Çemberlitaş, Fatih

Çemberlitaş is a quarter in the Fatih district of Istanbul, located on the European side of the city. The name comes from the Çemberlitaş Column, known in English as the Column of Constantine, situated in the center of the quarter, it is located in the historic Constantinople proper. The 1988-established TGC Press Media Museum is situated in Divanyolu Street, No: 67; the Çemberlitaş Hamamı is a Turkish bath located next to the Grand Bazaar and a popular tourist attraction. It was built by the famous 16th-century Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan. There is a stop of T1 tram line in the quarter

Alabama v. Georgia

State of Alabama v. State of Georgia, 64 U. S. 505, is a 9-to-0 ruling by the Supreme Court of the United States which held that the true border between the states of Alabama and Georgia was the average water mark on the western bank of the Chattahoochee River. In coming to its conclusion, the Court defined what constituted the bank of a river; the case has had international repercussions as well. The Supreme Court's definition was adopted by courts in the United Kingdom in the case Hindson v. Ashby 65 LJ Ch. 515, 2 Ch. 27. In 1629, during European colonization of the Americas, Charles I of England granted Sir Robert Heath a charter giving him title to Native American-occupied land from the northern boundary of what is modern-day Florida north to Albemarle Sound, extending from the Atlantic Ocean west to the Pacific Ocean. In 1663, Charles II of England issued a new charter to eight noblemen. In 1665, this charter was amended to extend the land grant northward to the current border of North Carolina and Virginia.

In 1729, the Proprietors were forced to turn their charters over to George II of Great Britain, North Carolina separated from South Carolina. In 1732, George II granted James Oglethorpe and other settlers a charter to all South Carolina Colony land west of the Savannah River. However, the charter was unclear as to whether the new colony covered all of South Carolina's western border, South Carolina continued to dispute Georgia's claim over a strip of land about 12 miles wide. In order to help secure ratification of the Articles of Confederation, the new United States Congress passed legislation encouraging all states to give up their western claims so that new territories might be formed and transformed into states which might be admitted to the union. In August 1787, South Carolina ceded the disputed strip of land to the state of Georgia. In the Compact of 1802, Georgia ceded its sparsely settled western lands beyond the Chattahoochee River to the United States in exchange for a guarantee that the federal government would extinguish all Native American claims to land within the state's borders.

The United States made good on its promise, removing the Cherokee nation to reservations in the new Mississippi Territory. The Compact of 1802 specified that Georgia's western boundary would be as follows: West of a line beginning on the western bank of the Chattahoochee River where the same crosses the boundary between the United States and Spain, running up the said river and along the western bank thereof. In 1817, what is now the modern state of Mississippi was created from the western half of the Mississippi Territory, the remaining territory renamed the Alabama Territory; the territory became the modern state of Alabama in 1819. The state of Alabama entered into a dispute with the state of Georgia over the specific meaning of the Compact of 1802. Alabama argued that the contour of the land on the western bank of the Chattahoochee River was sometimes high bluffs and sometimes low, flat floodplains, that the high-water mark sometimes marched as much as a half-mile inland to the west. Georgia answered that it did indeed claim these lands as its own, that the Compact of 1802 did not cover the northernmost part of the border.

The State of Alabama submitted its case to the Supreme Court in December 1855. The State of Georgia submitted its reply in December 1858. Associate Justice James Moore Wayne delivered the unanimous opinion of the court. Justice Wayne emphasized the mutual nature of the Compact of 1802, pointed out that Georgia admitted in the agreement that its western boundary extended north to the border with the state of Tennessee; this made any argument over the South Carolina cession of 1787 moot. Next, Justice Wayne argued that "The contract of cession must be interpreted by the words of it, according to their received meaning and use in the language in which it is written, as that can be collected from judicial opinions concerning the rights of private persons upon rivers, the writings of publicists in reference to the settlement of controversies between nations and States as to their ownership and jurisdiction on the soil of rivers within their banks and beds." Citing scholarly sources from Europe, American case law, other cessions between states and the United States, Justice Wayne concluded that the Compact of 1802 did not mean the low-water mark as claimed by Alabama.

However, Wayne concluded that this did not mean the high-water mark, as claimed by Georgia. Rather, the Compact of 1802 specified the western bank, the bank was different from the high-water mark. Drawing on the sources cited, Wayne defined the bank as follows: the bed of the river is that portion of its soil, alternately covered and left bare as there may be an increase or diminution in the supply of water, and, adequate to contain it at its average and mean stage during the entire year, without reference to the extraordinary freshets of the winter or spring or the extreme droughts of the summer or autumn; the majority concluded, that only the average water level defined the bank, that the boundary of Georgia should be so marked. The Court reaffirmed that the Compact of 1802 gave both states free navigation of the river. Channing, Edward. A Students' History of the United States. New York: Macmillan Co. 1898. Chiorazzi and Most, Marguerite. Prestatehood Legal Ma

Maria the Virgin Witch

Maria the Virgin Witch, subtitled Sorcière de gré, pucelle de force, is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Masayuki Ishikawa. Kodansha USA licensed the manga and released the first volume on February 24, 2015. An anime adaptation aired from January to March 2015. Set in France during the Hundred Years' War, it follows Maria, one of the most powerful witches of her era, she intervenes against the warring nations by using her succubus and incubus familiars to manipulate the opposing factions, as well as large-scale illusions, all for the sake of helping the people and maintaining peace. As a result, she has gained the appreciation of several villagers and the hostility of the Church, which considers her a heretic, yet Maria is still a virgin and her own familiars tease her about it. As news of her actions spreads, Archangel Michael focuses on Maria and rejects her interference in human affairs. After a direct confrontation, Michael decides that Maria will lose her magical powers if she loses her virginity and forbids her from publicly using magic, sending an angel called Ezekiel to oversee this decree.

Maria Voiced by: Hisako Kanemoto. A powerful witch that hates conflicts, because of her interference in the battles, she's forced by Heaven to stop using magic in front of common people, the moment she loses her virginity, she will lose her powers, she falls in love with Joseph. It has been hinted. In the last episode, she abandons her life as a witch in the forest and is starting to live among the humans in the village; the name "Maria the witch" will be forever forgotten in the passage of time. Artemis Voiced by: Yōko Hikasa. Despite that she's protective of her mistress. Priapus Voiced by: Mikako Komatsu; the same as Artemis, he is protective of Maria. Ezekiel Voiced by: Kana Hanazawa, she is nicknamed Popo by Anne and Marias familiars. She comes to sympathize with Maria and prevents herself from killing her when Michael gives her the order. For this insubordination she's sentenced by the archangel to become fallen, but is promised to be reincarnated as a human. Michael commands her to choose the one who will be bearing her and, without hesitating, Ezekiel chooses Maria to become her mother.

Joseph Voiced by: Kenshō Ono. He's a virgin and tries to support Maria in any way he knows. Anne Voiced by: Ai Kakuma. A surprising fact is. Bonne Voiced by: Yuka Keichō. Martha Voiced by: Miyuki Ichijou. Guillaume Voiced by: Bin Shimada. Viv Voiced by: Mamiko Noto, she tries to convince her of losing her virginity. She becomes friends with Maria. Michael Voiced by: Kikuko Inoue. Edwina Voiced by: Yumi Uchiyama, she uses her cat familiar as messenger. She hides away in a rundown stone building, she leaves her home to help Maria from burning at the stake. Garfa Voiced by: Yūki Ono. He's assigned by Guillaume into killing Maria if she keeps interfering. After killing Yvain, he loses his left arm by a straight cannonball during battle, he survives and gives his support to Bernard, receiving a metal arm and becomes the leader of the mercenary group. Lolotte Voiced by: Sachiko Kojima. She's the only one. Yvain Voiced by: Kenta Miyake. He's murdered by Garfa during a battle when he threatens to take away all his earnings and insults his moorish descent.

Bernard Voiced by: Takahiro Sakurai. He has a divine revelation whe