Turkic mythology embraces Tengriist and Shamanist and as well as all cultural and social subjects being a nomad folk. After Turkic migration some of the myths were decorated with Islamic symbols, it has numerous common points with Mongol mythology and both of them were originated in a proto syncretic Tibetan Buddhist and nationalist mythology. Turkic mythology was influenced by other local mythologies. For example, in Tatar mythology elements of Finnic and Indo-European myth co-exist. Subjects from Tatar mythology include Alara. Şüräle, Şekä, Pitsen and Zilant. Turks practised all major religions, such as Buddhism, Christianity and Manichaeism, before the majority of Turks confessed to Islam. Turks syncretised the other religion into their prevailing mythological understanding. Irk Bitig, a 10th-century manuscript found in Dunhuang is one of the most important sources for Turkic mythology and religion; this book is written in Old Turkic alphabet like the Orkhon inscriptions. Deities are impersonated creative and ruling powers.
If they are anthropomorphised, the qualities of the deities are always in the foreground. In the Turkic belief system, there is no pantheon of deities as in Greek polytheism. Many deities could be thought of as angels in modern Western usage, who travel between humans or their settlement and the highest deity, such as Kayra.İye are guadrian spirits responsible for a specific natural element. They lack personal traits, since they are numerous. Although most entities can be identified as deities or İye, there are other entities such as Genien and demons. Kök Tengri is the first of primordial deities in the religion of the early Turkic people, he was known as yüce or yaratıcı tengri after the Turks started to migrate and leave middle Asia, see monotheistic religions Tengrism was changed from its pagan/politheistic origins. The religion was more like zoroastrianism after its change, with only two of the original gods remaining, representing the good god and Uçmag, while Erlik took the position of the bad god and hell.
The words Sky were synonyms. It is unknown, he rules the fates of entire acts freely. But he is fair as he punishes; the well-being of people depends on his will. Tengri worship is first attested in the Old Turkic Orkhon inscriptions of the early 8th century. Umay is the goddess of virginity. Umay resembles earth-mother goddesses found in various other world religions and is the daughter of Tengri. Öd Tengri Is the god of time being not well-known, as it states in the orhun stones, "Öd tengri is the ruler of time" and son of Kök Tengri. Boz Tengri Like Öd Tengri, he is not known much, he is a son of Kök Tengri. Kayra is the Spirit of God. Primordial god of highest sky, upper air, atmosphere, light and son of Kök Tengri. Ülgen is the son of Kayra and Umay is the god of goodness. The Aruğ denotes to "good spirits" in Altaic mythology, they are under the order of Ülgen. Erlik is the god of the underworld. Ay Dede is the moon god. Gün Ana is the sun goddess; as a result of the nomad culture, the horse is one of the main figures of Turkic mythology.
This might have led to or sourced from the term "at-beyi". The dragon expressed as a snake or lizard, is the symbol of might and power, it is believed in mountainous Central Asia, that dragons still live in the mountains of Tian Shan/Tengri Tagh and Altay. Dragons symbolize the god Tengri in ancient Turkic tradition, although dragons themselves are not worshiped as gods; the World Tree or Tree of Life is a central symbol in Turkic mythology. According to the Altai Turks, human beings are descended from trees. According to the Yakuts, White Mother sits at the base of the Tree of Life, whose branches reach to the heavens where it is occupied by various creatures that have come to life there; the blue sky around the tree reflects the peaceful nature of the country and the red ring that surrounds all of the elements symbolizes the ancient faith of rebirth and development of the Turkic peoples. The wolf symbolizes honor and is considered the mother of most Turkic peoples. Asena is the name of one of the ten sons who were given birth by a mythical wolf in Turkic mythology.
The legend tells of a young boy. A she-wolf nurses him back to health, he subsequently impregnates the wolf which gives birth to ten half-wolf, half-human boys. One of these, becomes their leader and establishes the Ashina clan which ruled the Göktürks and other Turkic nomadic empires; the wolf, pregnant with the boy's offspring, escaped her enemies by crossing the Western Sea to a cave near to the Qocho mountains, one of the cities of the Tocharians. The first Turks subsequently migrated to the Altai regions, where they are known as expert in ironworkers, as the Scythians are known to have been; the Ergenekon legend tells about a great crisis of the ancient Turks. Following a military defeat, the Turks took refuge in the legendary Ergenekon valley where they were trapped for four centuries, they were released when a blacksmith created a passage by melting rock, allowing the gray wolf Asena to lead them out. A New Year's ceremony commemorates the legendary ancestral escape from Ergenekon; the legend of Oghuz Khagan is a central politica
Siberia is an extensive geographical region spanning much of Eurasia and North Asia. Siberia has been a part of modern Russia since the 17th century; the territory of Siberia extends eastwards from the Ural Mountains to the watershed between the Pacific and Arctic drainage basins. The Yenisei River conditionally divides Siberia into two parts and Eastern. Siberia stretches southwards from the Arctic Ocean to the hills of north-central Kazakhstan and to the national borders of Mongolia and China. With an area of 13.1 million square kilometres, Siberia accounts for 77% of Russia's land area, but it is home to 36 million people—27% of the country's population. This is equivalent to an average population density of about 3 inhabitants per square kilometre, making Siberia one of the most sparsely populated regions on Earth. If it were a country by itself, it would still be the largest country in area, but in population it would be the world's 35th-largest and Asia's 14th-largest. Worldwide, Siberia is well known for its long, harsh winters, with a January average of −25 °C, as well as its extensive history of use by Russian and Soviet administrations as a place for prisons, labor camps, exile.
The origin of the name is unknown. Some sources say that "Siberia" originates from the Siberian Tatar word for "sleeping land". Another account sees the name as the ancient tribal ethnonym of the Sirtya, an ethnic group which spoke a Paleosiberian language; the Sirtya people were assimilated into the Siberian Tatars. The modern usage of the name was recorded in the Russian language after the Empire's conquest of the Siberian Khanate. A further variant claims; the Polish historian Chyliczkowski has proposed that the name derives from the proto-Slavic word for "north", but Anatole Baikaloff has dismissed this explanation. He said that the neighbouring Chinese and Mongolians, who have similar names for the region, would not have known Russian, he suggests that the name might be a combination of two words with Turkic origin, "su" and "bir". The region has paleontological significance, as it contains bodies of prehistoric animals from the Pleistocene Epoch, preserved in ice or in permafrost. Specimens of Goldfuss cave lion cubs and another woolly mammoth from Oymyakon, a woolly rhinoceros from the Kolyma River, bison and horses from Yukagir have been found.
The Siberian Traps were formed by one of the largest-known volcanic events of the last 500 million years of Earth's geological history. Their activity continued for a million years and some scientists consider it a possible cause of the "Great Dying" about 250 million years ago, – estimated to have killed 90% of species existing at the time. At least three species of human lived in Southern Siberia around 40,000 years ago: H. sapiens, H. neanderthalensis, the Denisovans. In 2010 DNA evidence identified the last as a separate species. Siberia was inhabited by different groups of nomads such as the Enets, the Nenets, the Huns, the Scythians and the Uyghurs; the Khan of Sibir in the vicinity of modern Tobolsk was known as a prominent figure who endorsed Kubrat as Khagan of Old Great Bulgaria in 630. The Mongols conquered a large part of this area early in the 13th century. With the breakup of the Golden Horde, the autonomous Khanate of Sibir was established in the late 15th century. Turkic-speaking Yakut migrated north from the Lake Baikal region under pressure from the Mongol tribes during the 13th to 15th century.
Siberia remained a sparsely populated area. Historian John F. Richards wrote: "... it is doubtful that the total early modern Siberian population exceeded 300,000 persons."The growing power of Russia in the West began to undermine the Siberian Khanate in the 16th century. First, groups of traders and Cossacks began to enter the area; the Russian Army was directed to establish forts farther and farther east to protect new settlers from European Russia. Towns such as Mangazeya, Tara and Tobolsk were developed, the last being declared the capital of Siberia. At this time, Sibir was the name of a fortress at Qashlik, near Tobolsk. Gerardus Mercator, in a map published in 1595, marks Sibier both as the name of a settlement and of the surrounding territory along a left tributary of the Ob. Other sources contend that the Xibe, an indigenous Tungusic people, offered fierce resistance to Russian expansion beyond the Urals; some suggest. By the mid-17th century, Russia had established areas of control; some 230,000 Russians had settled in Siberia by 1709.
Siberia was a destination for sending exiles. The first great modern change in Siberia was the Trans-Siberian Railway, constructed during 1891–1916, it linked Siberia more to the industrialising Russia of Nicholas II. Around seven million people moved to Siberia from European Russia between 1801 and 1914. From 1859 to 1917, more than half a million people migrated to the Russian Far East. Siberia has extensive natural resources. During the 20th century, large-scale exploitation of these was developed, industrial towns cropped up throughout the region. At 7:15 a.m. on 30 June 1908, millions of trees were felled near the Podkamennaya Tunguska River in central Siberia in the Tunguska Event. Most scientists believe this resulted from the air burst of a comet. Though no crater has been found, the landscape in the area still bears the scars of this event. In the early decades of the Soviet Union (