Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
Hässelby-Vällingby is a borough in the western part of Stockholm. It is made up of Hässelby and Vällingby; the other districts that make up the borough are Kälvesta, Nälsta, Råcksta and Vinsta. As of 2004, the population is 58,796 in an area of 19.60 km², which gives a density of 2,999.80/km². The name is taken from Hässelby Castle, which included large areas within the present three districts; the port of Hässelby includes parts of Vinsta. The castle is located in the postcode of Vällingby. Media related to Hässelby-Vällingby at Wikimedia Commons
Rinkeby-Kista is a borough in Stockholm, Sweden. The borough is located in Västerort; the districts that make up the borough are Akalla, Husby and Rinkeby. The population of Rinkeby-Kista borough is 48,604 as of December 2015; the borough was formed on January 2007 when Kista borough and Rinkeby borough were merged. Media related to Rinkeby-Kista at Wikimedia Commons
Östermalm is a borough in central Stockholm, named after the dominating district. Except Östermalm there are four districts in the borough: Djurgården, Ladugårdsgärdet, Norra Djurgården. Note that a portion of northern Östermalm is organized in Norrmalm borough; the population as of 2004 is 61,253 on an area of 18.00 km², which gives a density of 3,402.94/km². Norra Djurgårdsstaden Media related to Östermalm at Wikimedia Commons
Älvsjö is a district of the city of Stockholm Municipality in Sweden, located in the borough Älvsjö in Söderort. It has the biggest rentable facility in northern Europe called Stockholm International Fairs, the hotel Rica Talk Hotel, which both are located east of Älvsjö commuter train station. In 2017, the total population of the district was 1,530 inhabitants; the name was written Elffuesio in 1461. The origin of the first element is unclear – it is derived from an Old Swedish male name *Ælve, but that interpretation is uncertain; the last element sjö'lake' refers to Brännkyrkasjön, a former lake east of Älvsjö
Södermalm is a city district area in central Stockholm, created 1 January 2007, through the merging of the boroughs of Maria-Gamla Stan and Katarina-Sofia. It covers the island of some neighboring districts. Södermalm is shortened "Söder"; the two former boroughs made up the western half of the island of Södermalm. The Maria-Gamla Stan included the island districts of Gamla Stan, Långholmen, Riddarholmen and Årsta holmar. All these districts are now parts of the new Södermalm borough. Maria-Gamla Stan was the result of a previous merging between the original borough with the same name, the former borough of Hornstull, in 1999. Södermalm borough has a population of around 110,000, making it the most populated borough of Stockholm; the area Hammarby Sjöstad is located in the Södermalm borough. Media related to Södermalm at Wikimedia Commons
Norrmalm is a borough in central Stockholm, named after the dominating district. Except Norrmalm there are two districts in the borough: Vasastaden. A portion of northern Östermalm is organized in Norrmalm borough; the population as of 2004 is 61,905 on an area of 4.95 km², which gives a density of 12,506.06/km². The most populous district is Vasastaden. Media related to Norrmalm at Wikimedia Commons