Gilberto Santa Rosa
Gilberto Santa Rosa known as "El Caballero de la Salsa", is a Puerto Rican bandleader and singer of salsa and bolero. Santa Rosa was born in Puerto Rico. Here he became interested in music, he took part in his first concert while a teenager and in 1976, he made his recording debut as a backup singer with the Mario Ortiz Orchestra. He remained with the orchestra for two years, during which time he met Elias Lopez who helped to mold and polish him as a singer. During the 1980s, he recorded "Homenaje a Eddie Palmieri" with the Puerto Rican All Stars, he recorded with various orchestras, amongst them the Tommy Olivencia Orchestra, the Willie Rosario orchestra. Santa Rosa developed a unique style of "soneo" in salsa that permitted him to be successful in both the "tropical" and "romantic" styles of the music. In 1986, Santa Rosa signed with Combo Records. Santa Rosa was the first singer of tropical salsa to carry out a concert at the Carnegie Hall Theater, in New York City, where he performed as the opening number, his unique version of the salsa tune, "Represento", composed by Lou Briel.
This event was recorded live at the hall, released as an album. A highlight of the night was the four-minute unscripted addition he made to his song "Perdoname", which solidified his improvisational talent; this live version became such a sensation thereafter that Santa Rosa had to memorize his own improvised lines for future concerts, Perdoname became the closing song to his shows. In 1990, Santa Rosa joined the all star "La Puertorriqueña" project, he participated in the play "La pareja dispareja" alongside Luis Vigoreaux and Rafo Muñiz. In 1995, Santa Rosa traveled to Japan as Puerto Rico's Good Will Ambassador, where he sang "De cara al viento" in Japanese. In 1996, the greatest hits album "Caballero de la Salsa, Vol 2" was released and he participated in the First "Festival Presidente" in the Dominican Republic. In 1997, he sang with Andy Montañez in New York Citys Lincoln Center and that year, with Olga Tañón at the Universal Studios Amphitheater in Hollywood, California. Santa Rosa's hits continued with the album "Expresión" which included the single "Fulana" and in 2001 with the album "Romántico".
He released "Viceversa" in 2002 which became a "hit" in the Latin community in the United States and in all of Latin-America. Santa Rosa has taken on himself the task of keeping Tito Rodríguez's musical legacy alive and has acquired much of Tito's memorabilia, including articles of clothing and furniture from his home in Puerto Rico. Santa Rosa has staged several concerts and dances honoring the late singer, recorded an album of his where with the use of modern technology, he sings "En la soledad", composed by Puchi Balseiro in a duet with him. During the week of February 24, 2003 Santa Rosa organized a two-night concert at the Center of the Performing Arts in Caguas, Puerto Rico; as an introduction to the event, he arranged for his private collection of Tito Rodríguez memorabilia to be exhibited in the lobby of the center. In 2004, he released "Auténtico". In addition, he has long played an important role in the career of his friend and protégé, Víctor Manuelle, who Santa Rosa discovered; the two released a joint live album late in 2005, "Dos soneros, una historia."
In 2006, he released, "Directo al corazón", in 2007 he carried out a concert acknowledged by the critics, in Plaza Colón at Santo Domingo and released Contraste with Conteo regresivo being a major album hit. Furthermore, he performs alongside Chucho Avellanet, a musical comedy club-act called, Cantando y Contando, throughout the island. On February 9, 2008 Santa Rosa participated in an event named "Concierto del amor", organized in the Madison Square Garden. In June 2008, "Contraste" received Gold and Platinum certification from the Recording Industry Association of America. According to the organization, the production has sold over 1,500,000 copies. At the moment of certification, the album's first single "Conteo regresivo" had been sixteen weeks in the first place among Billboard's tropical list. Meanwhile, "No te vayas" began gaining positions in the same list. After participating in New York City's Puerto Rican Day Parade, Santa Rosa prepared to begin an international tour beginning on June 13, 2008, in New Orleans before proceeding to Tampa, Ecuador, Spain and Mexico.
The concert in Chile, on June 28, 2008, was Santa Rosa's first in said country. The event took place in the Caupolicán Theatre and was attended by 8,000 fans. On July 5, 2008, Santa Rosa became the first salsa singer to perform at the Palau de la Música in Barcelona; the event was a Sold Out, filling the venue with an attendance of 2,000. Santa Rosa was selected to perform at the "Balón de Oro" award ceremony, the most important honor in Mexican football. Santa Rosa was selected to take part in "La Nueva Salsa", where he would perform along several young salsa artists. Santa Rosa has contributed to improving Puerto Rico's public education system, he participated i
William Anthony Colón Román is a Nuyorican salsa musician and social activist. He began his career as a trombonist, sings, writes and acts, he is involved in the politics of New York City Willie Colón born in the South Bronx, New York, to American-born parents of Puerto Rican descent. He picked up the trumpet from a young age, switched to trombone, inspired by the all-trombone sound of Mon Rivera and Barry Rogers, he spent some summers at his maternal grandmother's sister's farm in the outskirts of Manatí, Puerto Rico on the road to neighboring Ciales, Puerto Rico. At the age of 15 he was signed to Fania Records and at 17 he recorded his first album, which sold more than 300,000 copies. Due to fortuitous events, the main record producer at Fania at the time, Johnny Pacheco, recommended Héctor Lavoe to him, he has acted in films, including roles in Vigilante, The Last Fight and It Could Happen to You. Colón has been a civil rights and political activist since the age of 16, he has served as a member of the Latino Commission on AIDS and President of the Arthur Schomburg Coalition for a Better New York, member of the Board of Directors of the Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute.
In 1995, Mr. Colón became the first person of color to serve on the American Society of Composers and Publishers national board replacing Stephen Sondheim and was a member of the ASCAP Foundation. Beyond the trombone, he has worked as a composer and singer, as a producer and director. Combining elements of jazz and salsa, his work incorporates the rhythms of traditional music from Cuba, Puerto Rico and the other ancestral homeland, representing the a one-way flow from Puerto Rico to the New York-based diaspora. "His life and music commute back and forth between his home turf in the Bronx and his ancestral Puerto Rico, with more than casual stop-offs in other musical zones of the Caribbean." Colón "makes the relation between diaspora and Caribbean homeland the central theme of his work," in his 1971 Christmas album, Asalto Navideño. The lyrics and music of the songs on this album "enact the diaspora addressing the island culture in a complex, loving but at the same time mildly challenging way."
He went on to have many successful collaborations with salsa musicians and singers such as Ismael Miranda, Celia Cruz and Soledad Bravo, singer-songwriter Rubén Blades. On his website, Colón claims to hold the "all time record for sales in the Salsa genre, created 40 productions that have sold more than thirty million records worldwide."One significant overarching theme in Colón's music, which draws from many cultures and several different styles, is an exploration of the competing associations that Puerto Ricans have with their home and with the United States. He uses his songs to depict and investigate the problems of living in the United States as a Puerto Rican, to imply the cultural contributions that Puerto Ricans have to offer. In May 2007 Willie Colon sued Ruben Blades for breach of contract; this led to a series of countersuits that lasted over five years. A book titled "Decisiones" detailing the inside story of this legal battle was written by Blades' former agent, Robert J. Morgalo and published in 2016 in English and Spanish website.
The court documents can be read here and full transcripts of depositions and court rulings can be seen here Colón released two singles,"Amor de Internet" and "Corazón Partido" to promote for his album El Malo Vol II: Prisioneros del Mambo. In 2016 Colón began his 50th Anniversary Tour. In 2017 Colón announced his upcoming book titled Barrio de Guapos and the launching of his record label Willie Colon Presents. For 2018 Colón kicked off his "Rumba Del Siglo" World Tour performing in U. S. Latin America and Europe to sold-out venues; because of the great success of his last tour, Colón will continue "Rumba Del Siglo 2019". Willie Colón campaigned and became a special assistant and spokesperson for the first African- American mayor of New York City, David Dinkins from 1989 to 1993. In 1994, in his first political run, Colón challenged Rep. Elliot Engel for the Democrat party primary for New York's 17th Congressional district, he was defeated 62% to 38%. In 2001, Willie Colón ran for Public Advocate of the City of New York, receiving a respectable 101,393 votes.
Colón served for 12 years as New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg's representative advisor and liaison to the Latin Media Entertainment Commission. Colón's base of operations, ELMALO, is in New York. On April 16, 2008, Colón announced his endorsement of U. S. Senator Hillary Clinton in her 2008 presidential campaign. On April 25, 2010, Colón appeared at The National Mall for The Earth Day Climate Rally, along with Sting, John Legend, The Roots, Jimmy Cliff, Passion Pit, Bob Weir, Joss Stone, Robert Randolph, Patrick Stump, Mavis Staples, Booker T, Honor Society and Tao Rodríguez-Seeger. In 2012 and 2013, Colón campaigned against Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez and the left-wing Bolivarian Revolution. Chávez addressed Colón via Twitter. After Chávez' death, Willie Colón endorsed opposition candidate Henrique Capriles Radonski, vigorously using social media and composing a campaign theme "Mentira Fresca" the song went viral in Latin America, garnering millions of plays and downloads. Colón continues to be active in Venezuelan politics having pressed for the
José Monserrate Feliciano García, better known as José Feliciano, is a Puerto Rican musician and composer, best known for many international hits, including his rendition of The Doors' Light My Fire and the best-selling Christmas single, Feliz Navidad. His music is known for its fusion of styles: Latin, blues and rock, created with his unique, signature acoustic guitar sound, his oftentimes mellow easy listening influences are recognizable in many songs heard around the world. In the United States, he first received widespread popularity in the 1960s after his 1968 album Feliciano! reached number two on the music charts. Thus far, he has released over fifty albums, worldwide, in both Spanish. Feliciano was born in Lares, Puerto Rico, on September 10, 1945; the fourth child of eleven sons, Jose was born blind as a result of congenital glaucoma. He was first exposed to music at the age of 3, playing on a tin cracker can while accompanying his uncle who played the cuatro; when Feliciano was 5, his family moved to Spanish Harlem, New York City, where at the age of 9 he made his first public appearance at the Teatro Puerto Rico in The Bronx.
Feliciano's knack for music became apparent. About two years however, when Jose was nine years old, his father handed him a paper bag -- with his first guitar, changing his life forever, he would play this instrument by himself in his room for up to 14 hours a day, would learn by listening to 1950s rock and roll, records of classical guitarists and jazz players. Andrés Segovia and Wes Montgomery were among his favorites; as a teenager, Feliciano took some classical guitar lessons with Harold Morris, a staff music teacher at The Light House School for the Blind in New York City. Morris, had once been a student of Andres Segovia. In a 1969 interview, Feliciano mentioned soul music in general, Ray Charles and Sam Cooke in particular, as influences on his singing. At 17, in order to help support his family, Jose quit high school, he started frequenting the coffee houses of Greenwich Village,'passing the hat' as his'salary' in those clubs where he was invited to play. His first professional, contracted performance was at The Retort, a coffee house in Detroit, Michigan.
In 1963, while gaining recognition in pubs, coffee houses and clubs throughout the U. S. and Canada in Greenwich Village, New York, Vancouver, British Columbia, he was unexpectedly discovered while performing at Gerde's Folk City in the Village and signed by Jack Somer, an executive at RCA Victor. In 1964, he released his first single, Everybody Do the Click and was invited to the 1964 Newport Folk Festival. In 1965 and 1966, he released his first albums: The Voice and Guitar of Jose Feliciano and A Bag Full of Soul, two folk-pop-soul albums that showcased his talent on radios across the US, where in July of 1963 he had been described by New York Times columnist, Robert Shelton as a "10-fingered wizard". In 1966, Jose visited Mar del Plata, Argentina, to perform at the'Festival de Mar del Plata'. There, he so impressed the RCA Victor executives, that they wanted him to stay and record an album for them in Spanish, they were unsure how they wanted to record Feliciano so Jose suggested he record some of the bolero music of his parents where Jose added his blues and folk influences from his experiences while playing in the Village.
The result was two smash hits with the singles Poquita Fe, Usted. This was the beginning of a series of successful singles and gold records throughout Latin America and Hispanic communities in the United States where Feliciano revolutionized the sound of the bolero; some of his most beloved interpretations include La Copa Rota, La Carcel de Sing Sing, Extraños en la Noche which charted concurrently as the Spanish version of Frank Sinatra's Stranger in the night. A year Feliciano was scheduled to perform in the United Kingdom but the authorities would not allow his guide dog, into the country unless she was quarantined for six months; the stringent quarantine measures of those days were intended to prevent the spread of rabies. Devastated by their actions, Feliciano wrote a song about his experience entitled No Dogs Allowed, which told the story of This first visit to London. During his British visit on July 16, 1967, Feliciano gave a live performance on the pirate radio stations Radio 227 and Radio 355, on board the'MV Laissez Faire' off the British coast less than a month before the stations were due to be closed by the UK's Marine Broadcasting Offences Act.
He guested on a popular British television show with Dusty Springfield and recorded a rare single for RCA in England called My Foolish Heart / Only Once, played on London radio. Earlier, on June 4, 1967, in London's Speakeasy Club, Jimi Hendrix came to the stage and complimented Feliciano on his extraordinary guitar work. After two more successful albums, now a household name throughout Latin America, moved to Los Angeles, he was introduced to RCA Victor producer, Rick Jarrard who, at the time, was producing Harry Nilsson and Jefferson Airplane. They recorded the hit album Feliciano! together, including the Doors' song Light My Fire. Jose's style was defining itself by that time as that of an innovative crossover artist with soul and rock influences, infused with a substantial Latin flair. RCA released California Dreamin' as the first single during the summer of 1968 with Light My Fire as the "B-side." A DJ behind the mic
Puerto Rico the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea 1,000 miles southeast of Miami, Florida. An archipelago among the Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico includes the eponymous main island and several smaller islands, such as Mona and Vieques; the capital and most populous city is San Juan. The territory's total population is 3.4 million. Spanish and English are the official languages. Populated by the indigenous Taíno people, Puerto Rico was colonized by Spain following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1493, it was contested by French and British, but remained a Spanish possession for the next four centuries. The island's cultural and demographic landscapes were shaped by the displacement and assimilation of the native population, the forced migration of African slaves, settlement from the Canary Islands and Andalusia. In the Spanish Empire, Puerto Rico played a secondary but strategic role compared to wealthier colonies like Peru and New Spain.
Spain's distant administrative control continued up to the end of the 19th century, producing a distinctive creole Hispanic culture and language that combined indigenous and European elements. In 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States acquired Puerto Rico under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Puerto Ricans have been citizens of the United States since 1917, enjoy freedom of movement between the island and the mainland; as it is not a state, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. However, Puerto Rico does have one non-voting member of the House called a Resident Commissioner; as residents of a U. S. territory, American citizens in Puerto Rico are disenfranchised at the national level and do not vote for president and vice president of the United States, nor pay federal income tax on Puerto Rican income. Like other territories and the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico does not have U.
S. senators. Congress approved a local constitution in 1952, allowing U. S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. Puerto Rico's future political status has been a matter of significant debate. In early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government; the outstanding bond debt had climbed to $70 billion at a time with 12.4% unemployment. The debt had been increasing during a decade long recession; this was the second major financial crisis to affect the island after the Great Depression when the U. S. government, in 1935, provided relief efforts through the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration. On May 3, 2017, Puerto Rico's financial oversight board in the U. S. District Court for Puerto Rico filed the debt restructuring petition, made under Title III of PROMESA. By early August 2017, the debt was $72 billion with a 45% poverty rate. In late September 2017, Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico; the island's electrical grid was destroyed, with repairs expected to take months to complete, provoking the largest power outage in American history.
Recovery efforts were somewhat slow in the first few months, over 200,000 residents had moved to the mainland State of Florida alone by late November 2017. Puerto Rico is Spanish for "rich port". Puerto Ricans call the island Borinquén – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, which means "Land of the Valiant Lord"; the terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen and are used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is popularly known in Spanish as la isla del encanto, meaning "the island of enchantment". Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, while the capital city was named Ciudad de Puerto Rico. Traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city; the island's name was changed to "Porto Rico" by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898. The anglicized name was used by the U.
S. government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931; the official name of the entity in Spanish is Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, while its official English name is Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The ancient history of the archipelago, now Puerto Rico is not well known. Unlike other indigenous cultures in the New World which left behind abundant archeological and physical evidence of their societies, scant artifacts and evidence remain of the Puerto Rico's indigenous population. Scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish accounts from the colonial era constitute all, known about them; the first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, nearly three centuries after the first Spaniards landed on the island. The first known settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen who migrated from the South American mainland.
Some scholars suggest their settlement dates back about 4,000 years. An archeological dig in 1990 on the island of Vieques found the remains of a man, designated as the "Puerto Ferro Man", dated to around 2000 BC; the Ortoiroid were displaced
Marco Antonio Muñiz, known professionally as Marc Anthony, is an American singer, record producer and television producer. Anthony is the top selling tropical salsa artist of all time; the two-time Grammy Award and five-time Latin Grammy Award winner has sold more than 12 million albums worldwide. He is best known for his Latin salsa ballads. Anthony has won numerous awards and his achievements have been honored through various recognitions, he was the recipient of the 2009 Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute Chair's Award. He received the "2009 CHCI Chair's Lifetime Achievement Award" on September 16, 2009, he holds the Guinness World Record for best-selling tropical/salsa artist and the most number-one albums on the Billboard Tropical Albums year-end charts. Marco Antonio Muñiz, known by his stage name Marc Anthony, was born in New York City to parents from Guayama, Puerto Rico, his mother Guillermina was a housewife, his father, Felipe Muñiz, a musician and hospital lunchroom worker. Anthony's parents named him after Mexican singer Marco Antonio Muñiz.
Anthony grew up in East Harlem known as Spanish Harlem and El Barrio, is the youngest of eight children. He was raised Roman Catholic. Muñiz began his career as a session vocalist for freestyle and underground New York house music acts. After changing his name to avoid confusion with his namesake, Anthony worked as a songwriter and backing vocalist for pop acts Menudo and the Latin Rascals, his first album was "Rebel," which debuted in 1988 on Bluedog Records. That same year he produced "Boy I've Been Told" for fellow freestyle artist Sa-Fire. In 1989, he sang backup vocals for Ann-Marie on the freestyle club hit, "With or Without You" produced by Little Louie Vega and Todd Terry. A year in 1990, with Little Louie Vega and Todd Terry, Marc wrote a duet with Chrissy I-eece, called "You Should Know By Now." In 1992, still working with Todd Terry, he provided vocals for "Love Change,", on the flip-side of a 12" vinyl released by Elan and The Powermachine titled "Here's Your Hat," production of Todd Terry.
At the same time, he collaborated with music producer Little Louie Vega, who featured the singer on many freestyle-flavored club hits "Ride On The Rhythm" and the "When The Night Is Over" album, which featured the freestyle classic "Time." In 1992, Vega and Anthony opened for Latin bandleader Tito Puente at New York's Madison Square Garden. After 1992, he changed his style from freestyle to salsa and other Latin styles. Anthony was reluctant to become a salsa musician and declined an offer to make a salsa album when Ralph Mercado, president of RMM Records, asked him. Anthony was in a taxi when he heard Juan Gabriel's hit song, "Hasta Que Te Conocí," which influenced him to change his mind and ask Mercado if he could record it as a salsa tune. Inspired by the music of Tito Puente, Héctor Lavoe, Rubén Blades, Juan Gabriel, Anthony released his Spanish-language debut, Otra Nota, in 1993. Anthony performed at the Radio y Musica Convention hosted by Alfredo Alonso; the album included a cover of Bread's song, "Make It with You."
Subsequent tours throughout the Americas, including an opening slot for Blades, established Anthony as one of the new stars in salsa. In 1994, he was featured in La India's album Dicen Que Soy, on the song "Vivir Lo Nuestro", his 1995 follow-up, Todo a su tiempo, won Anthony a Billboard award for Hot Tropical Artist of the Year. The album was nominated for a Grammy with songs like "Te Conozco Bien," "Hasta Ayer," "Nadie Como Ella," "Se Me Sigue Olvidando," "Te Amare," and "Llegaste A Mi." The album has sold more than 800,000 copies and has become established as a gold record in the United States and in Puerto Rico. Anthony's next Spanish language album, Contra La Coriente, was followed by the television special Marc Anthony: The Concert from Madison Square Garden, it was broadcast on HBO on Valentine's Day in 2000. The special was nominated for the Music Special of the Year by TV Guide; the album's song "Y Hubo Alguien" became Anthony's first number-one single on the Billboard Hot Latin Tracks and the first by a salsa musician.
The album became the first salsa album to enter the English language Billboard 200 chart. After an ongoing battle with RMM, he severed ties with Ralph Mercado and left the label in 1999. Otra Nota, Todo a Su Tiempo, Contra La Corriente established him as the top-selling singer in the history of the genre, able to sell out Madison Square Garden and prestigious venues internationally. Anthony subsequently recorded the duet "No Me Ames" with Jennifer Lopez on her album On the 6, giving her an assist in her Spanish language crossover attempt, he recorded a duet "I Want to Spend My Lifetime Loving You" with Tina Arena, written by James Horner for the latter's soundtrack for the 1998 swashbuckling movie The Mask of Zorro. In 1999, riding the crossover wave of Ricky Martin and Enrique Iglesias in the Anglophone market, working with producers Walter Afanasieff, Cory Rooney, Dan Shea, Rodney Jerkins, released an English-language, self-titled album with the US Top 5 single "I Need to Know", the Spanish version, "Dímelo".
His song "You Sang To Me" was featured in Runaway Bride. A dance version was remixed by Dutch producer Rene Van Verseveld; the album debuted at number eight on the Billboard album chart, six weeks went platinum. The song "I Need To Know" earned a Grammy nomination for Best Male Pop Vocal Performance. In 2001, he debuted another salsa album, certified gold with songs like "Celos", "Este Loco Que Te Mira", "Viviendo"; the album spent 14 weeks at the number-one spot on the Billboard Top Latin Albums chart. The year after that, he made another
The music industry consists of the companies and individuals that earn money by creating new songs and pieces and selling live concerts and shows and video recordings and sheet music, the organizations and associations that aid and represent music creators. Among the many individuals and organizations that operate in the industry are: the songwriters and composers who create new songs and musical pieces; the industry includes a range of professionals who assist singers and musicians with their music careers. In addition to the businesses and artists who work in the music industry to make a profit or income, there is a range of organizations that play an important role in the music industry, including musician's unions, not-for-profit performance-rights organizations and other associations; the modern Western music industry emerged between the 1930s and 1950s, when records replaced sheet music as the most important product in the music business. In the commercial world, "the recording industry"—a reference to recording performances of songs and pieces and selling the recordings–began to be used as a loose synonym for "the music industry".
In the 2000s, a majority of the music market is controlled by three major corporate labels: the French-owned Universal Music Group, the Japanese-owned Sony Music Entertainment, the US-owned Warner Music Group. Labels outside of these three major labels are referred to as independent labels; the largest portion of the live music market for concerts and tours is controlled by Live Nation, the largest promoter and music venue owner. Live Nation is a former subsidiary of iHeartMedia Inc, the largest owner of radio stations in the United States. In the first decades of the 2000s, the music industry underwent drastic changes with the advent of widespread digital distribution of music via the Internet. A conspicuous indicator of these changes is total music sales: since 2000, sales of recorded music have dropped off while live music has increased in importance. In 2011, the largest recorded music retailer in the world was now a digital, Internet-based platform operated by a computer company: Apple Inc.'s online iTunes Store.
Since 2011, the Music Industry has seen consistent sales growth with streaming now generating more revenue per annum than digital downloads. Spotify and Apple lead the way with online digital streaming. Printed music in Europe: Music publishing using machine-printed sheet music developed during the Renaissance music era in the mid-15th century; the development of music publication followed the evolution of printing technologies that were first developed for printing regular books. After the mid-15th century, mechanical techniques for printing sheet music were first developed; the earliest example, a set of liturgical chants, dates from about 1465, shortly after the Gutenberg Bible was printed. Prior to this time, music had to be copied out by hand. To copy music notation by hand was a costly, labor-intensive and time-consuming process, so it was undertaken only by monks and priests seeking to preserve sacred music for the church; the few collections of secular music that are extant were commissioned and owned by wealthy aristocrats.
Examples include the Squarcialupi Codex of Italian Trecento music and the Chantilly Codex of French Ars subtilior music. The use of printing enabled sheet music to reproduced much more and at a much lower cost than hand-copying music notation; this helped musical styles to spread to other cities and countries more and it enabled music to be spread to more distant areas. Prior to the invention of music printing, a composer's music might only be known in the city she lived in and its surrounding towns, because only wealthy aristocrats would be able to afford to have hand copies made of her music. With music printing, though, a composer's music could be printed and sold at a low cost to purchasers from a wide geographic area; as sheet music of major composer's pieces and songs began to be printed and distributed in a wider area, this enabled composers and listeners to hear new styles and forms of music. A German composer could buy songs written by an Italian or English composer, an Italian composer could buy pieces written by Dutch composers and learn how they wrote music.
This led to more blending of musical styles from different regions. The pioneer of modern music printing was Ottaviano Petrucci, a printer and publisher, able to secure a twenty-year monopoly on printed music in Venice during the 16th century. Venice was one of music centers during this period, his Harmoni
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.