Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
Albania the Republic of Albania, is a country in Southeast Europe on the Adriatic and Ionian Sea within the Mediterranean Sea. It shares land borders with Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, North Macedonia to the east, Greece to the south and a maritime border with Italy to the west. Geographically, the country displays varied climatic, geological and morphological conditions, defined in an area of 28,748 km2, it possesses remarkable diversity with the landscape ranging from the snow-capped mountains in the Albanian Alps as well as the Korab, Skanderbeg and Ceraunian Mountains to the hot and sunny coasts of the Albanian Adriatic and Ionian Sea along the Mediterranean Sea. The area of Albania was populated by various Illyrian and Ancient Greek tribes as well as several Greek colonies established in the Illyrian coast; the area was annexed in the 3rd century by Romans and became an integral part of the Roman provinces of Dalmatia and Illyricum. The autonomous Principality of Arbër emerged in 1190, established by archon Progon in the Krujë, within the Byzantine Empire.
In the late thirteenth century, Charles of Anjou conquered Albanian territories from the Byzantines and established the medieval Kingdom of Albania, which at its maximal extension was extending from Durrës along the coast to Butrint in the south. In the mid-fifteenth century, it was conquered by the Ottomans; the modern nation state of Albania emerged in 1912 following the defeat of the Ottomans in the Balkan Wars. The modern Kingdom of Albania was invaded by Italy in 1939, which formed Greater Albania, before becoming a Nazi German protectorate in 1943. After the defeat of Nazi Germany, a Communist state titled the People's Socialist Republic of Albania was founded under the leadership of Enver Hoxha and the Party of Labour; the country experienced widespread social and political transformations in the communist era, as well as isolation from much of the international community. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1991, the Socialist Republic was dissolved and the fourth Republic of Albania was established.
Politically, the country is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic and developing country with an upper-middle income economy dominated by the tertiary sector followed by the secondary and primary sector. It went through a process of transition, following the end of communism in 1990, from a centralized to a market-based economy, it provides universal health care and free primary and secondary education to its citizens. The country is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, UNESCO, NATO, WTO, COE, OSCE and OIC, it is an official candidate for membership in the European Union. In addition it is one of the founding members of the Energy Community, including the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation and Union for the Mediterranean; the term Albania is the medieval Latin name of the country. It may be derived from the Illyrian tribe of Albani recorded by Ptolemy, the geographer and astronomer from Alexandria, who drafted a map in 150 AD, which shows the city of Albanopolis located northeast of the city of Durrës.
The term may have a continuation in the name of a medieval settlement called Albanon or Arbanon, although it is not certain that this was the same place. In his history written in the 10th century, the Byzantine historian Michael Attaliates was the first to refer to Albanoi as having taken part in a revolt against Constantinople in 1043 and to the Arbanitai as subjects of the Duke of Dyrrachium. During the Middle Ages, the Albanians called their country Arbëri or Arbëni and referred to themselves as Arbëreshë or Arbëneshë. Nowadays, Albanians call their country Shqipëria; as early as the 17th century the placename Shqipëria and the ethnic demonym Shqiptarë replaced Arbëria and Arbëresh. The two terms are popularly interpreted as "Land of the Eagles" and "Children of the Eagles"; the first traces of human presence in Albania, dating to the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic eras, were found in the village of Xarrë close to Sarandë and Dajti near Tiranë. The objects found in a cave near Xarrë include flint and jasper objects and fossilized animal bones, while those found at Mount Dajt comprise bone and stone tools similar to those of the Aurignacian culture.
The Paleolithic finds of Albania show great similarities with objects of the same era found at Crvena Stijena in Montenegro and north-western Greece. Several Bronze Age artefacts from tumulus burials have been unearthed in central and southern Albania that show close connection with sites in south-western Macedonia and Lefkada, Greece. Archaeologists have come to the conclusion that these regions were inhabited from the middle of the third millennium BC by Indo-European people who spoke a Proto-Greek language. A part of this population moved to Mycenae around 1600 BC and founded the Mycenaean civilisation there. In ancient times, the territory of modern Albania was inhabited by a number of Illyrian tribes; the Illyrian tribes never collectively regarded themselves as'Illyrians', it is unlikely that they used any collective nomenclature for themselves. The name Illyrians seems to be the name applied to a specific Illyrian tribe, the first to come in contact with the ancient Greeks during the Bronze Age, causing the name Illyrians to be applied pars pro toto to all people of similar language and customs.
The territory known as Illyria corresponded to the area east of the Adriatic sea, extending in the south to the mouth of the Vjosë river. The first accou
Knattspyrnufélagið Fram is an Icelandic sports club, best known for its football and handball teams. It was founded on 1 May 1908 in Reykjavík, it is based in the Háaleiti og Bústaðir district near Reykjavík city centre. The football team plays in the second division, the 1. Deild karla after being relegated in the 2014 season; the club has strong handball teams. Other sports offered by the club include basketball and skiing. Fram is one of the most successful clubs in Iceland: it has eighteen national championship titles and seven national cup titles, it is regarded as one of the biggest teams in Iceland and the best known Icelandic football team in Europe. Fram dominated Icelandic football in early 1990s, they were relegated from the top division in 2005, but after one year in the men's second tier, they returned to the top flight in 2006. They are the current holders of the Icelandic Cup. In the 1970s and 1980s, Fram men's basketball team won four championships in the second-tier 1. Deild karla.
Its best season came in 1981-1982 when the team won the Icelandic cup and finished second in the top-tier Úrvalsdeild karla. The clubs basketball program was discontinued after the' 86-87 season, it had a brief revitalization in the 2010s, playing three seasons the 2. Deild karla from 2010 to 2013 and making it to the playoffs in 2012 and 2013; the football club was established in Reykjavík. The club was started by several boys around 13 years old, or living in the area around Tjarnargata, near the centre of Reykjavík. One group member, Peter J. H. Magnusson, had bought a football and the football was used and provided all summer; the first football club was in this informal company. No board was appointed, no written laws and the club did not have a name. From this was added to the first formal meeting, on 15 March 1909. With the approach of Spring, the local footballers convened a meeting. Soon it got more serious and the boys started meeting more and in the end the club Fram or Kári like the first name of the club was, became a real Football club.
The first name of the club was Kári, but on the name was changed to Fram which it has been since. The first Icelandic championship was in 1912. Fram came second in that year. From 1913 to 1919 Fram Reykjavík was unbeatable; the 1913 season was the second season of Úrvalsdeild. The 1914–19 proved to be more fruitful, the club won six consecutive league titles from 1913 through to 1919, Fram Reykjavík won 1913 as the only entrant, it was their first title. Fram Reykjavík won again 1914. Three teams took part this season with Valur entering for the first time. Fram Reykjavík won the championship. Fram Reykjavík welcomed once again the title after draw against KR in the last match, with the highest amount of points. KR protested a lot against that, the result was that Fram Reykjavík and KR had to play a final match which Fram won 3–1. In those years Fram Reykjavík was unbeatable and it wasn't until 1919 that they lost again, but 1921, 1922, 1925 the club won again. But it was a long wait for the next title.
The main striker Friðþjófur Thorsteinsson moved to Canada and never came back, after the best striker left there was no one to come instead. From 1936 to 1939 Hermann Lindemann had been successful, but it wasn't good enough for the fans as no title had yet come. So in 1939 the German superstar went home to carry on with his own career in Germany which he protested against because of World War II. During that time Fram Reykjavik had a fantastic team from 1946 to 1948, with Ríkharður Jónsson in the team. Shortly afterwards the world war stopped play, but in 1939 four teams contested and Fram Reykjavík won the League. Despite having one −1 goal in score they were still number one on the table. In 1942, after beating Víkingur R at Melavöllur 2–1 in a match played in unusually cold summer weather, Fram Reykjavík came second to Valur by losing in extra time. Ríkharður Jónsson was studying in Reykjavík and during that time Iceland's most talented soccer player played for Fram; the team lineup for this year was the best in Fram Reykjavik's history.
The 1950s were nothing compared with 1939–1948. The Fram Reykjavík Handball team became one of Europe's biggest handball clubs, as did the national team. Meanwhile, the football club had done much better and Fram Reykjavík remained a top three club in Iceland, albeit achieving titles less than before. 1962 was different Fram Reykjavík managed to win the league and 62–64 the club fought about every single title existing, but it seem like something bad has happened from 1965 to 1967 because it wasn't until that Fram Reykjavík were number two in the league and showed they were back among the best, the 1970s and 1980s were to be more successful. Still the team was said to have played entertaining football. In the years that followed, the club worked more with the Youth club; the 1970s and 1980s were maybe Fram Reykjavík's golden age. In 1970 Fram Reykjavík was no doubt back on top: their player Kristinn Jörundsson scored 10 goals. Fram finished second, four points behind ÍA, thus qualified for the UEFA Cup.
In 1972 Fram Reykjavík won their first title since 1962. In 1970, 1973 and 1979 Fram Reykjavík won the Visa Cup – on the two last occasions by scoring in the final seconds. In 1975 the club was unlucky not to win the league again. At that time several of their players were in the national football team; that summer Real Madrid, with players like Günter Netzer, visited Reykjavík and beat a Fram side. Guðmundur Torfason, a young Fram player
Icelandic Men's Football Cup
The Icelandic Men's Football Cup is a knock-out football cup competition in Iceland. The final is played at Laugardalsvöllur in mid-August; the winners qualify for the UEFA Europa League. The tournament was first played in 1960. Icelandic FA Eufo League321.com - National cup results. Iceland - List of Cup Finals, RSSSF.com IcelandFootball.net - National cup results
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Safet "Pape" Sušić is a Bosnian football manager and former player, who most managed Turkish club Akhisarspor. Sušić was a gifted midfielder known for his dribbling skills and technical ability, is reputed to have been one of the finest European players of his generation. Sušić played for Yugoslavia in two FIFA World Cups, 1982 and 1990, at UEFA Euro 1984; as manager he took the Bosnia and Herzegovina national football team to the 2014 FIFA World Cup. In 2017 Safet Sušić was indicted into the PSG Hall of Fame. Sušić played as an attacking midfielder in a role of trequartista or fantasista, or as secondary striker for FK Sarajevo, Paris Saint-Germain and Red Star Saint-Ouen and internationally for Yugoslavia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. More during his career, he was utilized more in a role of deep-lying playmaker, both for club and national team. In 2010, France Football voted Sušić as Paris Saint-Germain's best player of all time and the best foreign player of Ligue 1 of all time, with his compatriot and friend who had a spell with PSG, Vahid Halilhodžić, being voted 7th.
As part of the UEFA Jubilee Awards in 2004, the Bosnian football association chose Sušić as the nation's greatest player. Following his retirement from playing, Sušić started working as a manager, he worked for a number of club sides: Cannes, İstanbulspor, Al-Hilal, Ankaragücü, Çaykur Rizespor, Ankaraspor, Évian, Alanyaspor and the Bosnia and Herzegovina national football team. Sušić began his career with the football club Krivaja in his hometown Zavidovići. In 1973, he was transferred to FK Sarajevo. During the 1979–80 season, he was top scorer in the Yugoslav First League with 17 goals. In 1979, he was honoured as the Yugoslav Footballer of the Year being selected as the best athlete hailing from SR Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1982, Sušić signed with Paris Saint-Germain. During his first season with the club, Sušić helped PSG to win the 1982–83 Coupe de France, scoring three goals over two legs in the semi-final against FC Tours, once in 3-2 victory over FC Nantes in the final. During the 1985–86 season, Sušić scored ten goals as the Parisiens won their first national league title.
Overall, Sušić scored 96 goals and make a record 61 assists for PSG between 1982 and 1991. He is third in the club's all-time appearance list with 343 appearances, the highest placed non-Frenchman. On 22 September 1984, in a 7–1 home drubbing of Bastia, he assisted on five of the side's goals. At 36, Sušić left the capital for a final year with Red Star Saint-Ouen. During Sušić's playing career and Herzegovina was part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and thus he represented the Yugoslavia national football team at international level. Between 1977 and 1990, Sušić appeared 54 times with scoring 21 times, he debuted for Yugoslavia in 1977 and scored his first goals for the team against Hungary in October of that year. A month he scored a hat-trick in a 6–4 defeat of Romania during 1978 FIFA World Cup qualification. However, this was Yugoslavia's only victory of their group and they failed to qualify for the tournament finals. In June 1979, Sušić scored his second international hat-trick as Yugoslavia beat Italy 4–1 in a friendly match held in Zagreb.
In September, he again scored three times in a 4–2 win over world champions Argentina. Sušić was a member of the Yugoslav team that qualified for the 1982 FIFA World Cup, scoring once in a 5–0 defeat of Luxembourg. Sušić was top scorer for Yugoslavia in qualification for UEFA Euro 1984, his two goals in a 3–2 win over Bulgaria in the final qualification fixture helping enable Yugoslavia to finish three points ahead of the Bulgarians and one point ahead of Wales and advance to the tournament finals. Yugoslavia finished bottom of their group in France, losing all three matches. At the age of 35, Sušić made his second appearance at a World Cup finals as a member of Yugoslavia's squad for the 1990 FIFA World Cup in Italy, he scored his only World Cup goal in the team's 4–1 win against the United Arab Emirates during the group stage. He played 61 minutes before being substituted for Dejan Savićević in the penalty shootout loss to eventual runners-up Argentina at the quarter-final stage. In 2004, to celebrate UEFA's Jubilee, he was selected as the Golden Player of Bosnia and Herzegovina by the Football Association of Bosnia and Herzegovina as their most outstanding player of the past 50 years.
His former international teammate, the Macedonian Darko Pančev declared: "It's well known how much I valued and still do value Safet Sušić. For me he's unsurpassable, the best Yugoslavia had. One of the best in the world. I was known to say that us other players should have to pay to play in the same team as Pape. At least I thought like that. Pape was a treasure for every forward, his crosses were unbelievable. Sometimes his ball would hit me without me being aware of it. A wonderful player." On 5 February 2010, France Football chose Sušić as the best player in the history of Paris Saint-Germain, ahead of players such as Carlos Bianchi, Mustapha Dahleb, George Weah, Joël Bats, Raí and Luis Fernández. He scored three international hat-tricks for Yugoslavia, in victories against Romania and Argentina in the late 1970s, was voted, as part of the UEFA Jubilee Awards, the greatest player from Bosnia. Sušić coached Cannes, where he retired as a player in 1994–95. Between 1997–1999, he managed İstanbulspor during 2003–04, with Konyaspor, in the first half of 2006–07, taking charge of Çaykur Rizespor.
After he was sacked by Rizespor, another Tu