Aldhelm, Abbot of Malmesbury Abbey, Bishop of Sherborne, Latin poet and scholar of Anglo-Saxon literature, was born before the middle of the 7th century. He is said to have been the son of Kenten, of the royal house of Wessex, he was not, as his early biographer Faritius asserts, the brother of King Ine. After his death he was venerated as his feast day being the day of his death, 25 May. Aldhelm received his first education in the school of the Irish scholar and monk Máeldub, who had settled in the British stronghold of Bladon on the site of the town called Mailduberi, Meldunesburg, etc. and Malmesbury, after him. In 668, Pope Vitalian sent Theodore of Tarsus to be Archbishop of Canterbury. At the same time the North African scholar Hadrian became abbot of St Augustine's at Canterbury. Aldhelm was one of his disciples, for he addresses him as the'venerable preceptor of my rude childhood.' He must have been thirty years of age when he began to study with Hadrian. His studies included Roman law, astrology, the art of reckoning and the difficulties of the calendar.
He learned, according to the doubtful statements of both Greek and Hebrew. He introduces many Latinized Greek words into his works. Ill health compelled Aldhelm to leave Canterbury and he returned to Malmesbury Abbey, where he was a monk under Máeldub for fourteen years, dating from 661 and including the period of his studies with Hadrian; when Máeldub died, Aldhelm was appointed in 675, according to a charter of doubtful authenticity cited by William of Malmesbury, by Leuthere, Bishop of Winchester, to succeed to the direction of the monastery, of which he became the first abbot. Aldhelm introduced the Benedictine rule and secured the right of the election of the abbot by the monks themselves; the community at Malmesbury increased, Aldhelm was able to found two other monasteries as centres of learning, at Frome, at Somerset and at Bradford on Avon, Wiltshire. The little church of St Lawrence at Bradford on Avon dates back to his time, may safely be regarded as his. At Malmesbury he built a new church to replace Máeldub's modest building, obtained considerable grants of land for the monastery.
Aldhelm's fame as a scholar spread to other countries. Artwil, the son of an Irish king, submitted his writings for Aldhelm's approval, Cellanus, an Irish monk from Peronne, was one of his correspondents. Aldhelm was the first Anglo-Saxon, so far as we know, to write in Latin verse, his letter to Acircius is a treatise on Latin prosody for the use of his countrymen. In this work he included 101 riddles in Latin hexameters; each of them is a complete picture, one of them runs to 83 lines. That Aldhelm's merits as a scholar were early recognised in his own country is shown by the encomium of Bede, who speaks of him as a wonder of erudition, his fame reached Italy, at the request of Pope Sergius I he paid a visit to Rome, of which, there is no notice in his extant writings. On his return, bringing with him privileges for his monastery and a magnificent altar, he received a popular ovation. Aldhelm was deputed by a synod of the church in Wessex to remonstrate with the Britons of Dumnonia on the Easter controversy.
British Christians followed a unique system of calculation for the date of Easter and bore a distinctive tonsure. Aldhelm wrote a long and rather acrimonious letter to king Geraint of Dumnonia achieving ultimate agreement with Rome. In 705, or earlier, Hædde, Bishop of Winchester and the diocese was divided into two parts. Sherborne was the new see, of which Aldhelm became the first bishop around 705, he wished to resign the abbey of Malmesbury which he had governed for thirty years, but yielding to the remonstrances of the monks he continued to direct it until his death. He was now an old man; the cathedral church which he built at Sherborne, though replaced by a Norman church, is described by William of Malmesbury. In his capacity as bishop, he displayed a great deal of energy; this included going into public places where he would sing hymns and passages from the gospels interspersed with bits of clowning to draw attention to his message. Aldhelm was on his rounds in his diocese when he died at the church in Doulting village in 709, the Church of St Aldhelm and St Aldhelm's Well in the village are dedicated to him.
The body was taken to Malmesbury, crosses were set up by his friend, Bishop of Worcester, at the various stopping-places. He was buried in the church of St Michael at Malmesbury Abbey, his biographers relate miracles due to his sanctity worked at his shrine. The cape in Dorset known as St Alban's Head is more properly called St. Aldhelm's Head in his honour. Aldhelm was revered as a saint with his feast day being celebrated on 25 May, his relics were translated in 980 by the Archbishop of Canterbury. He is commemorated by a statue in niche 124 of the West Front of Salisbury Cathedral. There is a statue in Sherborne Abbey of Aldhelm, created in 2004 by Marzia Colonna. Aldhelm's flag may be flown in his celebration; the flag, a white cross on a red background, is a colour reversed version of England's St. George flag. Aldhelm wrote in elaborate and difficult Latin, known as hermeneutic style; this verborum garrulitas shows the influence of Irish models and became England's dominant Lat
Ramsbury is a village and civil parish in the English county of Wiltshire. The village is in the Kennet Valley near the Berkshire boundary; the nearest towns Marlborough about 5.5 miles west. The much larger town of Swindon is about 12 miles to the north; the civil parish includes the hamlet of Axford about 2.5 miles west of Ramsbury, three smaller hamlets: New Town, close to Ramsbury to the southeast, Knighton and Whittonditch, both about 1 mile to the east. The 2011 Census recorded a parish population of 1,989. Littlecote Roman Villa is in the parish; the earliest written history of Ramsbury can be traced from the Saxon era when the bishopric of Ramsbury was created in 909 AD. The see was moved to Old Sarum in 1075. Church of England parish church of the Holy Cross dates from the 13th century, it has a ghost story: according to local legend, if you count the hundred studs on the north door at midnight, it will open, the ghost of'Wild' William Darrell of Littlecote House will come out. During the Second World War there was a Royal Air Force airfield on a ridge of high ground to the south of the village.
In Saxon times, Ramsbury was an important location for the Church, several of its early bishops went on to become Archbishops of Canterbury. The episcopal see of Ramsbury was created in AD 909 when Wiltshire and Berkshire were taken from the bishopric of Winchester to form the new diocese of Ramsbury, it was referred to as the bishopric of Ramsbury and Sonning. In 1058 it was joined with the bishopric of Sherborne to form the diocese of Sarum, the see was translated to Old Sarum in 1075. Although no longer a diocesan see, the bishopric of Ramsbury is now an episcopal title used by a suffragan bishop of the Church of England Diocese of Salisbury, is included in the Catholic Church's list of titular sees. Ramsbury has an elected parish council and falls within the area of the new Wiltshire Council unitary authority, responsible for all of the most significant local government services. Throughout the Middle Ages, Ramsbury traditionally held two annual fairs – a livestock fair in the spring, a hiring fair or "Mop Fair" at Michaelmas.
Nearby Marlborough's tradition of holding one Mop each side of Michaelmas, was a means to accommodate the more prestigious Ramsbury Mop. By the 19th century, both fairs had become Cattle Fairs; the spring Cattle Fair ceased in 1939. The Michaelmas Fair lost its original agricultural connections, becoming purely a funfair in 1946 before ceasing in the 1950s. An annual carnival was instituted to replace the Fairs and survived until the 1990s but has in turn been replaced with a biennial Street Fair which sees the High Street closed from the Square to the Memorial Hall; the Provident Union Investment Society was founded in Ramsbury 1846, becoming the Ramsbury Building Society in 1928. It was headquartered in the Square until 1982 and took as its logo the ancient wych-elm which grew opposite. Subsequent mergers saw the Building Society being subsumed into the Regency and West of England Building Society the Portman Building Society, the Nationwide Building Society. For centuries, Ramsbury was famous for its Tree – a large wych-elm which stood in the Square at the heart of the village.
The Tree was first mentioned in a report in 1751, by which time it must have been well established. In its prime, its spread was said to have touched the buildings on all sides of the Square. Photographs from the early 20th century show the Tree in fine health, although reduced from its former size. But, by the 1920s, the Tree was in noticeable decline, it succumbed to old age dying in 1983 by which time it would have been well over 230 years old. The gnarled stump remained in the Square for several years. Many villagers wanted to keep the old Tree, dead or not. However, after a referendum which threatened to split the village, it was agreed that it should be replaced. Over the course of the second half of the 20th century, Dutch Elm disease had ravaged the native populations of elm species and so an oak sapling was sourced from Epping Forest and planted to replace the old Tree. Local people are known as Ramsbury Bulldogs, contrasting with the neighbouring village of Aldbourne, where the locals are known as Dabchicks.
The village's notable residents have included Sir Francis Burdett, a radical Whig politician, his daughter Angela Burdett-Coutts. In 1837 Angela became the richest woman in England. Over several years she gave most of this money away to good causes. By the time she died in 1906, Angela Burdett-Coutts had given away nearly three million pounds. Both lived in Ramsbury Manor built in the 1680s by Dr Robert Hooke, the scientist and architect, for Sir William Jones. Ramsbury Manor was stated by the 1966 Guinness Book of Records to have been the "most expensive" house in Britain, bought by an American property dealer in May 1965 for £275,000, in total with its 460 acres of land, for £650,000. More it has been the home of Harry Hyams, the property tycoon who built the office block Centre Point at the junction of Tottenham Court Road and Oxford Street, London; the Manor was the target for a major burglary by a professional gang in 2006. The culprits received long prison sentences in 2008. Stefan Persson, the owner of H&M has a main residence o
Swithun was an Anglo-Saxon bishop of Winchester and subsequently patron saint of Winchester Cathedral. His historical importance as bishop is overshadowed by his reputation for posthumous miracle-working. According to tradition, if it rains on Saint Swithin's bridge on his feast day it will continue for forty days; the precise meaning and origin of Swithun's name is unknown, but it most derives from the Old English word swiþ,'strong'. St Swithun was Bishop of Winchester from his consecration on 30 October 852 until his death on 2 July 863. However, he is scarcely mentioned in any document of his own time, his death is entered in the Canterbury manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle under the year 861. He is recorded as a witness to nine charters, the earliest of, dated 854. More than a hundred years when Dunstan and Æthelwold of Winchester were inaugurating their church reform, Swithun was adopted as patron of the restored church at Winchester dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul, his body was transferred from its forgotten grave to Æthelwold's new basilica on 15 July 971.
The revival of Swithun's fame gave rise to a mass of legendary literature. The so-called Vita S. Swithuni of Lantfred and Wulfstan, written about 1000, hardly contains any biographical fact. According to this writer Saint Swithun was born in the reign of Egbert of Wessex, was ordained priest by Helmstan, bishop of Winchester, his fame reached the king's ears, he appointed him tutor of his son, Æthelwulf, considered him one of his chief friends. However, Michael Lapidge describes the work as "pure fiction" and shows that the attribution to Goscelin is false. Under Æthelwulf, Swithun was appointed bishop of Winchester, to which see he was consecrated by Archbishop Ceolnoth. In his new office he was known for his piety and his zeal in building new churches or restoring old ones. At his request Æthelwulf gave the tenth of his royal lands to the Church. Swithun made his diocesan journeys on foot. William of Malmesbury adds that, if Bishop Ealhstan of Sherborne was Æthelwulf's minister for temporal matters, Swithun was the minister for spiritual matters.
Swithun's best known miracle was his restoration on a bridge of a basket of eggs that workmen had maliciously broken. Of stories connected with Swithun the two most famous are those of the Winchester egg-woman and Queen Emma's ordeal; the former is to be found in the hagiography attributed to Goscelin, the latter in Thomas Rudborne's Historia major, a work, responsible for the not improbable legend that Swithun accompanied Alfred on his visit to Rome in 856. He died on 2 July 862. On his deathbed Swithin begged that he should be buried outside the north wall of his cathedral where passers-by should pass over his grave and raindrops from the eaves drop upon it. Swithun's feast day in England is in Norway on 2 July, he was moved from his grave to an indoor shrine in the Old Minster at Winchester in 971. His body was later split between a number of smaller shrines, his head was detached and, in the Middle Ages, taken to Canterbury Cathedral. Peterborough Abbey had an arm, his main shrine was transferred into the new Norman cathedral at Winchester in 1093.
He was installed on a ` feretory platform' behind the high altar. The retrochoir was built in the early 13th century to accommodate the huge numbers of pilgrims wishing to visit his shrine and enter the'holy hole' beneath him, his empty tomb in the ruins of the Old Minster was popular with visitors. The shrine was only moved into the retrochoir itself in 1476, it was demolished in 1538 during the English Reformation. A modern representation of it now stands on the site; the shrine of Swithun at Winchester was a site of numerous miracles in the Middle Ages. Æthelwold of Winchester ordered that all monks were to stop whatever they were doing and head to the church to praise God every time that a miracle happened. A story exists that the monks at some point got so fed up with this, because they sometimes had to wake up and go to the church three or four times each night, that they decided to stop going. St Swithun appeared in a dream to someone and warned them that if they stopped going to the church miracles would cease.
This person warned the monks about the dream they had, the monks caved in and decided to go to the church each time a miracle happened again. Swithun is regarded as one of the saints to. Many churches dedicated to St Swithun can be found throughout the south of England in Hampshire – see list St Swithun's Church. An example is Headbourne Worthy, to the north of Winchester; this church is surrounded on three sides by a brook. Other churches dedicated to St Swithun can be found at Walcot, Lincoln and western Norway, where Stavanger Cathedral is dedicated to him, he is commemorated at St Swithin's Lane in the City of London, St Swithun's School for girls in Winchester and St Swithun's qu
Cuthbert is a saint of the early Northumbrian church in the Celtic tradition. He was a monk and hermit, associated with the monasteries of Melrose and Lindisfarne in what might loosely be termed the Kingdom of Northumbria, in North East England and the South East of Scotland. After his death he became one of the most important medieval saints of Northern England, with a cult centred on his tomb at Durham Cathedral. Cuthbert is regarded as the patron saint of Northumbria, his feast days are 20 March 31 August and 4 September. Cuthbert grew up in or around Lauderdale, near Old Melrose Abbey, a daughter-house of Lindisfarne, today in Scotland, he had decided to become a monk after seeing a vision on the night in 651 that St Aidan, the founder of Lindisfarne, but he seems to have seen some military service first. He was made guest-master at the new monastery at Ripon, soon after 655, but had to return with Eata of Hexham to Melrose when Wilfrid was given the monastery instead. About 662 he was made prior at Melrose, around 665 went as prior to Lindisfarne.
In 684 he was made bishop of Lindisfarne, but by late 686 he resigned and returned to his hermitage as he felt he was about to die, although he was only in his early 50s. Cuthbert was born in Dunbar, now in East Lothian, in the mid-630s, some ten years after the conversion of King Edwin of Northumbria to Christianity in 627, followed by that of the rest of his people; the politics of the kingdom were violent, there were episodes of pagan rule, while spreading understanding of Christianity through the kingdom was a task that lasted throughout Cuthbert's lifetime. Edwin had been baptised by Paulinus of York, an Italian who had come with the Gregorian mission from Rome, but his successor Oswald invited Irish monks from Iona to found the monastery at Lindisfarne where Cuthbert was to spend much of his life; this was around 635, about the time. The tension between the Roman and Irish traditions exacerbated by Cuthbert's near-contemporary Wilfrid, an intransigent and quarrelsome supporter of Roman ways, was to be a major feature of Cuthbert's lifetime.
Cuthbert himself, though educated in the Celtic tradition, followed his mentor Eata in accepting the Roman forms without difficulty, after the Synod of Whitby in 664. The earliest biographies concentrate on the many miracles that accompanied his early life, but he was evidently indefatigable as a travelling priest spreading the Christian message to remote villages, well able to impress royalty and nobility. Unlike Wilfrid, his style of life was austere, when he could, he lived the life of a hermit, though still receiving many visitors. In Cuthbert's time the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria included, in modern terms, part of northern England as well as parts of south-eastern Scotland on an intermittent and fluid basis as far north as the Firth of Forth. Cuthbert may have been from the neighbourhood of Dunbar at the mouth of the Firth of Forth in modern-day Scotland, though The Lives of the Fathers and Other Principal Saints, by Alban Butler records that he was fostered as a child near Melrose.
Fostering is a sign of noble birth, as are references to his riding a horse when young. One night while still a boy, employed as a shepherd, he had a vision of the soul of Aidan being carried to heaven by angels, found out that Aidan had died that night. Edwin Burton finds it a suggestion of lowly parentage that as a boy he used to tend sheep on the mountain-sides near that monastery, he appears to have undergone military service, but at some point he joined the new monastery at Melrose, under the prior Boisil. Upon Boisil's death in 661, Cuthbert succeeded him as prior. Cuthbert was a second cousin of King Aldfrith of Northumbria, which may explain his proposal that Aldfrith should be crowned as monarch. Cuthbert's fame for piety and obedience grew; when Alchfrith, king of Deira, founded a new monastery at Ripon, Cuthbert became its praepositus hospitum or guest master under Eata. When Wilfrid was made abbot of the monastery and Cuthbert returned to Melrose. Illness struck the monastery in 664 and while Cuthbert recovered, the prior died and Cuthbert was made prior in his place.
He spent much time among the people, ministering to their spiritual needs, carrying out missionary journeys and performing miracles. After the Synod of Whitby, Cuthbert seems to have accepted the Roman customs, his old abbot Eata called on him to introduce them at Lindisfarne as prior there, his asceticism was complemented by his charm and generosity to the poor, his reputation for gifts of healing and insight led many people to consult him, gaining him the name of "Wonder Worker of Britain". He continued his missionary work, travelling the breadth of the country from Berwick to Galloway to carry out pastoral work and founding an oratory at Dull, complete with a large stone cross, a little cell for himself, he is said to have founded St Cuthbert's Church in Edinburgh. Cuthbert retired in 676, moved by a desire for the contemplative life. With his abbot's leave, he moved to a spot which Archbishop Eyre identifies with St Cuthbert's Island near Lindisfarne, but which Raine thinks was near Holburn, at a place now known as St Cuthbert's Cave.
Shortly afterwards, Cuthbert moved to Inner Farne island, two miles from Bamburgh, off the coast of Northumberland, where he gave himself up to a life of great austerity. At first he received visitors, but he confined himself to his cell and opened his wi
Winchester is a city and the county town of Hampshire, England. The city lies at the heart of the wider City of Winchester, a local government district, is located at the western end of the South Downs National Park, along the course of the River Itchen, it is situated 60 miles south-west of London and 13.6 miles from its closest city. At the time of the 2011 Census, Winchester had a population of 45,184; the wider City of Winchester district which includes towns such as Alresford and Bishop's Waltham has a population of 116,800. Winchester developed from the Roman town of Venta Belgarum, which in turn developed from an Iron Age oppidum. Winchester's major landmark is Winchester Cathedral, one of the largest cathedrals in Europe, with the distinction of having the longest nave and overall length of all Gothic cathedrals in Europe; the city is home to the University of Winchester and Winchester College, the oldest public school in the United Kingdom still using its original buildings. The area around Winchester has been inhabited since prehistoric times, with three Iron Age hillforts, Oram's Arbour, St. Catherine's Hill, Worthy Down all in the nearby vicinity.
In the Late Iron Age, a more urban settlement type developed, known as an oppidum, although the archaeology of this phase remains obscure. It was overrun by the confederation of Gaulish tribes known as the Belgae sometime during the first century BCE, it seems to have been known as Wentā or Venta, derived from the Brittonic for "town" or "meeting place", or the word for "white", due to Winchester's situation upon chalk. After the Roman conquest of Britain, the settlement served as the capital of the Belgae and was distinguished as Venta Belgarum, "Venta of the Belgae". Although in the early years of the Roman province it was of subsidiary importance to Silchester and Chichester, Venta eclipsed them both by the latter half of the second century. At the beginning of the third century, Winchester was given protective stone walls. At around this time the city covered an area of 144 acres, making it among the largest towns in Roman Britain by surface area. There was a limited suburban area outside the walls.
Like many other Roman towns however, Winchester began to decline in the fourth century. Following the Roman withdrawal from Britain in 410, urban life seems to have continued at Venta Belgarum until around 450 AD, a small administrative centre might have continued after that on the site of the Anglo-Saxon palace. Ford identifies the community as the Cair Guinntguic listed by Nennius among the 28 cities of Britain in his History of the Britons. Amid the Saxon invasions of Britain, cemeteries dating to the 6th and 7th centuries suggest a revival of settlement; the city became known as Wintan-ceastre in Old English. In 648, King Cenwalh of Wessex erected the Church of SS Peter and Paul known as the Old Minster; this became a cathedral in the 660s when the West Saxon bishopric was transferred from Dorchester-on-Thames. The present form of the city dates to reconstruction in the late 9th century, when King Alfred the Great obliterated the Roman street plan in favour of a new grid in order to provide better defence against the Vikings.
The city's first mint appears to date from this period. In the early tenth century there were two new ecclesiastical establishments, the convent of Nunnaminster, founded by Alfred's widow Ealhswith, the New Minster. Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester was a leading figure in the monastic reform movement of the tenth century, he replaced them with monks. He created the drainage system, the'Lockburn', which served as the town drain until 1875, still survives. In the late tenth century, the Old Minster was enlarged as a centre of the cult of the ninth century Bishop of Winchester, Saint Swithun; the three minsters were the home of what architectural historian John Crook describes as "the supreme artistic achievements" of the Winchester School. The consensus among historians of Anglo-Saxon England is that the court was mobile in this period and there was no fixed capital. Martin Biddle has suggested that Winchester was a centre for royal administration in the seventh and eighth centuries, but this is questioned by Barbara Yorke, who sees it as significant that the shire was named after Hamtun, the forerunner of Southampton.
However, Winchester is described by the historian Catherine Cubitt as "the premier city of the West Saxon kingdom." There was a fire in the city in 1141 during the Rout of Winchester. William of Wykeham played a role in the city's restoration; as Bishop of Winchester he was responsible for much of the current structure of the cathedral, he founded the still extant public school Winchester College. During the Middle Ages, the city was an important centre of the wool trade, before going into a slow decline; the curfew bell in the bell tower, still sounds at 8:00 pm each evening. While Jews lived in Winchester from at least 1148, in the 13th century the Jewish community in the city was one of the most important in England. There was an archa in the city, the Jewish quarter was located in the city's heart. There were a series of blood libel claims levied against the Jewish community in the 1220s and 1230s, the cause of the hanging of the community's leader, Abraham Pinch, in front of the synagogue that he was head of.
Simon de Montfort ransacked the Jewish quarter in 1264, in 1290 all Jews were expelled from England. The City Cross has been dated to the 15th century, features 12 statues of the Virgin Mary and various historical figures. Several statues appear to have been added t
A saint is a person, recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God. However, the use of the term "saint" depends on the denomination. In Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Lutheran doctrine, all of their faithful deceased in Heaven are considered to be saints, but some are considered worthy of greater honor or emulation. While the English word saint originated in Christianity, historians of religion now use the appellation "in a more general way to refer to the state of special holiness that many religions attribute to certain people", with the Jewish tzadik, the Islamic walī, the Hindu rishi or Sikh guru, the Buddhist arhat or bodhisattva being referred to as saints. Depending on the religion, saints are recognized either by official ecclesiastical declaration, as in the Catholic faith, or by popular acclamation; the English word "saint" comes from the Latin "sanctus". The word translated in Greek is "ἅγιος", which means "holy"; the word ἅγιος appears 229 times in the Greek New Testament, its English translation 60 times in the corresponding text of the King James Version of the Bible.
The word sanctus was a technical one in ancient Roman religion, but due to its "globalized" use in Christianity the modern word "saint" in English and its equivalent in Romance languages is now used as a translation of comparable terms for persons "worthy of veneration for their holiness or sanctity" in other religions. Many religions use similar concepts to venerate persons worthy of some honor. Author John A. Coleman S. J. of the Graduate Theological Union, California wrote that saints across various cultures and religions have the following family resemblances: exemplary model extraordinary teacher wonder worker or source of benevolent power intercessor a life refusing material attachments or comforts possession of a special and revelatory relation to the holy. The anthropologist Lawrence Babb in an article about Sathya Sai Baba asks the question "Who is a saint?", responds by saying that in the symbolic infrastructure of some religions, there is the image of a certain extraordinary spiritual king's "miraculous powers", to whom a certain moral presence is attributed.
These saintly figures, he asserts, are "the focal points of spiritual force-fields". They exert "powerful attractive influence on followers but touch the inner lives of others in transforming ways as well". According to the Catholic Church, a "saint" is anyone in Heaven, whether recognized on Earth or not, who form the "great cloud of witnesses"; these "may include our own mothers, grandmothers or other loved ones" who may have not always lived perfect lives but "amid their faults and failings they kept moving forward and proved pleasing to the Lord". The title "Saint" denotes a person, formally canonized, authoritatively declared a saint, by the Church as holder of the Keys of the Kingdom of Heaven, is therefore believed to be in Heaven by the grace of God. There are many persons that the Church believes to be in Heaven who have not been formally canonized and who are otherwise titled "saints" because of the fame of their holiness. Sometimes the word "saint" denotes living Christians. In his book Saint of the Day, editor Leonard Foley, OFM says this: the " surrender to God's love was so generous an approach to the total surrender of Jesus that the Church recognizes them as heroes and heroines worthy to be held up for our inspiration.
They remind us that the Church is holy, can never stop being holy and is called to show the holiness of God by living the life of Christ."The Catholic Church teaches that it does not "make" or "create" saints, but rather recognizes them. Proofs of heroicity required in the process of beatification will serve to illustrate in detail the general principles exposed above upon proof of their "holiness" or likeness to God. According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church Chapter 2, Article 1, 61, "The patriarchs and certain other Old Testament figures have been and always will be honored as saints in all the church's liturgical traditions." On 3 January 993, Pope John XV became the first pope to proclaim a person a "saint" from outside the diocese of Rome: on the petition of the German ruler, he had canonized Bishop Ulrich of Augsburg. Before that time, the popular "cults", or venerations, of saints had been local and spontaneous and were confirmed by the local bishop. Pope John XVIII subsequently permitted a cult of five Polish martyrs.
Pope Benedict VIII declared the Armenian hermit Symeon to be a saint, but it was not until the pontificate of Pope Innocent III that the Popes reserved to themselves the exclusive authority to canonize saints, so that local bishops needed the confirmation of the Pope. Walter of Pontoise was the last person in Western Europe to be canonized by an authority other than the Pope: Hugh de Boves, the Archbishop of Rouen, canonized him in 1153. Thenceforth a decree of Pope Alexander III in 1170 reserved the prerogative of canonization to the Pope, insofar as the Latin Church was concerned. One source claims that "there are over 10,000 named saints and beatified people from history, the Roman Martyrology and Orthodox sources, but no definitive head count". Alban Butler published Lives of the Saints including a total of 1,486 saints; the latest revision of this book, edited by the Jesuit Herbert Thurston and the British author Donald Attwater, contains the lives of 2,565 saints. Monsign
The Abbey Church of St Mary the Virgin at Sherborne in the English county of Dorset, is called Sherborne Abbey. It has been a Saxon cathedral, a Benedictine abbey, since 1539, a parish church of the Church of England, it is believed that there was a Celtic Christian church called Lanprobi here as early as AD658 when it was part of the Celtic Kingdom of Dumnonia, Kenwalc or Cenwalh, King of the West Saxons is believed to be one of its founders. When the Saxon Diocese of Sherborne was founded in 705, to relieve pressure from the growing see of Winchester, by King Ine of Wessex, he set Aldhelm as first Bishop of the see of Western Wessex, with his seat at Sherborne. Aldhelm was the first of twenty-seven Bishops of Sherborne; the twentieth bishop was Wulfsige III. In 998 he became its first abbot. In 1075 the bishopric of Sherborne was transferred to Old Sarum, so Sherborne remained an abbey church but was no longer a cathedral; the bishop remained the nominal head of the abbey until 1122, when Roger de Caen, Bishop of Salisbury, made the abbey independent.
Known Abbots include: Wulfsige III, 998. Various properties at Sherborne were bought from the king by Sir John Horsey who sold the abbey to the people of Sherborne, who bought the building to be their parish church, which it still is; the original parish church alongside the abbey was demolished, though the foundations are still visible. In 1550, King Edward VI issued a new charter to the school that had existed at Sherborne since 705, some of the remaining abbey buildings were turned over to it; the Abbey is a Grade I listed building. It has several distinct architectural styles throughout. Saxon features still remain in some parts of the Abbey around the Western door. Roger of Caen demolished most of the Saxon church and replaced it with a much larger, Norman style church; the Lady Chapel and Bishop Robert's Chapel were added in the 13th century in the Early English style, in the 15th century, the choir section was rebuilt in the Perpendicular style, including the fan-vaulting Sherborne is still famous for, the remodelling by William Smyth, under Abbot John Brunyng.
The vaulting is believed to have finished in 1490. During this renovation, a riot in the town caused a fire that damaged much of the renovation, causing delays. Traces of the fire's effects can still be seen in the reddening of the walls under the Tower; the fire and its effects caused the design of the Nave to be altered. Some of the Nave's pillars are Norman piers cased in Perpendicular panelling. St Katherine's Chapel, built in the 14th century, but altered in the 15th, contains examples of early Renaissance classicism architecture The whole building is around 240ft in length and 98 ft in width; the North Nave Aisle, sometimes called the'Trinitie' or'Dark' Aisle contains several colours from the 2nd Battalion Dorsetshire Regiment and the Dorsetshire Militia. The South Nave Aisle contains colours of the 1st Battalion Dorsetshire Regiment; the North Choir Aisle contains two tombs, believed to be the tombs of King Æthelbald of Wessex and his brother King Ethelbert of Wessex, elder brothers to Alfred the Great.
Inside the Wykeham chapel is the tomb of his son. Horsey had bought the church after the Dissolution of the Monasteries and sold it to the townspeople. In the Chapel is the plainly marked tomb of the poet Sir Thomas Wyatt; the South Transept contains an impressive baroque memorial to John Digby, 3rd Earl of Bristol, made of marble and designed by John Nost. Additionally there is a memorial to Mary Digby. St Katherine's Chapel contains the 16th century tomb of wife Joan; the Chapel was where Sir Walter Lady Raleigh attended services. The North Aisle contains a memorial to Abbot Clement and an effigy to an unknown Prior, while the South Aisle contains an effigy of Abbot Lawrence of Bradford; the Digby Memorial, situated outside the Abbey, is a memorial to George Digby who provided a lot of funding for renovation work during the 19th century. It was built in 1884 and features statues of St Aldhelm, Bishop Roger of Salisbury, Abbot Bradford and Sir Walter Raleigh; the Abbey's organ, located in the North Transept was installed in 1856 by Gray & Davison, rebuilt in 1955 by J. W. Walker & Sons Ltd, though that restoration's action failed by 1987 and had to be replaced.
The proposed scheme by Bishops supported by John Norman, Cecil Clutton and Patrick Moule favoured returning the organ to its Gray & Davison past but including a'Chair' section instead of the Choir in order to try to overcome the difficulties of the position of the organ was bold but hardly in keeping and proved a to be musically and mechanically a disaster and unreliable so that after no more than twenty years it was necessary for the Organ to be rebuilt again in 2004/05 by Kenneth Tickell, so as to make it a new instrument in the old case. An additional nave organ was located under the West Window; the organ specification can be found here. John Windsor 1717 John Merefield 23 July 1729 John Broderip 30 June 1737 Arnold Power 29 September 1739 William Thompson 20 December 1741 Thomas Hyde 1776 - Died January 1845 Richard Linter September 1838 - 1845 Richard Linter 1845 - 1848 James Vincent 1848 (pro t