Luxembourgish, Letzeburgesch, or Luxembourgian is a West Germanic language, spoken in Luxembourg. About 390,000 people speak Luxembourgish worldwide. A variety of the Moselle Franconian dialect group, Luxembourgish has similarities with other varieties of High German and the wider group of West Germanic languages; the status of Luxembourgish as an official language in Luxembourg and the existence there of a regulatory body, has removed Luxembourgish, at least in part, from the domain of Standard German, its traditional Dachsprache. Luxembourgish belongs to the West Central German group of High German languages and is the primary example of a Moselle Franconian language. Luxembourgish is the national language of Luxembourg and one of three administrative languages, alongside French and German. In Luxembourg, 50.9% of citizens can speak Luxembourgish. Luxembourgish is spoken in the Arelerland region of Belgium and in small parts of Lorraine in France. In the German Eifel and Hunsrück regions, similar local Moselle Franconian dialects of German are spoken.
The language is spoken by a few descendants of Luxembourg immigrants in the United States and Canada. Additionally, in the German Eifel and Hunsrück regions, similar local Moselle Franconian dialects of German are spoken. Other Moselle Franconian dialects are spoken by ethnic Germans long settled in Transylvania, Romania. Moselle Franconian dialects outside the Luxembourg state border tend to have far fewer French loan words, these remain from the French Revolution. There are several distinct dialect forms of Luxembourgish including Areler, Kliärrwer, Stater, Veiner and Weelzer. Further small vocabulary differences may be seen between small villages. Increasing mobility of the population and the dissemination of the language through mass media such as radio and television are leading to a gradual standardisation towards a "Standard Luxembourgish" through the process of koineization. There is no distinct geographic boundary between the use of Luxembourgish and the use of other related High German dialects.
Spoken Luxembourgish is hard to understand for speakers of German who are not familiar with Moselle Franconian dialects. However, they can read the language to some degree. For those Germans familiar with Moselle Franconian dialects, it is easy to understand and speak Luxembourgish as far as the everyday vocabulary is concerned. However, the large number of French loanwords in Luxembourgish may hamper communication about certain topics, or with certain speakers. There is no intelligibility between Luxembourgish and French or any of the Romance dialects spoken in the adjacent parts of Belgium and France. Erna Hennicot-Schoepges, President of the Christian Social People's Party of Luxembourg 1995–2003, was active in promoting the language beyond Luxembourg's borders. A number of proposals for standardising the orthography of Luxembourgish can be documented, going back to the middle of the 19th century. There was no recognised system, until the adoption of the "OLO" on 5 June 1946; this orthography provided a system for speakers of all varieties of Luxembourgish to transcribe words the way they pronounced them, rather than imposing a single, standard spelling for the words of the language.
The rules explicitly rejected certain elements of German orthography. New principles were adopted for the spelling of French loanwords. Fiireje, rééjelen, shwèzt, veinejer bültê, âprê, ssistém This proposed orthography, so different from existing "foreign" standards that people were familiar with, did not enjoy widespread approval. A more successful standard emerged from the work of the committee of specialists charged with the task of creating the Luxemburger Wörterbuch, published in 5 volumes between 1950 and 1977; the orthographic conventions adopted in this decades-long project, set out in Bruch, provided the basis of the standard orthography that became official on 10 October 1975. Modifications to this standard were proposed by the Conseil permanent de la langue luxembourgeoise and adopted in the spelling reform of 30 July 1999. A detailed explanation of current practice for Luxembourgish can be found in Lulling; the Luxembourgish alphabet consists of the 26 Latin letters plus three letters with diacritics: "é", "ä", "ë".
In loanwords from French and Standard German, other diacritics are preserved: French: Boîte, Enquête, Piqûre, etc. German: blöd, Bühn, etc. Like many other varieties of Western High German, Luxembourgish has a rule of final n-deletion in certain contexts; the effects of this rule are indicated in writing, therefore must be taken into account when spelling words and morphemes ending in ⟨n⟩ or ⟨nn⟩. For example: wann ech ginn "when I go", but wa mer ginn "when we go" fënnefandrësseg "thirty-five", but fënnefavéierzeg "forty-five"; the consonant inventory of Luxembourgish is quite similar to that of Standard German. /p͡f/ occurs only in loanwords from Standard German. Just as among many native German-speakers, it tends to be simplified to word-initia
Luxembourg known as Luxembourg City, is the capital city of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the country's most populous commune. Standing at the confluence of the Alzette and Pétrusse rivers in southern Luxembourg, the city lies at the heart of Western Europe, situated 213 km by road from Brussels, 372 km from Paris, 209 km from Cologne; the city contains Luxembourg Castle, established by the Franks in the Early Middle Ages, around which a settlement developed. As of January 2019, Luxembourg City had a population of 119,214, more than three times the population of the country's second most populous commune. In 2011, Luxembourg was ranked as having the second highest per capita GDP in the world at $80,119, with the city having developed into a banking and administrative centre. In the 2011 Mercer worldwide survey of 221 cities, Luxembourg was placed first for personal safety while it was ranked 19th for quality of living. Luxembourg is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union, as it is the seat of several institutions and bodies of the European Union, including the European Court of Justice, the European Court of Auditors, the Secretariat of the European Parliament, the European Investment Bank, the European Investment Fund, the European Stability Mechanism.
In the Roman era, a fortified tower guarded the crossing of two Roman roads that met at the site of Luxembourg city. Through an exchange treaty with the abbey of Saint Maximin in Trier in 963, Siegfried I of the Ardennes, a close relative of King Louis II of France and Emperor Otto the Great, acquired the feudal lands of Luxembourg. Siegfried built his castle, named Lucilinburhuc, on the Bock Fiels, mentioned for the first time in the aforementioned exchange treaty. In 987, Archbishop Egbert of Trier consecrated five altars in the Church of the Redemption. At a Roman road intersection near the church, a marketplace appeared around which the city developed; the city, because of its location and natural geography, has through history been a place of strategic military significance. The first fortifications were built as early as the 10th century. By the end of the 12th century, as the city expanded westward around the new St. Nicholas Church, new walls were built that included an area of 5 hectares.
In about 1340, under the reign of John the Blind, new fortifications were built that stood until 1867. In 1443, the Burgundians under Philip the Good conquered Luxembourg. Luxembourg became part of the Burgundian, Spanish and Austrian empires and under those Habsburg administrations Luxembourg Castle was strengthened so that by the 16th century, Luxembourg itself was one of the strongest fortifications in Europe. Subsequently, the Burgundians, the Spanish, the French, the Spanish again, the Austrians, the French again, the Prussians conquered Luxembourg. In the 17th century, the first casemates were built; these were enlarged under French rule by Marshal Vauban, augmented again under Austrian rule in the 1730s and 1740s. During the French Revolutionary Wars, the city was occupied by France twice: once in 1792–3, after a seven-month siege. Luxembourg held out for so long under the French siege that French politician and military engineer Lazare Carnot called Luxembourg "the best fortress in the world, except Gibraltar", giving rise to the city's nickname: the'Gibraltar of the North'.
Nonetheless, the Austrian garrison surrendered, as a consequence, Luxembourg was annexed by the French Republic, becoming part of the département of Forêts, with Luxembourg City as its préfecture. Under the 1815 Treaty of Paris, which ended the Napoleonic Wars, Luxembourg City was placed under Prussian military control as a part of the German Confederation, although sovereignty passed to the House of Orange-Nassau, in personal union with the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. After the Luxembourg Crisis, the 1867 Treaty of London required Luxembourg to dismantle the fortifications in Luxembourg City, their demolition took sixteen years, cost 1.5 million gold francs, required the destruction of over 24 km of underground defences and 4 hectares of casemates, barracks, etc. Furthermore, the Prussian garrison was to be withdrawn. When, in 1890, Grand Duke William III died without any male heirs, the Grand Duchy passed out of Dutch hands, into an independent line under Grand Duke Adolphe. Thus, which had hitherto been independent in theory only, became a independent country, Luxembourg City regained some of the importance that it had lost in 1867 by becoming the capital of a independent state.
Despite Luxembourg's best efforts to remain neutral in the First World War, it was occupied by Germany on 2 August 1914. On 30 August, Helmuth von Moltke moved his headquarters to Luxembourg City, closer to his armies in France in preparation for a swift victory. However, the victory never came, Luxembourg would play host to the German high command for another four years. At the end of the occupation, Luxembourg City was the scene of an attempted communist revolution. In 1921, the city limits were expanded; the communes of Eich, Hamm and Rollingergrund were incorporated into Luxembourg C
The term "coalition" is the denotation for a group formed when two or more people, states, political parties, militaries etc. agree to work together temporarily in a partnership to achieve a common goal. The word coalition connotes a coming together to achieve a goal. According to A Guide for Political Parties published by National Democratic Institute and The Oslo Center for Peace and Human Rights, there are five steps of coalition-building: Developing a party strategy: The first step in coalition-building involves developing a party strategy that will lay the ground for successful negotiation; the more effort parties place on this step, the more they are to identify strategic partners, negotiate a good deal and avoid some of the common pitfalls associated with coalition-building. Negotiating a coalition: Based on the strategy that each party has prepared, in Step 2 the parties come together to negotiate and reach agreement on the terms for the coalition. Depending on the context and objectives of the coalition, these negotiations may be secret or public.
While some issues may be agreed on with relative ease, others may be more contentious and require different approaches to reach compromise. Getting started: As negotiation begins to wrap-up, the agreement between political parties needs to be formally sealed; this includes finalizing a written agreement, securing formal approval of the deal from the relevant structures of the coalition’s member parties and announcing the coalition details to the general public. Working in a coalition: As the coalition partners begin working to implement their agreement, they will need to maintain good relations by continuing efforts to increase or sustain trust and communication among the member parties; each party will need to strike a balance between respecting its obligations to the coalition and maintaining its individual identity. Drawing lessons learned: Regardless of whether it plans to move forward alone or in another coalition, it is important for each party to review and document lessons learned from each coalition-building experience.
This will make it possible to get a clearer picture of the positive and negative impacts of coalition-building on the party and to identify lessons learned that can inform any future coalition-building efforts. Coalitions manifest in a variety of forms and terms of duration: Campaign coalitions with high intensity and long-term cooperation Federations, characterized by lower degree of involvement and participation, involving cooperation of long duration, but with members’ primary commitment remaining with their own entities Instrumental coalitions, involving low-intensity involvement without a foundation to mediate conflict Event-based coalitions that have a high level of involvement and the potential for future collaboration. By contrast to alliances, coalitions are what might be termed ‘partnerships of unequals’ since comparative political and military might, or more the extent to which a nation is prepared to commit, dictates who will lead, in the inner circle, who will have influence.
Coalitions occur as an unplanned reply to situations of danger, uncertainty, or supernatural events they are nonpermanent integrations directed at interim objectives. In terms of participation coalitions are, by their nature, more of a "come as you are, wear what you want, leave when you want party". Coalitions branch into two expanding categories: internal coalitions and external coalitions. Internal coalitions consist of people who are in an organization, such as a workplace. For example, the trade union is a type of coalition, formed in order to represent employees' wages and working conditions. Without this unity between employees, workers were subjugated to harsh working environments and low pay due to no practical regulations. Organizations prefer to council with members of their respective internal coalitions before implementing changes at the workplace to ensure support. In contrast, external coalitions consist of people that are members of different organizations who collaborate their efforts to achieve an overall objective.
For example, in order to prevent gun violence and advocate gun control, several groups and nonprofit organizations banded to form the Coalition to Stop Gun Violence. External coalitions base their confidence in gaining credibility on inviting unlikely partners who wish to attain the same end goal, but the reasons to achieve these goals differ. Coalition government stands as an alternative model to majoritarian governance, the latter being characterized by winner-take-all "first-past-the-post" electoral systems that favor clear distinctions between winners and losers. Not only can coalitions of legislative groups form governments in parliamentary systems but they can form in divisions of power as well; the most usual analyses of coalitions in politics deal with the formation of multiparty cabinets in parliamentary regimes. In Germany, every administration has been a multiparty coalition since the conclusion of the Second World War, an example of a coalition government creation in a parliamentary government.
When different winning coalitions can be formed in a parliament, the party composition of the government may depend on the bargaining power of each party and the presence, or not, of a dominant party. The Cambridge Dictionary defines coalition as "the joining together of different political parties or groups for a particular purpose for a limited time, or a government, formed in this way"; the temporary collaboration of two or more separate parties with a set goal and common purpose can be viewed as a coalition in international relations. Coalition competitions are represented in international political dynam
German is a West Germanic language, spoken in Central Europe. It is the most spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Switzerland, South Tyrol, the German-speaking Community of Belgium, Liechtenstein, it is one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon and Yiddish. There are strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most spoken Germanic language, after English. One of the major languages of the world, German is the first language of 100 million people worldwide and the most spoken native language in the European Union. Together with French, German is the second most spoken foreign language in the EU after English, making it the second biggest language in the EU in terms of overall speakers.
German is the second most taught foreign language in the EU after English at primary school level, the fourth most taught non-English language in the US, the second most used scientific language as well as the third most used language on websites after English and Russian. The German-speaking countries are ranked fifth in terms of annual publication of new books, with one tenth of all books in the world being published in the German language. In the United Kingdom and French are the most-sought after foreign languages for businesses. German is an inflected language with four cases for nouns and adjectives, three genders, two numbers, strong and weak verbs. German derives the majority of its vocabulary from the ancient Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. A portion of German words are derived from Latin and Greek, fewer are borrowed from French and Modern English. With different standardized variants, German is a pluricentric language, it is notable for its broad spectrum of dialects, with many unique varieties existing in Europe and other parts of the world.
Due to the limited intelligibility between certain varieties and Standard German, as well as the lack of an undisputed, scientific difference between a "dialect" and a "language", some German varieties or dialect groups are alternatively referred to as "languages" or "dialects". Modern Standard German is a West Germanic language descended from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages; the Germanic languages are traditionally subdivided into three branches: North Germanic, East Germanic, West Germanic. The first of these branches survives in modern Danish, Norwegian and Icelandic, all of which are descended from Old Norse; the East Germanic languages are now extinct, the only historical member of this branch from which written texts survive is Gothic. The West Germanic languages, have undergone extensive dialectal subdivision and are now represented in modern languages such as English, Dutch, Yiddish and others. Within the West Germanic language dialect continuum, the Benrath and Uerdingen lines serve to distinguish the Germanic dialects that were affected by the High German consonant shift from those that were not.
The various regional dialects spoken south of these lines are grouped as High German dialects, while those spoken to the north comprise the Low German/Low Saxon and Low Franconian dialects. As members of the West Germanic language family, High German, Low German, Low Franconian can be further distinguished as Irminonic and Istvaeonic, respectively; this classification indicates their historical descent from dialects spoken by the Irminones and Istvaeones. Standard German is based on a combination of Thuringian-Upper Saxon and Upper Franconian and Bavarian dialects, which are Central German and Upper German dialects, belonging to the Irminonic High German dialect group. German is therefore related to the other languages based on High German dialects, such as Luxembourgish, Yiddish. Related to Standard German are the Upper German dialects spoken in the southern German-speaking countries, such as Swiss German, the various Germanic dialects spoken in the French region of Grand Est, such as Alsatian and Lorraine Franconian.
After these High German dialects, standard German is related to languages based on Low Franconian dialects or Low German/Low Saxon dialects, neither of which underwent the High German consonant shift. As has been noted, the former of these dialect types is Istvaeonic and the latter Ingvaeonic, whereas the High German dialects are all Irminonic.