Theodore of Tarsus
Theodore of Tarsus was Archbishop of Canterbury from 668 to 690, best known for his reform of the English Church and establishment of a school in Canterbury. Theodore's life can be divided into the time before his arrival in Britain as Archbishop of Canterbury, his archiepiscopate; until scholarship on Theodore had focused on only the latter period since it is attested in Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English, in Stephen of Ripon's Vita Sancti Wilfrithi, whereas no source directly mentions Theodore's earlier activities. However, Michael Lapidge and Bernard Bischoff have reconstructed his earlier life based on a study of texts produced by his Canterbury School. Theodore was of Byzantine Greek descent, born in Tarsus in Cilicia, a Greek-speaking diocese of the Byzantine Empire. Theodore's childhood saw devastating wars between Byzantium and the Persian Sassanid Empire, which resulted in the capture of Antioch and Jerusalem in 613-614. Persian forces captured Tarsus when Theodore was 11 or 12 years old, evidence exists that Theodore had experience of Persian culture.
It is most that he studied at Antioch, the historic home of a distinctive school of exegesis, of which he was a proponent. Theodore knew Syrian culture and literature, may have travelled to Edessa. Though a Greek could live under Persian rule, the Muslim conquests, which reached Tarsus in 637 drove Theodore from Tarsus. Having returned to the Eastern Roman Empire, he studied in the Byzantine capital of Constantinople, including the subjects of astronomy, ecclesiastical computus, medicine, Roman civil law, Greek rhetoric and philosophy, the use of the horoscope. At some time before the 660s, Theodore had travelled west to Rome, where he lived with a community of Eastern monks at the monastery of St. Anastasius. At this time, in addition to his profound Greek intellectual inheritance, he became learned in Latin literature, both sacred and secular; the Synod of Whitby having confirmed the decision in the Anglo-Saxon Church to follow Rome, in 667, when Theodore was aged 66, the see of Canterbury happened to fall vacant.
Wighard, the man chosen to fill the post, unexpectedly died. Wighard had been sent to Pope Vitalian by Ecgberht, king of Kent, Oswy, king of Northumbria, for consecration as archbishop. Following Wighard's death, Theodore was chosen by Vitalian upon the recommendation of Hadrian. Theodore was consecrated archbishop of Canterbury in Rome on 26 March 668, sent to England with Hadrian, arriving on 27 May 669. Theodore conducted a survey of the English church, appointed various bishops to sees that had lain vacant for some time, called the Synod of Hertford to institute reforms concerning the proper calculation of Easter, episcopal authority, itinerant monks, the regular convening of subsequent synods and prohibitions of consanguinity, other matters, he proposed dividing the large diocese of Northumbria into smaller sections, a policy which brought him into conflict with Wilfrid, who had become Bishop of York in 664. Theodore deposed and expelled Wilfrid in 678; the conflict with Wilfrid continued until its settlement in 686–687.
In 679 Aelfwine, the brother of King Ecgfrith of Northumbria, died in battle against the Mercians. Theodore's intervention prevented the escalation of the war and resulted in peace between the two kingdoms, with King Æthelred of Mercia paying weregild compensation for Aelfwine's death. Theodore and Hadrian established a school in Canterbury, providing instruction in both Greek and Latin, resulting in a "golden age" of Anglo-Saxon scholarship: They attracted a large number of students, into whose minds they poured the waters of wholesome knowledge day by day. In addition to instructing them in the Holy Scriptures, they taught their pupils poetry and the calculation of the church calendar... Never had there been such happy times as these since the English settled Britain. Theodore taught sacred music, introduced various texts, knowledge of Eastern saints, may have been responsible for the introduction of the Litany of the Saints, a major liturgical innovation, into the West; some of his thoughts are accessible in the Biblical Commentaries, notes compiled by his students at the Canterbury School.
Of immense interest is the text attributed to him, called Laterculus Malalianus. Overlooked for many years, it was rediscovered in the 1990s, has since been shown to contain numerous interesting elements reflecting Theodore's trans-Mediterranean formation. A record of the teaching of Theodore and Adrian is preserved in the Leiden Glossary. Pupils from the school at Canterbury were sent out as Benedictine abbots in southern England, disseminating the curriculum of Theodore. Theodore called other synods, in September 680 at Hatfield, confirming English orthodoxy in the Monothelite controversy, circa 684 at Twyford, near Alnwick in Northumbria. Lastly, a penitential composed under his direction is still extant. Theodore died in 690 at the age of 88, he was buried in Canterbury at the church known today as St. Augustine's Abbey. Theodore is venerated as a saint on 19 September in the Catholic Church, Church of England, Episcopal Church, Eastern Orthodox churches, he is recorded on this day in the Roman Martyrology.
Canterbury recognises a feast of his ordination on 26 March. Theodore 1 at Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England
Wulfhere of York
Wulfhere was Archbishop of York between 854 and 900. Wulfhere was consecrated in 854. In 867 the Danes attacked York, captured it. Wulfhere stayed in York. In 872, the Northumbrians rebelled against the Danes and their collaborators, Wulfhere fled York, he found refuge with King Burgred of Mercia. Wulfhere was recalled in 873, continued in York until his death in 892 or 900. After his death, the see. Wulfhere 8 at Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England
Æthelhard was a Bishop of Winchester an Archbishop of Canterbury in medieval England. Appointed by King Offa of Mercia, Æthelhard had difficulties with both the Kentish monarchs and with a rival archiepiscopate in southern England, was deposed around 796 by King Eadberht III Præn of Kent. By 803, Æthelhard, along with the Mercian King Coenwulf, had secured the demotion of the rival archbishopric, once more making Canterbury the only archbishopric south of the Humber in Britain. Æthelhard died in 805, was considered a saint until his cult was suppressed after the Norman Conquest in 1066. Nothing is known of Æthelhard's family background or early life, however it is assumed that he was a native of Mercia, he first appears in the historical record as abbot of a monastery at Louth, Lincolnshire before being named to the diocese of Winchester. He was consecrated Bishop of Winchester sometime after 759 and before 778. Æthelhard was translated from the see of Winchester to the see of Canterbury in 792 and was enthroned as archbishop on 21 July 793.
Æthelhard owed his appointment to King Offa of Mercia, the enthronement was presided over by the then-senior bishop of the land: Hygberht, the Archbishop of Lichfield. King Offa consulted Alcuin of York over proper procedure, as the archbishopric of Lichfield was a new creation. Around 796, Æthelhard was deposed by King Eadberht III Præn of Kent because Æthelhard had been appointed by Offa. Offa had died in 796, Eadberht seized control of Kent, forcing Æthelhard to flee to the court of Offa's son Ecgfrith of Mercia. Ecgfrith himself died before 796, a distant relative Coenwulf took the throne. Alcuin encouraged Æthelhard to return to Canterbury, suggested a compromise over the status of Lichfield, established by Offa in rivalry to Canterbury. Alcuin's plan would have allowed Hygberht to retain archiepiscopal status during his lifetime, but it would be a purely ceremonial rank. In this proposal, Canterbury would regain its status as the only archbishopric south of the Humber and Æthelhard would return to Canterbury.
However, Æthelhard was unable to do this. Alcuin had stated that Lichfield had been elevated because of a "lust for power" by Offa, not through any consideration of the merits of the plan. Although Alcuin had scorn for Æthelhard for fleeing Canterbury, the papacy saw it differently. Pope Leo III praised Æthelhard for fleeing and refusing to submit to Eadberht, whom Leo compared to the Roman emperor Julian the Apostate. There are indications, that the Kentish community considered electing another archbishop while Æthelhard was in exile; because Lichfield had been established by the papacy, any change in its status required papal assent. Coenwulf's first embassy to Leo III in 797 about demoting Lichfield did not succeed because Leo seems to have resented the implied criticism of his predecessor Hadrian I, who had approved the elevation of Lichfield. Coenwulf's embassy bore a letter to the pope that asked for papal advice on how to resolve the problems surrounding Lichfield and Canterbury; the letter reminded the papacy of Pope Gregory the Great's old scheme to have two metropolitans in Britain, one in the north and one in the south, with the southern one being based in London.
The letter implied. The same embassy carried a letter from Æthelhard which has not survived; the pope, did not agree with the embassy. The papal reply to Coenwulf stated that the southern archbishopric must remain at Canterbury, as well as excommunicated Eadberht and authorised his expulsion from Kent if he persisted in keeping Æthelhard from Canterbury. In 798 Coenwulf invaded captured Eadberht, whom he blinded and imprisoned. Æthelhard was restored to Canterbury. He managed to secure professions of obedience from a number of southern bishops, including Eadwulf of Lindsey and Tidferth of Dummoc. But, Hygberht was still being called archbishop in 799; because Pope Leo was involved in disputes in Rome during 799 and 800, was unable to spare attention for English affairs, no papal decisions could be made on the dispute.Æthelhard resolved to go to Rome and consult with the pope about the decline in power of the see of Canterbury. The archbishop went to Rome along with Bishop Cyneberht of Winchester, carried two letters from Coenwulf to the pope.
After some discussions, Leo sided with demoted Lichfield back down to a bishopric. Besides these papal actions, there are indications that the cathedral clergy of Canterbury never recognised the elevation of Lichfield. Æthelhard returned to England in 803, convened the Council of Clovesho, which decreed that no archiepiscopal see besides Canterbury should been established in the southern part of Britain. Hygberht attended the council, but as an abbot, which makes it apparent that he had resigned his see before the council met. At that same council, Æthelhard presented a papal decision that asserted the freedom of churches from secular authority. While at the council, Æthelhard once more proclaimed that the papacy had been deceived into elevating Lichfield, that it was a "tyranical power", behind the effort. Æthelhard presided over at least eleven synods, one more.Æthelhard died on 12 May 805 and was buried in Canterbury. He was revered as a saint, with a feast day of 12 May, but his cult was suppressed by Archbishop Lanfranc in the late 11th century and never was revived.
Æthelheard 13 at Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England
Archbishop of Canterbury
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury. The current archbishop is Justin Welby, enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral on 21 March 2013. Welby is the 105th in a line which goes back more than 1400 years to Augustine of Canterbury, the "Apostle to the English", sent from Rome in the year 597. Welby succeeded Rowan Williams. From the time of Augustine until the 16th century, the archbishops of Canterbury were in full communion with the See of Rome and received the pallium from the Pope. During the English Reformation, the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope. Thomas Cranmer became the first holder of the office following the English Reformation in 1533, while Reginald Pole was the last Roman Catholic in the position, serving from 1556 to 1558 during the Counter-Reformation. In the Middle Ages there was considerable variation in the methods of nomination of the Archbishop of Canterbury and other bishops.
At various times the choice was made by the canons of Canterbury Cathedral, the Pope, or the King of England. Since the English Reformation, the Church of England has been more explicitly a state church and the choice is that of the Crown. Today the archbishop fills four main roles: He is the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury, which covers the eastern parts of the County of Kent. Founded in 597, it is the oldest, he is the metropolitan archbishop of the Province of Canterbury, which covers the southern two-thirds of England. He is the senior primate and chief religious figure of the Church of England. Along with his colleague the Archbishop of York he chairs the General Synod and sits on or chairs many of the church's important boards and committees; the Archbishop of Canterbury plays a central part in national ceremonies such as coronations. As spiritual leader of the Anglican Communion, the archbishop, although without legal authority outside England, is recognised by convention as primus inter pares of all Anglican primates worldwide.
Since 1867 he has convened more or less decennial meetings of worldwide Anglican bishops, the Lambeth Conferences. In the last two of these functions, he has an important ecumenical and interfaith role, speaking on behalf of Anglicans in England and worldwide; the archbishop's main residence is Lambeth Palace in the London Borough of Lambeth. He has lodgings in the Old Palace, located beside Canterbury Cathedral, where the Chair of St Augustine sits; as holder of one of the "five great sees", the Archbishop of Canterbury is ex officio one of the Lords Spiritual of the House of Lords. He is one of the highest-ranking men in England and the highest ranking non-royal in the United Kingdom's order of precedence. Since Henry VIII broke with Rome, the archbishops of Canterbury have been selected by the English monarch. Since the 20th century, the appointment of archbishops of Canterbury conventionally alternates between Anglo-Catholics and Evangelicals; the current archbishop, Justin Welby, the 105th Archbishop of Canterbury, was enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral on 4 February 2013.
As archbishop he signs himself as + Justin Cantuar. His predecessor, Rowan Williams, 104th Archbishop of Canterbury, was enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral on 27 February 2003. Prior to his appointment to Canterbury, Williams was the Bishop of Monmouth and Archbishop of Wales. On 18 March 2012, Williams announced he would be stepping down as Archbishop of Canterbury at the end of 2012 to become Master of Magdalene College, Cambridge. In addition to his office, the archbishop holds a number of other positions; some positions he formally holds ex officio and others so. Amongst these are: Chancellor of Canterbury Christ Church UniversityVisitor for the following academic institutions: All Souls College, Oxford Selwyn College, Cambridge Merton College, Oxford Keble College, Oxford Ridley Hall, Cambridge The University of Kent King's College London University of King's College Sutton Valence School Benenden School Cranbrook School Haileybury and Imperial Service College Harrow School King's College School, Wimbledon The King's School, Canterbury St John's School, Leatherhead Marlborough College Dauntsey's School Wycliffe Hall, Oxford Governor of Charterhouse School Governor of Wellington College Visitor, The Dulwich Charities Visitor, Whitgift Foundation Visitor, Hospital of the Blessed Trinity, Guildford Trustee, Bromley College Trustee, Allchurches Trust President, Corporation of Church House, Westminster Director, Canterbury Diocesan Board of Finance Patron, St Edmund's School Canterbury Patron, The Worshipful Company of Parish Clerks Patron, Prisoners Abroad Patron, The Kent Savers Credit Union The Archbishop of Canterbury is a president of Churches Together in England.
Geoffrey Fisher, 99th Archbishop of Canterbury, was the first since 1397 to visit Ro
Augustine of Canterbury
Augustine of Canterbury was a Benedictine monk who became the first Archbishop of Canterbury in the year 597. He is considered the "Apostle to the English" and a founder of the English Church. Augustine was the prior of a monastery in Rome when Pope Gregory the Great chose him in 595 to lead a mission known as the Gregorian mission, to Britain to Christianize King Æthelberht and his Kingdom of Kent from Anglo-Saxon paganism. Kent was chosen because Æthelberht had married a Christian princess, daughter of Charibert I the King of Paris, expected to exert some influence over her husband. Before reaching Kent, the missionaries had considered turning back, but Gregory urged them on, in 597, Augustine landed on the Isle of Thanet and proceeded to Æthelberht's main town of Canterbury. King Æthelberht converted to Christianity and allowed the missionaries to preach giving them land to found a monastery outside the city walls. Augustine was consecrated as a bishop and converted many of the king's subjects, including thousands during a mass baptism on Christmas Day in 597.
Pope Gregory sent more missionaries in 601, along with encouraging letters and gifts for the churches, although attempts to persuade the native British bishops to submit to Augustine's authority failed. Roman bishops were established at London, Rochester in 604, a school was founded to train Anglo-Saxon priests and missionaries. Augustine arranged the consecration of his successor, Laurence of Canterbury; the archbishop died in 604 and was soon revered as a saint. After the withdrawal of the Roman legions from their province of Britannia in 410, the inhabitants were left to defend themselves against the attacks of the Saxons. Before the Roman withdrawal, Britannia had been converted to Christianity and produced the ascetic Pelagius. Britain sent three bishops to the Council of Arles in 314, a Gaulish bishop went to the island in 396 to help settle disciplinary matters. Material remains testify to a growing presence of Christians, at least until around 360. After the Roman legions departed, pagan tribes settled the southern parts of the island while western Britain, beyond the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, remained Christian.
This native British Church developed in isolation from Rome under the influence of missionaries from Ireland and was centred on monasteries instead of bishoprics. Other distinguishing characteristics were its calculation of the date of Easter and the style of the tonsure haircut that clerics wore. Evidence for the survival of Christianity in the eastern part of Britain during this time includes the survival of the cult of Saint Alban and the occurrence in place names of eccles, derived from the Latin ecclesia, meaning "church". There is no evidence; the invasions destroyed most remnants of Roman civilisation in the areas held by the Saxons and related tribes, including the economic and religious structures. It was against this background that Pope Gregory I decided to send a mission called the Gregorian mission, to convert the Anglo-Saxons to Christianity in 595; the Kingdom of Kent was ruled by Æthelberht, who married a Christian princess named Bertha before 588, earlier than 560. Bertha was the daughter of Charibert one of the Merovingian kings of the Franks.
As one of the conditions of her marriage, she brought. Together in Canterbury, they restored a church that dated to Roman times—possibly the current St Martin's Church. Æthelberht allowed his wife freedom of worship. One biographer of Bertha states that under his wife's influence, Æthelberht asked Pope Gregory to send missionaries; the historian Ian N. Wood feels that the initiative came from the Kentish court as well as the queen. Other historians, believe that Gregory initiated the mission, although the exact reasons remain unclear. Bede, an 8th-century monk who wrote a history of the English church, recorded a famous story in which Gregory saw fair-haired Saxon slaves from Britain in the Roman slave market and was inspired to try to convert their people. More practical matters, such as the acquisition of new provinces acknowledging the primacy of the papacy, a desire to influence the emerging power of the Kentish kingdom under Æthelberht, were involved; the mission may have been an outgrowth of the missionary efforts against the Lombards who, as pagans and Arian Christians, were not on good relations with the Catholic church in Rome.
Aside from Æthelberht's granting of freedom of worship to his wife, the choice of Kent was dictated by a number of other factors. Kent was the dominant power in southeastern Britain. Since the eclipse of King Ceawlin of Wessex in 592, Æthelberht was the leading Anglo-Saxon ruler. Trade between the Franks and Æthelberht's kingdom was well established, the language barrier between the two regions was only a minor obstacle, as the interpreters for the mission came from the Franks. Lastly, Kent's proximity to the Franks allowed support from a Christian area. There is some evidence, including Gregory's letters to Frankish kings in support of the mission, that some of the Franks felt that they had a claim to overlordship over some of the southern British kingdoms at this time; the presence of a Frankish bishop could have lent credence to claims of overlordship, if Bertha's Bishop Liudhard was felt to be acting as a representative of the Frankish church and not as a spiritual advisor to the queen. Frankish influence was not political.
The Gospel Book, Evangelion, or Book of the Gospels is a codex or bound volume containing one or more of the four Gospels of the Christian New Testament – all four – centering on the life of Jesus of Nazareth and the roots of the Christian faith. The term is used of the liturgical book called the Evangeliary, from which are read the portions of the Gospels used in the Mass and other services, arranged according to the order of the liturgical calendar. Liturgical use in churches of a distinct Gospel book remains normal compulsory, in Eastern Christianity, common in Roman Catholicism and some parts of Anglicanism and Lutheranism. Other Protestant churches just use a complete Bible. In the early Middle Ages, the production of copies of the Bible in its entirety was rare, if only because of the huge expense of the parchment required. Individual books or collections of books were produced for specific purposes. From the 4th century Gospel Books were produced for liturgical use, as well as private study and as "display books" for ceremonial and ornamental purposes.
The Codex Washingtonianus is an early example of a book containing only the four gospels, in Greek, written in the 4th or 5th century. By the 7th century particular gospel texts were allocated to days in the liturgical calendar. Many of these volumes were elaborate. In the East they remained a significant subject for illumination until the arrival of printing; the Evangelist portrait was a particular feature of their decoration. Most of the masterpieces of both Insular and Ottonian illumination are Gospel Books, there are many Byzantine and Carolingian examples, but most Gospel Books were never illuminated at all, or only with decorated initials and other touches. They contained, in addition to the text of the Gospels themselves, supporting texts including Canon Tables, summaries and other explanatory material. Latin books include the Letter of Jerome to Pope Damasus where Jerome set out to the Pope the reasoning behind his new Vulgate translation and arrangement of the texts, many Greek ones the Epistula ad Carpianum of Eusebius of Caesarea explaining the Eusebian Canons he had devised.
Luxury illuminated gospel books were a feature of the Early Middle Ages, as the evangeliary or a general lectionary became more common for liturgical use, other texts became most favoured for elaborate decoration. In current Roman Catholic usage, the Book of the Gospels or Evangeliary contains the full text of the passages from all four gospels that the deacon or priest is to read or chant at Mass in the course of the liturgical year. However, use of the Book of the Gospels is not mandatory, the gospel readings are included in the standard Lectionary; the Book of the Gospels, if used, is brought to the altar in the entrance procession, while the Lectionary may not. When carried in procession, the Book of the Gospels is held elevated, though not over the head, it is proper for the deacon to carry the Book of the Gospels in procession, as the reading of the gospel is his particular province. When there is no deacon, the Book may be carried by a lector. Upon reaching the altar, the deacon or lector bows in veneration of the altar places the Book upon the altar, where it remains until the Alleluia.
During the singing of the Alleluia, the deacon, or in his absence, a priest, removes the Book from the altar and processes with it to the ambo. If incense is used, the Book of the Gospels is censed by the deacon before chanting. An altar server or acolyte will swing the censer during the reading or chanting; the Book of the Gospels remains on the ambo until the Mass concludes, unless it is taken to a bishop to be kissed, after which it may be placed on the credence table or another appropriate and dignified place. If the Rite of Dismissal of catechumens is celebrated, the Book of the Gospels is carried in procession in front of the catechumens as they leave the church. In the Episcopal Church in the United States of America the practice of using a Gospel Book was recovered with the 1979 US Book of Common Prayer, which suggests that the lessons and gospel "be read from a book or books of appropriate size and dignity". Following this several publishers have produced gospel books for use in the Episcopal Church, other books have been compiled.
A deacon, server or acolyte carries the gospel book in the entrance procession, holding the book as high as possible with arms extended, places it on the altar until time for the gospel proclamation. Afterward, it may be placed on a side table or a stand. Among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholics the Gospel Book is important liturgically, it is considered to be an icon of Christ, is venerated in the same manner as an icon. The Gospel Book contains the readings that are used at Matins, the Divine Liturgy and other services. Among the Greeks the modern liturgical Gospel Book is laid out in order of the cycle of readings as they occur in the ecclesiastical year, with a section in the back providing the Gospel readings for Matins and special occasions, is thus an evangeliary rather than a gospel book. In the Slavic usage, the Gospel Book contains the full text of the four Gospels in canonical order, with annotatio
Justus was the fourth Archbishop of Canterbury. He was sent from Italy to England by Pope Gregory the Great, on a mission to Christianize the Anglo-Saxons from their native paganism arriving with the second group of missionaries despatched in 601. Justus became the first Bishop of Rochester in 604, attended a church council in Paris in 614. Following the death of King Æthelberht of Kent in 616, Justus was forced to flee to Gaul, but was reinstated in his diocese the following year. In 624 Justus became Archbishop of Canterbury, overseeing the despatch of missionaries to Northumbria. After his death he was revered as a saint, had a shrine in St Augustine's Abbey, Canterbury. Justus was a member of the Gregorian mission sent to England by Pope Gregory I. Everything known about Justus and his career is derived from the early 8th-century Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum of Bede; as Bede does not describe Justus' origins, nothing is known about him prior to his arrival in England. He arrived in England with the second group of missionaries, sent at the request of Augustine of Canterbury in 601.
Some modern writers describe Justus as one of the original missionaries who arrived with Augustine in 597, but Bede believed that Justus came in the second group. The second group included Mellitus, who became Bishop of London and Archbishop of Canterbury. If Justus was a member of the second group of missionaries he arrived with a gift of books and "all things which were needed for worship and the ministry of the Church". A 15th-century Canterbury chronicler, Thomas of Elmham, claimed that there were a number of books brought to England by that second group still at Canterbury in his day, although he did not identify them. An investigation of extant Canterbury manuscripts shows that one possible survivor is the St. Augustine Gospels, now in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, Manuscript 286. Augustine consecrated Justus as a bishop in 604, over a province including the Kentish town of Rochester; the historian Nicholas Brooks argues that the choice of Rochester was not because it had been a Roman-era bishopric, but rather because of its importance in the politics of the time.
Although the town was small, with just one street, it was at the junction of Watling Street and the estuary of the Medway, was thus a fortified town. Because Justus was not a monk, his cathedral clergy was likely non-monastic too. A charter purporting to be from King Æthelberht, dated 28 April 604, survives in the Textus Roffensis, as well as a copy based on the Textus in the 14th-century Liber Temporalium. Written in Latin but using an Old English boundary clause, the charter records a grant of land near the city of Rochester to Justus' church. Among the witnesses is Laurence, Augustine's future successor, but not Augustine himself; the text turns to two different addressees. First, Æthelberht is made to admonish his son Eadbald, established as a sub-ruler in the region of Rochester; the grant itself is addressed directly to Saint Andrew, the patron saint of the church, a usage parallelled by other charters in the same archive. Historian Wilhelm Levison, writing in 1946, was sceptical about the authenticity of this charter.
In particular, he felt that the two separate addresses were incongruous and suggested that the first address, occurring before the preamble, may have been inserted by someone familiar with Bede to echo Eadbald's future conversion. A more recent and more positive appraisal by John Morris argues that the charter and its witness list are authentic because it incorporates titles and phraseology that had fallen out of use by 800.Æthelberht built Justus a cathedral church in Rochester. What remains of the foundations of an early rectangular building near the southern part of the current cathedral might be contemporary with Justus or may be part of a Roman building. Together with Mellitus, the Bishop of London, Justus signed a letter written by Archbishop Laurence of Canterbury to the Irish bishops urging the native church to adopt the Roman method of calculating the date of Easter; this letter mentioned the fact that Irish missionaries, such as Dagan, had refused to share meals with the missionaries.
Although the letter has not survived, Bede quoted from parts of it. In 614, Justus attended the Council of Paris, held by the Frankish king, Chlothar II, it is unclear why the abbot of Sts Peter and Paul in Canterbury, were present. It may have been just chance, but historian James Campbell has suggested that Chlothar summoned clergy from Britain to attend in an attempt to assert overlordship over Kent; the historian N. J. Higham offers another explanation for their attendance, arguing that Æthelberht sent the pair to the council because of shifts in Frankish policy towards the Kentish kingdom, which threatened Kentish independence, that the two clergymen were sent to negotiate a compromise with Chlothar. A pagan backlash against Christianity followed Æthelberht's death in 616, forcing Justus and Mellitus to flee to Gaul; the pair took refuge with Chlothar, hoping that the Frankish king would intervene and restore them to their sees, by 617 Justus had been reinstalled in his bishopric by the new king.
Mellitus returned to England, but the prevailing pagan mood did not allow him to return to London. According to Bede, Justus received letters of encouragement from Pope Boniface V, as did Mellitus, although Bede does not record the actual letters; the historian J. M. Wallace-Hadrill assumes that both l