Texas Ranger. Other well-known examples include. During their mixed history, a distinct Ranger tradition has evolved. There is a museum dedicated to the Texas Rangers in Texas; the rangers were founded in 1823 when Stephen F. Austin, known as the Father of Texas, employed ten men to act as rangers to protect 600 to 700 newly settled families who arrived in Texas following the Mexican War of Independence.
While there is some discussion as to when Austin employed men as "rangers", Texas Ranger lore dates the year of their organization to this event. The Texas Rangers were formally constituted in 1835 and, in November, Robert McAlpin Williamson was chosen to be the first Major of the Texas Rangers. Within two years the Rangers comprised more than 300 men. Following the Texas Revolution and the creation of the Republic of Texas, newly elected president Mirabeau B. Lamar, raised a force of 56 Rangers to fight the Cherokee and the Comanche in retaliation for the support they had given the Mexicans at the Cordova Rebellion against the Republic. Ten rangers were killed in the Battle of Stone Houses in 1837; the size of the Ranger force was increased from 56 to 150 men by Sam Houston, as President of the Republic, in 1841, The Rangers continued to participate in skirmishes with Native Americans through 1846, when the annexation of Texas to the United States and the Mexican–American War saw several companies of Rangers mustered into federal service.
They played important roles at various battles, acting as guides and participating in Counter-guerrilla warfare, soon establishing a fearsome reputation among both Mexicans and Americans. At the Battle of Monterrey in September 1846, famous Texas Rangers such as John Coffee "Jack" Hays, Ben McCulloch, Bigfoot Wallace, Samuel Hamilton Walker played important roles in the battle, to include advising General William Jenkins Worth on the tactics required to fight inside a Mexican city. Richard Addison Gillespie, a famed Texas Ranger, died at Monterrey, General Worth renamed a hill "Mount Gillespie" after him. Colonel Hays organized a second regiment of Texas Rangers, including Rip Ford, who fought with General Winfield Scott in his Mexico City Campaign and the Anti-guerrilla campaign along his line of communications to Vera Cruz. John Jackson Tumlinson Sr. the first alcalde of the Colorado district, is considered by many Texas Ranger historians to be the first Texas Ranger killed in the line of duty.
One of his most urgent issues was protection of settlers from murder by marauders. On his way to San Antonio, in 1823, to discuss the issue with the governor, Tumlinson was killed by Native Americans, his traveling companion, a Mr. Newman, escaped. Tumlinson's body was never found. Following the end of the war in 1848, the Rangers were disbanded, but the election of Hardin Richard Runnels as governor in 1857 meant $70,000 was allocated to fund the Rangers under John Salmon "Rip" Ford, a veteran of the Mexican war; the now 100-strong Rangers participated in campaigns against the Comanche and other tribes, whose raids against the settlers and their properties had become common. Ford and his Rangers fought the Comanche in the Battle of Little Robe Creek in 1858 and Juan Cortina in the Battle of Rio Grande City the following year; the success of a series of campaigns in the 1860s marked a turning point in Rangers' history. The U. S. Army could provide only limited and thinly-stretched protection in the enormous territory of Texas.
By contrast, the Rangers' effectiveness when dealing with these threats convinced both the people of the state and the political leaders that a well-funded and organized state Ranger force was essential. Such a force could use the deep fa