A physicist is a scientist who specializes in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe. Physicists are interested in the root or ultimate causes of phenomena, frame their understanding in mathematical terms. Physicists work across a wide range of research fields, spanning all length scales: from sub-atomic and particle physics, through biological physics, to cosmological length scales encompassing the universe as a whole; the field includes two types of physicists: experimental physicists who specialize in the observation of physical phenomena and the analysis of experiments, theoretical physicists who specialize in mathematical modeling of physical systems to rationalize and predict natural phenomena. Physicists can apply their knowledge towards solving practical problems or to developing new technologies; the study and practice of physics is based on an intellectual ladder of discoveries and insights from ancient times to the present.
Many mathematical and physical ideas used today found their earliest expression in ancient Greek culture, for example in the work of Euclid, Thales of Miletus and Aristarchus. Roots emerged in ancient Asian culture and in the Islamic medieval period, for example the work of Alhazen in the 11th century; the modern scientific worldview and the bulk of physics education can be said to flow from the scientific revolution in Europe, starting with the work of Galileo Galilei and Johannes Kepler in the early 1600s. Newton's laws of motion and Newton's law of universal gravitation were formulated in the 17th century; the experimental discoveries of Faraday and the theory of Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism were developmental high points during the 19th century. Many physicists contributed to the development of quantum mechanics in the early-to-mid 20th century. New knowledge in the early 21st century includes a large increase in understanding physical cosmology; the broad and general study of nature, natural philosophy, was divided into several fields in the 19th century, when the concept of "science" received its modern shape.
Specific categories emerged, such as "biology" and "biologist", "physics" and "physicist", "chemistry" and "chemist", among other technical fields and titles. The term physicist was coined by William Whewell in his 1840 book The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences. A standard undergraduate physics curriculum consists of classical mechanics and magnetism, non-relativistic quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, laboratory experience. Physics students need training in mathematics, in computer science. Any physics-oriented career position requires at least an undergraduate degree in physics or applied physics, while career options widen with a Master's degree like MSc, MPhil, MPhys or MSci. For research-oriented careers, students work toward a doctoral degree specializing in a particular field. Fields of specialization include experimental and theoretical astrophysics, atomic physics, biological physics, chemical physics, condensed matter physics, geophysics, gravitational physics, material science, medical physics, molecular physics, nuclear physics, radiophysics, electromagnetic field and microwave physics, particle physics, plasma physics.
The highest honor awarded to physicists is the Nobel Prize in Physics, awarded since 1901 by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. National physics professional societies have many awards for professional recognition. In the case of the American Physical Society, as of 2017, there are 33 separate prizes and 38 separate awards in the field; the three major employers of career physicists are academic institutions and private industries, with the largest employer being the last. Physicists in academia or government labs tend to have titles such as Assistants, Professors, Sr./Jr. Scientist, or postdocs; as per the American Institute of Physics, some 20% of new physics Ph. D.s holds jobs in engineering development programs, while 14% turn to computer software and about 11% are in business/education. A majority of physicists employed apply their skills and training to interdisciplinary sectors. Job titles for graduate physicists include Agricultural Scientist, Air Traffic Controller, Computer Programmer, Electrical Engineer, Environmental Analyst, Medical Physicist, Oceanographer, Physics Teacher/Professor/Researcher, Research Scientist, Reactor Physicist, Engineering Physicist, Satellite Missions Analyst, Science Writer, Software Engineer, Systems Engineer, Microelectronics Engineer, Radar Developer, Technical Consultant, etc.
A majority of Physics terminal bachelor's degree holders are employed in the private sector. Other fields are academia and military service, nonprofit entities and teaching. Typical duties of physicists with master's and doctoral degrees working in their domain involve research and analysis, data preparation, instrumentation and development of industrial or medical equipment and software development, etc. Chartered Physicist is a chartered status and a professional qualification awarded by the Institute of Physics, it is denoted by the postnominals "CPhys". Achieving chartered status in any profession denotes to the wider community a high level of specialised subject knowledge and professional competence. According to the Institute of Physics, holders of the award of the Chartered Physicist demonst
1873 Vienna World's Fair
Weltausstellung 1873 Wien was the large world exposition, held in 1873 in the Austria-Hungarian capital of Vienna. Its motto was Kultur und Erziehung. There were 26,000 exhibitors housed in different buildings that were erected for this exposition, including the Rotunde, a large circular building in the great park of Prater designed by the Scottish engineer John Scott Russell; the Rotunde was destroyed by fire on 17 September 1937. The Russian pavilion had a naval section designed by Viktor Hartmann. Exhibits included models of the Illés Relief model of Jerusalem. Osman Hamdi Bey, an archaeologist and painter, was chosen by the Ottoman government as commissary of the empire's exhibits in Vienna, he organized the Ottoman pavilion with Victor Marie de Launay, a French-born Ottoman official and archivist, who had written the catalogue for the Ottoman Empire's exhibition at the 1867 Paris World's Fair. The Ottoman pavilion, located near the Egyptian pavilion, in the park outside the Rotunde, included small replicas of notable Ottoman buildings and models of vernacular architecture: a replica of the Sultan Ahmed Fountain in the Topkapı Palace, a model Istanbul residence, a representative Turkish bath, a cafe, a bazaar.
The 1873 Ottoman pavilion was more prominent than its pavilion in 1867. The Vienna exhibition set off Western nations' pavilions against Eastern pavilions, with the host, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, setting itself at the juncture between East and West. A report by the Ottoman commission for the exhibition expressed a goal of inspiring with their display "a serious interest on the part of the industrialists, traders and scholars of other nations...."The Ottoman pavilion included a gallery of mannequins wearing the traditional costumes of many of the varied ethnic groups of the Ottoman Empire. To supplement the cases of costumes, Osman Hamdi and de Launay created a photographic book of Ottoman costumes, the Elbise-i'Osmaniyye, with photographs by Pascal Sébah; the photographic plates of the Elbise depicted traditional Ottoman costumes, commissioned from artisans working in the administrative divisions of the Empire, worn by men and children who resembled the various ethnic and religious types of the empire, though the models were all found in Istanbul.
The photographs are accompanied by texts describing the costumes in detail and commenting on the rituals and habits of the regions and ethnic groups in question. The exhibition led to an intensive building activity in the years before; the new train station to Germany Nordwestbahnhof was completed just for example. Official website of the BIE Media related to Expo 1873 at Wikimedia Commons The Rotunda of the 1873 Vienna International Exhibition Images from the exhibition
A personal name or full name is the set of names by which an individual is known and that can be recited as a word-group, with the understanding that, taken together, they all relate to that one individual. In many cultures, the term is synonymous with the birth name or legal name of the individual; the academic study of personal names is called anthroponymy. In Western culture, nearly all individuals possess at least one given name, together with a surname —respectively, the Abraham and Lincoln in Abraham Lincoln—the latter to indicate that the individual belongs to a family, a tribe, or a clan. Where there are two or more given names only one is used in normal speech. Another naming convention, used in the Arabic culture and in different other areas across Africa and Asia is connecting the person's given name with a chain of names, starting with the name of the person's father and the father's father and so on ending with the family name. However, the legal full name of a person contains the first three names with the family name at the end, to limit the name in government-issued ID.
Note that the wife's name does not change after marriage, it follows the naming convention described above. Some cultures, including Western ones add patronymics or matronymics. For instance, as a middle name as with Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, or as a last name as with Björk Guðmundsdóttir or Heiðar Helguson. Similar concepts are present in Eastern cultures. However, in some areas of the world, many people are known by a single name, so are said to be mononymous. Still other cultures lack the concept of specific, fixed names designating people, either individually or collectively. Certain isolated tribes, such as the Machiguenga of the Amazon, do not use personal names. A person's full name identifies that person for legal and administrative purposes, although it may not be the name by which the person is known, it is nearly universal for people to have names. Common components of names given at birth include: Personal name: The given name can precede a family name, or it can come after the family name, or be used without a family name.
Patronymic: A surname based on the given name of the father. Matronymic: A surname based on the given name of the mother. Family name: A name used by all members of a family. In China, surnames came into common use beginning in the 3rd century BC. In some areas of East Asia, surnames developed in the next several centuries, while in other areas, surnames did not become prevalent until the 19th century. In Europe, after the loss of the Roman system, the common use of family names started quite early in some areas, but it did not happen until much in areas that used a patronymic naming custom, such as the Scandinavian countries and some areas of Germany, as well as Russia and Ukraine; the compulsory use of surnames varied greatly. France required a priest to write surnames in baptismal records in 1539. On the other hand, surnames were not compulsory in the Scandinavian countries until the 19th or 20th century in Norway, Iceland still does not use surnames for its native inhabitants. In Spain and most Latin American countries, two surnames are used, one being the father's family name and the other being the mother's family name.
Whereas Spain used to put the father's family name before the mother's family name and Brazil keep the inverse order but use the father's family name as the principal one. A Portuguese man named António de Oliveira Guterres would therefore be known as António Guterres. In Spain, the second surname is used if the first one is too common to allow an easy identification. For example, Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero is called Zapatero. In most of the cultures of the Middle East and South Asia, surnames were not used until European influence took hold in the 19th century. In many families, single or multiple middle names are alternative names, names honoring an ancestor or relative, or, for married women, sometimes their maiden names. In some traditions, the roles of the first and middle given names are reversed, with the first given name being used to honor a family member and the middle name being used as the usual method to address someone informally. Many Catholic families choose a saint's name as their child's middle name or this can be left until the child's confirmation when they choose a saint's name for themselves.
Cultures that use patronymics or matronymics will give middle names to distinguish between two named people: e.g. Einar Karl Stefánsson and Einar Guðmundur Stefánsson; this is done in Iceland where people are known and referred to exclusively by their given name/s. Some people choose to be anonymous, that is, to hide their true names, for fear of governmental prosecution or social ridicule
Sir Charles Wheatstone FRS HFRSE DCL LLD, was an English scientist and inventor of many scientific breakthroughs of the Victorian era, including the English concertina, the stereoscope, the Playfair cipher. However, Wheatstone is best known for his contributions in the development of the Wheatstone bridge invented by Samuel Hunter Christie, used to measure an unknown electrical resistance, as a major figure in the development of telegraphy. Charles Wheatstone was born in Gloucestershire, his father, W. Wheatsone, was a music-seller in the town, who moved to 128 Pall Mall, four years becoming a teacher of the flute. Charles, the second son, went to a village school, near Gloucester, afterwards to several institutions in London. One of them was in Kennington, kept by a Mrs. Castlemaine, astonished at his rapid progress. From another he ran away, but was captured at Windsor, not far from the theatre of his practical telegraph; as a boy he was shy and sensitive, liking well to retire into an attic, without any other company than his own thoughts.
When he was about fourteen years old he was apprenticed to his uncle and namesake, a maker and seller of musical instruments at 436 Strand, London. His father encouraged him in this, took him out of the uncle's charge. At the age of fifteen, Wheatstone translated French poetry, wrote two songs, one of, given to his uncle, who published it without knowing it as his nephew's composition; some lines of his on the lyre became the motto of an engraving by Bartolozzi. He visited an old book-stall in the vicinity of Pall Mall, a dilapidated and unpaved thoroughfare. Most of his pocket-money was spent in purchasing the books which had taken his fancy, whether fairy tales, history, or science. One day, to the surprise of the bookseller, he coveted a volume on the discoveries of Volta in electricity, but not having the price, he saved his pennies and secured the volume, it was written in French, so he was obliged to save again, until he could buy a dictionary. He began to read the volume, with the help of his elder brother, William, to repeat the experiments described in it, with a home-made battery, in the scullery behind his father's house.
In constructing the battery, the boy philosophers ran short of money to procure the requisite copper-plates. They had only a few copper coins left. A happy thought occurred to Charles, the leading spirit in these researches,'We must use the pennies themselves,' said he, the battery was soon complete. At Christchurch, Marylebone, on 12 February 1847, Wheatstone was married to Emma West, she was the daughter of a Taunton tradesman, of handsome appearance. She died in 1866, his domestic life was uneventful. Though silent and reserved in public, Wheatstone was a clear and voluble talker in private, if taken on his favourite studies, his small but active person, his plain but intelligent countenance, was full of animation. Sir Henry Taylor tells us that he once observed Wheatstone at an evening party in Oxford earnestly holding forth to Lord Palmerston on the capabilities of his telegraph.'You don't say so!' Exclaimed the statesman.'I must get you to tell that to the Lord Chancellor.' And so saying, he fastened the electrician on Lord Westbury, effected his escape.
A reminiscence of this interview may have prompted Palmerston to remark that a time was coming when a minister might be asked in Parliament if war had broken out in India, would reply,'Wait a minute. Wheatstone was knighted after his completion of the automatic telegraph, he had been made a Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Some thirty-four distinctions and diplomas of home or foreign societies bore witness to his scientific reputation. Since 1836 he had been a Fellow of the Royal Society, in 1859 he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, in 1873 a Foreign Associate of the French Academy of Sciences; the same year he was awarded the Ampere Medal by the French Society for the Encouragement of National Industry. In 1875, he was created an honorary member of the Institution of Civil Engineers, he was a D. C. L. of Oxford and an LL. D. of Cambridge. While on a visit to Paris during the autumn of 1875, engaged in perfecting his receiving instrument for submarine cables, he caught a cold, which produced inflammation of the lungs, an illness from which he died in Paris, on 19 October 1875.
A memorial service was held in the Anglican Chapel and attended by a deputation of the Academy. His remains were taken to his home in Park Crescent and buried in Kensal Green Cemetery. In September 1821, Wheatstone brought himself into public notice by exhibiting the'Enchanted Lyre,' or'Acoucryptophone,' at a music-shop at Pall Mall and in the Adelaide Gallery, it consisted of a mimic lyre hung from the ceiling by a cord, emitting the strains of several instruments – the piano and dulcimer. In reality it was a mere sounding box, the cord was a steel rod that conveyed the vibrations of the music from the several instruments which were played out of sight and ear-shot. At this period Wheatstone made numerous experiments on its transmission; some of his results are preserved in Thomson's Annals of Philosophy for 1823. He recognised that sound is propagated by waves or oscillations of the atmosphere, as light was believed to be by undulations of the luminiferous e
Direct current is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. A battery is a good example of a DC power supply. Direct current may flow in a conductor such as a wire, but can flow through semiconductors, insulators, or through a vacuum as in electron or ion beams; the electric current flows in a constant direction, distinguishing it from alternating current. A term used for this type of current was galvanic current; the abbreviations AC and DC are used to mean alternating and direct, as when they modify current or voltage. Direct current may be obtained from an alternating current supply by use of a rectifier, which contains electronic elements or electromechanical elements that allow current to flow only in one direction. Direct current may be converted into alternating current with a motor-generator set. Direct current is used as a power supply for electronic systems. Large quantities of direct-current power are used in production of aluminum and other electrochemical processes, it is used for some railways in urban areas.
High-voltage direct current is used to transmit large amounts of power from remote generation sites or to interconnect alternating current power grids. Direct current was produced in 1800 by Italian physicist Alessandro Volta's battery, his Voltaic pile; the nature of how current flowed. French physicist André-Marie Ampère conjectured that current travelled in one direction from positive to negative; when French instrument maker Hippolyte Pixii built the first dynamo electric generator in 1832, he found that as the magnet used passed the loops of wire each half turn, it caused the flow of electricity to reverse, generating an alternating current. At Ampère's suggestion, Pixii added a commutator, a type of "switch" where contacts on the shaft work with "brush" contacts to produce direct current; the late 1870s and early 1880s saw electricity starting to be generated at power stations. These were set up to power arc lighting running on high voltage direct current or alternating current; this was followed by the wide spread use of low voltage direct current for indoor electric lighting in business and homes after inventor Thomas Edison launched his incandescent bulb based electric "utility" in 1882.
Because of the significant advantages of alternating current over direct current in using transformers to raise and lower voltages to allow much longer transmission distances, direct current was replaced over the next few decades by alternating current in power delivery. In the mid-1950s, high-voltage direct current transmission was developed, is now an option instead of long-distance high voltage alternating current systems. For long distance underseas cables, this DC option is the only technically feasible option. For applications requiring direct current, such as third rail power systems, alternating current is distributed to a substation, which utilizes a rectifier to convert the power to direct current; the term DC is used to refer to power systems that use only one polarity of voltage or current, to refer to the constant, zero-frequency, or varying local mean value of a voltage or current. For example, the voltage across a DC voltage source is constant as is the current through a DC current source.
The DC solution of an electric circuit is the solution where all currents are constant. It can be shown that any stationary voltage or current waveform can be decomposed into a sum of a DC component and a zero-mean time-varying component. Although DC stands for "direct current", DC refers to "constant polarity". Under this definition, DC voltages can vary in time, as seen in the raw output of a rectifier or the fluctuating voice signal on a telephone line; some forms of DC have no variations in voltage, but may still have variations in output power and current. A direct current circuit is an electrical circuit that consists of any combination of constant voltage sources, constant current sources, resistors. In this case, the circuit voltages and currents are independent of time. A particular circuit voltage or current does not depend on the past value of any circuit voltage or current; this implies that the system of equations that represent a DC circuit do not involve integrals or derivatives with respect to time.
If a capacitor or inductor is added to a DC circuit, the resulting circuit is not speaking, a DC circuit. However, most such circuits have a DC solution; this solution gives the circuit currents when the circuit is in DC steady state. Such a circuit is represented by a system of differential equations; the solution to these equations contain a time varying or transient part as well as constant or steady state part. It is this steady state part, the DC solution. There are some circuits. Two simple examples are a constant current source connected to a capacitor and a constant voltage source connected to an inductor. In electronics, it is common to refer to a circuit, powered by a DC voltage source such as a battery or the output of a DC power supply as a DC circuit though what is meant is that the circuit is DC powered. DC is found in many extra-low voltage applications and some low-voltage applications where these are powered by batteries or solar power systems. Most electronic circuits require a DC power supply.
Domestic DC installations have differ
Liptó County was an administrative county of the Kingdom of Hungary. Its territory is now in northern Slovakia. Liptó county shared borders with the Austrian land Galicia and the Hungarian counties Árva, Turóc, Zólyom, Gömör-Kishont and Szepes; the county's territory was situated along the upper Vág river between the High Tatras and the Low Tatras. Its area was 2,247 km² around 1910. Today, the territory of the former Liptó County corresponds to the Ružomberok District and Liptovský Mikuláš District in northern Slovakia. Three villages are now in the Poprad District; the capitals of the county were the Liptó Castle Németlipcse, since 1677 the capital was Liptószentmiklós. Liptó county as a Hungarian comitatus arose before the 15th century. At various points throughout history the county was ruled by Voivodes or Counts from the Rosenberg, Csák and Benyovszky families. In the aftermath of World War I, the area became part of newly formed Czechoslovakia, as recognized by the concerned states in 1920 by the Treaty of Trianon.
In 1900, the county had a population of 82,159 people and was composed of the following linguistic communities:Total: Slovak: 75,938 Hungarian: 2,708 German: 2,475 Croatian: 6 Romanian: 3 Ruthenian: 2 Serbian: 2 Other or unknown: 1,025 According to the census of 1900, the county was composed of the following religious communities:Total: Roman Catholic: 43,979 Jewish: 3,092 Calvinist: 71 Lutheran: 34,953 Greek Catholic: 49 Unitarian: 4 Greek Orthodox: 3 Other or unknown: 8 In 1910, the county had a population of 86,906 people and was composed of the following linguistic communities:Total: Slovak: 78,098 Hungarian: 4,365 German: 2,591 Romanian: 222 Ruthenian: 25 Croatian: 11 Serbian: 1 Other or unknown: 1,593 According to the census of 1910, the county was composed of the following religious communities:Total: Roman Catholic: 47,772 Lutheran: 35,169 Jewish: 3,237 Calvinist: 289 Greek Catholic: 284 Greek Orthodox: 11 Unitarian: 3 Other or unknown: 141 In the early 20th century, the subdivisions of Liptó County were
Kingdom of Hungary (1526–1867)
The Kingdom of Hungary between 1526 and 1867, while outside the Holy Roman Empirenote 1, was part of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy that became the Empire of Austria in 1804. After the Battle of Mohács of 1526, the country was ruled by two crowned kings; the exact territory under Habsburg rule was disputed because both rulers claimed the whole kingdom. This unsettled period lasted until 1570 when John Sigismund Zápolya abdicated as King of Hungary in Emperor Maximilian II's favor. In the early stages, the lands that were ruled by the Habsburg Hungarian kings were regarded both as "the Kingdom of Hungary" and "Royal Hungary". Royal Hungary was the symbol of the continuity of formal law after the Ottoman occupation, because it could preserve its legal traditions; however in general it was de facto a Habsburg province. The Hungarian nobility forced Vienna to admit that Hungary was a special unit of the Habsburg lands and had to be ruled in conformity with her own special laws. Although, Hungarian historiography positioned Transylvania in a direct continuity with Medieval Kingdom of Hungary in pursuance of the advancement of Hungarian interests.
Under the terms of the Treaty of Karlowitz, which ended the Great Turkish War in 1699, the Ottomans ceded nearly all of Ottoman Hungary. The new territories were united with the territory of Kingdom of Hungary, although its powers were formal, a Diet seated in Pressburg ruled these lands. Two major Hungarian rebellions as the Rákóczi's War of Independence in the beginning of the 18th century and the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 marked important shifts in the evolution of the polity; the kingdom became a dual monarchy in 1867 known as the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Royal Hungary, was the name of the portion of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary where the Habsburgs were recognized as Kings of Hungary in the wake of the Ottoman victory at the Battle of Mohács and subsequent partition of the country. Temporary territorial division between the rival rules occurred only in 1538 at Treaty of Nagyvárad, when the Habsburgs got the north and west parts of the country, with the new capital Pressburg. John I secured the eastern part of the kingdom.
Habsburg monarchs needed the economic power of Hungary for the Ottoman wars. During the Ottoman wars the territory of former Kingdom of Hungary was reduced by around 70%. Territory of present-day Slovakia and northwestern Transdanubia were constant parts of this polity while the control was switched at region of northeastern Hungary between Royal Hungary and Principality of Transylvania; the central territories of the medieval Hungarian kingdom were annexed by the Ottoman Empire for 150 years. In 1570, John Sigismund Zápolya, the rival Hungarian king, abdicated as King of Hungary in Emperor Maximilian II's favor, expressed in the Treaty of Speyer; the term "Royal Hungary" fell into disuse after 1699, the Habsburg Kings referred to the newly enlarged country by the more formal term "Kingdom of Hungary". The Habsburgs, an influential dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire, were elected Kings of Hungary. Royal Hungary enjoyed little influence in Vienna; the Habsburg King directly controlled Royal Hungary's financial and foreign affairs, imperial troops guarded its borders.
The Habsburgs avoided filling the office of palatine to prevent the holder's amassing too much power. In addition, the so-called Turkish question divided the Habsburgs and the Hungarians: Vienna wanted to maintain peace with the Ottomans; as the Hungarians recognized the weakness of their position, many became anti-Habsburg. They complained about foreign rule, the behaviour of foreign garrisons, the Habsburgs' recognition of Turkish sovereignty in Transylvania. Protestants, who were persecuted in Royal Hungary, considered the Counter-Reformation a greater menace than the Turks, however; the Reformation spread and by the early 17th century hardly any noble families remained Catholic. In Royal Hungary, the majority of the population became Lutheran by the end of the 16th century. Archbishop Péter Pázmány reorganized Royal Hungary's Roman Catholic Church and led a Counter-Reformation that reversed the Protestants' gains in Royal Hungary, using persuasion rather than intimidation; the Reformation caused rifts between Catholics, who sided with the Habsburgs, Protestants, who developed a strong national identity and became rebels in Austrian eyes.
Chasms developed between the Catholic magnates and the Protestant lesser nobles. As the Habsburgs' control of the Turkish possessions started to increase, the ministers of Leopold I argued that he should rule Hungary as conquered territory. At the Diet of "Royal Hungary" in Pressburg, in 1687, the Emperor promised to observe all laws and privileges. Nonetheless, hereditary succession of the Habsburgs was recognized, the nobles' right of resistance was abrogated. In 1690 Leopold began redistributing lands freed from the Turks. Protestant nobles and all other Hungarians thought disloyal by the Habsburgs lost their estates, which were given to foreigners. Vienna controlled the foreign af