Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Custard is a variety of culinary preparations based on milk or cream cooked with egg yolk to thicken it, sometimes flour, corn starch, or gelatin. Depending on the recipe, custard may vary in consistency from a thin pouring sauce to the thick pastry cream used to fill éclairs; the most common custards are used in desserts or dessert sauces and include sugar and vanilla, however savory custards are found, e.g. in quiche. Custard is cooked in a double boiler, or heated gently in a saucepan on a stove, though custard can be steamed, baked in the oven with or without a water bath, or cooked in a pressure cooker. Custard preparation is a delicate operation, because a temperature increase of 3–6 °C leads to overcooking and curdling. A cooked custard should not exceed 80 °C. A water bath slows heat transfer and makes it easier to remove the custard from the oven before it curdles. A sous-vide water bath may be used to control temperature. Mixtures of milk and eggs thickened by heat have long been part of European cuisine, since at least Ancient Rome.
Custards baked in pastry were popular in the Middle Ages, are the origin of the English word'custard': the French term'croustade' referred to the crust of a tart, is derived from the Italian word crostata, the Latin crustāre. Examples include Crustardes of flessh and Crustade, in the 14th century English collection The Forme of Cury; these recipes include solid ingredients such as meat and fruit bound by the custard. Stirred custards cooked in pots are found under the names Creme Boylede and Creme boiled. In modern times, the name'custard' is sometimes applied to starch-thickened preparations like blancmange and Bird's Custard powder. While custard may refer to a wide variety of thickened dishes, technically the word "custard" refers only to an egg-thickened custard; when starch is added, the result is called pastry cream or confectioners' custard, made with a combination of milk or cream, egg yolks, fine sugar, flour or some other starch, a flavoring such as vanilla, chocolate, or lemon. Crème pâtissière is a key ingredient in many French desserts including mille-feuille and filled tarts.
It is used in Italian pastry and sometimes in Boston cream pie. The thickening of the custard is caused by the combination of cornstarch. Corn flour or flour thicken at 100 °C and as such many recipes instruct the pastry cream to be boiled. In a traditional custard such as a crème anglaise, where egg is used alone as a thickener, boiling results in the over cooking and subsequent'curdling' of the custard. Once cooled, the amount of starch in pastry cream'sets' the cream and requires it to be beaten or whipped before use; when gelatin is added, it is known as crème anglaise collée. When gelatin is added and whipped cream is folded in, it sets in a mold, it is bavarois; when starch is used alone as a thickener, the result is a blancmange. In the United Kingdom, custard has various traditional recipes some thickened principally with cornflour rather than the egg component, others involving regular flour. After the custard has thickened, it may be mixed with other ingredients: mixed with stiffly beaten egg whites and gelatin, it is chiboust cream.
Beating in softened butter produces German buttercream or crème mousseline. A quiche is a savoury custard tart; some kinds of timbale or vegetable loaf are made of a custard base mixed with chopped savoury ingredients. Custard royale is a thick custard cut into decorative shapes and used to garnish soup, stew or broth. In German it is used as a garnish in German Wedding Soup. Chawanmushi is a Japanese savoury custard and served in a small bowl or on a saucer. Chinese steamed egg is a similar but larger savoury egg dish. Custard may be used as a top layer in gratins, such as the South African bobotie and many Balkan versions of moussaka. Recipes involving sweet custard are listed in the custard dessert category, include: Cooked custard is a weak gel and thixotropic. On the other hand, a suspension of uncooked imitation custard powder in water, with the proper proportions, has the opposite rheological property: it is negative thixotropic, or dilatant, allowing the demonstration of "walking on custard".
Eggs contain the proteins necessary for the gel structure to form, emulsifiers to maintain the structure. Egg yolk contains enzymes like amylase, which can break down added starch; this enzyme activity contributes to the overall thinning of custard in the mouth. Egg yolk lecithin helps to maintain the milk-egg interface; the proteins in egg whites set at 60-80˚C. Starch is sometimes added to custard to prevent premature curdling; the starch acts as a heat buffer in the mixture: as they hydrate, they absorb heat and help maintain a constant rate of heat transfer. Starches make for a smoother texture and thicker mouthfeel. If the mixture pH is 9 or higher, the gel is too hard. Eggnog List of custard desserts List of desserts Bird's Custard
Rum is a distilled alcoholic drink made from sugarcane byproducts, such as molasses, or directly from sugarcane juice, by a process of fermentation and distillation. The distillate, a clear liquid, is usually aged in oak barrels; the majority of the world's rum production occurs in the Latin America. Rum is produced in Australia, Austria, Fiji, Japan, Nepal, New Zealand, the Philippines, Reunion Island, South Africa, Sweden, Thailand, the United Kingdom and the United States. Rums are produced in various grades. Light rums are used in cocktails, whereas "golden" and "dark" rums were consumed straight or neat, on the rocks, or used for cooking, but are now consumed with mixers. Premium rums are available, made to be consumed either straight or iced. Rum plays a part in the culture of most islands of the West Indies as well as in The Maritimes and Newfoundland; this drink has famous associations with piracy. Rum has served as a popular medium of economic exchange, used to help fund enterprises such as slavery, organized crime, military insurgencies.
The origin of the word "rum" is unclear. In an 1824 essay about the word's origin, Samuel Morewood, a British etymologist, suggested the word might derive from the British slang term for "the best", as in "having a rum time." He wrote: As spirits, extracted from molasses, could not well be ranked under the name whiskey, brandy, or arrack, it would be called rum, to denote its excellence or superior quality. Given the harsh taste of early rum, this interpretation is unlikely. Morewood suggested another possibility: that the word was taken from the last syllable of the Latin word for sugar, saccharum; this view is held today. Competing hypotheses abound. One proposes that the word comes from the Turkish name for Greeks, Rum, as some of the earliest rum spirits were distilled by Greek Christians in the eastern Mediterranean. Other etymologists have mentioned the Romani word rum, meaning "strong" or "potent"; these words have been linked to the ramboozle and rumfustian, both popular British drinks in the mid-17th century.
However, neither was made with rum, but rather eggs, wine and various spices. The most probable origin is as a truncated version of rumbustion. Both words surfaced in English about the same time as rum did, were slang terms for "tumult" or "uproar"; this is a far more convincing explanation, brings the image of fractious men fighting in entanglements at island tippling houses, which are early versions of the bar. Another claim is the name is from the large drinking glasses used by Dutch seamen known as rummers, from the Dutch word roemer, a drinking glass. Other options include contractions of the words iterum, Latin for "again, a second time", or arôme, French for aroma. Regardless of the original source, the name was in common use by 1654, when the General Court of Connecticut ordered the confiscations of "whatsoever Barbados liquors called rum, kill devil and the like". A short time in May 1657, the General Court of Massachusetts decided to make illegal the sale of strong liquor "whether knowne by the name of rumme, strong water, brandy, etc."In current usage, the name used for a rum is based on its place of origin.
For rums from Spanish-speaking locales, the word ron is used. A ron añejo indicates a rum, aged and is used for premium products. Rhum is the term that distinguishes rum made from fresh sugar cane juice from rum made from molasses in French-speaking locales like Martinique. A rhum vieux is an aged French rum; some of the many other names for rum are Nelson's blood, kill-devil, demon water, pirate's drink, navy neaters, Barbados water. A version of rum from Newfoundland is referred to by the name screech, while some low-grade West Indies rums are called tafia. Vagbhata, an Indian ayurvedic physician " a man to drink unvitiated liquor like rum and wine, mead mixed with mango juice'together with friends'". Shidhu, a drink produced by fermentation and distillation of sugarcane juice, is mentioned in other Sanskrit texts. According to Maria Dembinska, the King of Cyprus, Peter I of Cyprus or Pierre I de Lusignan, brought rum with him as a gift for the other royal dignitaries at the Congress of Kraków, held in 1364.
This is feasible given the position of Cyprus as a significant producer of sugar in the Middle Ages, although the alcoholic sugar drink named rum by Dembinska might not have resembled modern distilled rums closely. Dembinska suggests Cyprus rum was drunk mixed with an almond milk drink produced in Cyprus, called soumada. Another early rum-like drink is brum. Produced by the Malay people, brum dates back thousands of years. Marco Polo recorded a 14th-century account of a "very good wine of sugar", offered to him in the area that became modern-day Iran; the first distillation of rum in the Caribbean took place on the sugarcane plantations there in the 17th century. Plantation slaves discovered that molasses, a byproduct of the sugar refining process, could be fermented into alcohol. Distillation of these alcoholic byproducts concentrated the alcohol and removed impurities, producing the first modern rums. Tradition suggests this type of rum first originated on the island
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Caramel is a medium to dark-orange confectionery product made by heating a variety of sugars. It can be used as a flavoring in puddings and desserts, as a filling in bonbons, or as a topping for ice cream and custard; the process of caramelization consists of heating sugar to around 170 °C. As the sugar heats, the molecules break down and re-form into compounds with a characteristic color and flavor. A variety of candies and confections are made with caramel: brittles, pralines, flan, crème brûlée, crème caramel, caramel apples. Ice creams sometimes contain swirls of caramel; the English word comes from French caramel, borrowed from Spanish caramelo, itself from Portuguese caramel. Most that comes from Late Latin calamellus'sugar cane', a diminutive of calamus'reed, cane', itself from Greek κάλαμος. Less it comes from a Medieval Latin cannamella, from canna'cane' + mella'honey'; some dictionaries connect it to an Arabic kora-moħalláh'ball of sweet'. Caramel sauce is made by mixing caramelized sugar with cream.
Depending on the intended application, additional ingredients such as butter, fruit purees, liquors, or vanilla can be used. Caramel sauce is used in a variety of desserts, though most notably as a topping for ice cream; when it is used for crème caramel or flan, it is known as clear caramel and only contains caramelized sugar and water. Butterscotch sauce is made with dark brown sugar, a splash of whiskey. Traditionally, butterscotch is a hard candy more in line with a toffee, with the suffix "scotch" meaning "to score". Toffee, sometimes called "caramel candy", is a soft, chewy candy made by boiling a mixture of milk or cream, glucose and vanilla; the sugar and glucose are heated separately to reach 130 °C. The mixture is stirred and reheated until it reaches 120 °C. Upon completion of cooking, vanilla or any additional flavorings and salt are added. Adding the vanilla or flavorings earlier would result in them burning off at the high temperatures. Adding salt earlier in the process would result in inverting the sugars as they cooked.
Alternatively, all ingredients may be cooked together. In this procedure, the mixture is not heated above the firm ball stage, so that caramelization of the milk occurs; this temperature is not high enough to caramelize sugar and this type of candy is called milk caramel or cream caramel. Salted caramel is a variety of caramel produced in the same way as regular caramel, but with larger amounts of salt added during preparation. Utilised in desserts, the confection has seen wide use elsewhere, including in hot chocolate and spirits such as vodka. A study conducted in 2017 by the University of Florida suggested that the popularity of salted caramel is due to its chemical composition, as all of its main ingredients have effects on the reward systems of the human brain, resulting in a process described as "hedonic escalation". Caramel colouring, a dark, bitter liquid, is the concentrated product of near total caramelization, used commercially as food and beverage colouring, e.g. in cola. Caramelization is the removal of water from a sugar, proceeding to isomerization and polymerization of the sugars into various high-molecular-weight compounds.
Compounds such as difructose anhydride may be created from the monosaccharides after water loss. Fragmentation reactions result in low-molecular-weight compounds that may be volatile and may contribute to flavor. Polymerization reactions lead to larger-molecular-weight compounds that contribute to the dark-brown color. In modern recipes and in commercial production, glucose or invert sugar is added to prevent crystallization, making up 10%–50% of the sugars by mass. "Wet caramels" made by heating sucrose and water instead of sucrose alone produce their own invert sugar due to thermal reaction, but not enough to prevent crystallization in traditional recipes. Four and six tenths tablespoons of commercially prepared butterscotch or caramel topping contain: Calories: 103 Protein: 0.62 Total lipids: 0.04 Carbohydrates, by difference: 27.02 Fiber, total dietary: 0.4 Cholesterol: 0.0 Media related to Caramel at Wikimedia Commons
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means. Edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition. Accordingly, fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, some have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings. In common language usage, "fruit" means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour, edible in the raw state, such as apples, grapes, lemons and strawberries. On the other hand, in botanical usage, "fruit" includes many structures that are not called "fruits", such as bean pods, corn kernels and wheat grains; the section of a fungus that produces spores is called a fruiting body. Many common terms for seeds and fruit do not correspond to the botanical classifications. In culinary terminology, a fruit is any sweet-tasting plant part a botanical fruit.
However, in botany, a fruit is the ripened ovary or carpel that contains seeds, a nut is a type of fruit and not a seed, a seed is a ripened ovule. Examples of culinary "vegetables" and nuts that are botanically fruit include corn, eggplant, sweet pepper, tomato. In addition, some spices, such as allspice and chili pepper, are fruits. In contrast, rhubarb is referred to as a fruit, because it is used to make sweet desserts such as pies, though only the petiole of the rhubarb plant is edible, edible gymnosperm seeds are given fruit names, e.g. ginkgo nuts and pine nuts. Botanically, a cereal grain, such as corn, rice, or wheat, is a kind of fruit, termed a caryopsis. However, the fruit wall is thin and is fused to the seed coat, so all of the edible grain is a seed; the outer edible layer, is the pericarp, formed from the ovary and surrounding the seeds, although in some species other tissues contribute to or form the edible portion. The pericarp may be described in three layers from outer to inner, the epicarp and endocarp.
Fruit that bears a prominent pointed terminal projection is said to be beaked. A fruit results from maturation of one or more flowers, the gynoecium of the flower forms all or part of the fruit. Inside the ovary/ovaries are one or more ovules where the megagametophyte contains the egg cell. After double fertilization, these ovules will become seeds; the ovules are fertilized in a process that starts with pollination, which involves the movement of pollen from the stamens to the stigma of flowers. After pollination, a tube grows from the pollen through the stigma into the ovary to the ovule and two sperm are transferred from the pollen to the megagametophyte. Within the megagametophyte one of the two sperm unites with the egg, forming a zygote, the second sperm enters the central cell forming the endosperm mother cell, which completes the double fertilization process; the zygote will give rise to the embryo of the seed, the endosperm mother cell will give rise to endosperm, a nutritive tissue used by the embryo.
As the ovules develop into seeds, the ovary begins to ripen and the ovary wall, the pericarp, may become fleshy, or form a hard outer covering. In some multiseeded fruits, the extent to which the flesh develops is proportional to the number of fertilized ovules; the pericarp is differentiated into two or three distinct layers called the exocarp and endocarp. In some fruits simple fruits derived from an inferior ovary, other parts of the flower, fuse with the ovary and ripen with it. In other cases, the sepals, petals and/or stamens and style of the flower fall off; when such other floral parts are a significant part of the fruit, it is called an accessory fruit. Since other parts of the flower may contribute to the structure of the fruit, it is important to study flower structure to understand how a particular fruit forms. There are three general modes of fruit development: Apocarpous fruits develop from a single flower having one or more separate carpels, they are the simplest fruits. Syncarpous fruits develop from a single gynoecium having two or more carpels fused together.
Multiple fruits form from many different flowers. Plant scientists have grouped fruits into three main groups, simple fruits, aggregate fruits, composite or multiple fruits; the groupings are not evolutionarily relevant, since many diverse plant taxa may be in the same group, but reflect how the flower organs are arranged and how the fruits develop. Simple fruits can be either dry or fleshy, result from the ripening of a simple or compound ovary in a flower with only one pistil. Dry fruits may be either dehiscent, or indehiscent. Types of dry, simple fruits, examples of each, include: achene – most seen in aggregate fruits capsule – caryopsis – cypsela – an achene-like fruit derived from the individual florets in a capitulum. Fibrous drupe – follicle – is formed from a single carpel, opens by one suture
A doughnut or donut is a type of fried dough confection or dessert food. The doughnut is popular in many countries and prepared in various forms as a sweet snack that can be homemade or purchased in bakeries, food stalls, franchised specialty vendors. Doughnuts are deep fried from a flour dough, either ring-shaped or a number of shapes without a hole, filled, but can be ball-shaped. Other types of batters can be used, various toppings and flavorings are used for different types, such as sugar, chocolate, or maple glazing. Doughnuts may include water, eggs, sugar, oil and natural or artificial flavors; the two most common types are the ring doughnut and the filled doughnut, injected with fruit preserves, custard, or other sweet fillings. Alternatively, small pieces of dough are sometimes cooked as doughnut holes. Once fried, doughnuts may be glazed with a sugar icing, spread with icing or chocolate on top, or topped with powdered sugar or sprinkles or fruit. Other shapes include rings, flattened spheres and other forms.
Doughnut varieties are divided into cake and yeast-risen type doughnuts. Doughnuts are accompanied by coffee purchased at doughnut shops or fast food restaurants, but can be paired with milk. Ring doughnuts are formed by one of two methods: by joining the ends of a long, skinny piece of dough into a ring, or by using a doughnut cutter, which cuts the outside and inside shape, leaving a doughnut-shaped piece of dough and a doughnut hole; this smaller piece of dough can be cooked and served as a "doughnut hole" or added back to the batch to make more doughnuts. A disk-shaped doughnut can be stretched and pinched into a torus until the center breaks to form a hole. Alternatively, a doughnut depositor can be used to place a circle of liquid dough directly into the fryer. There are two types of ring doughnuts, those made from a yeast-based dough for raised doughnuts, or those made from a special type of cake batter. Yeast-raised doughnuts contain about 25% oil by weight, whereas cake doughnuts' oil content is around 20%, but they have extra fat included in the batter before frying.
Cake doughnuts are fried for about 90 seconds at 190 to 198 °C, turning once. Yeast-raised doughnuts absorb more oil because they take longer to fry, about 150 seconds, at 182 to 190 °C. Cake doughnuts weigh between 24 and 28 g, whereas yeast-raised doughnuts average 38 g and are larger, taller when finished. After frying, ring doughnuts are topped. Raised doughnuts are covered with a glaze. Cake doughnuts can be glazed, or powdered with confectioner's sugar, or covered with cinnamon and granulated sugar, they are often topped with cake frosting and sometimes sprinkled with coconut, chopped peanuts, or sprinkles. Doughnut holes are small, bite-sized doughnuts that were traditionally made from the dough taken from the center of ring doughnuts. Before long, doughnut sellers saw the opportunity to market "holes" as a novelty and many chains offer their own variety, some with their own brand names such as "Munchkins" from Dunkin' Donuts and "Timbits" from Tim Hortons. Traditionally, doughnut holes are made by frying the dough removed from the center portion of the doughnut.
They are smaller than a standard doughnut and tend to be spherical. Similar to standard doughnuts, doughnut holes may be topped with confections, such as glaze or powdered sugar. Most varieties of doughnut holes were derivatives of their ring doughnut counterparts. However, doughnut holes can be made by dropping a small ball of dough into hot oil from a specially shaped nozzle or cutter; this production method has allowed doughnut sellers to produce bite-sized versions of non-ring doughnuts, such as filled doughnuts and Dutchies. Filled doughnuts are flattened spheres injected with fruit preserves, custard, or other sweet fillings, dipped into powdered sugar or topped off with frosting. Common varieties include the Boston cream, key lime, jelly. Others include the fritter and the Dutchie, which are glazed; these have been available on Tim Hortons' doughnut menu since the chain's inception in 1964, a 1991 Toronto Star report found these two were the chain's most popular type of fried dough in Canada.
There are many other specialized doughnut shapes such as old-fashioned, bars or Long Johns, or with the dough twisted around itself before cooking. In the northeast United States and twists are referred to as crullers. Another is the beignet, a square-shaped doughnut covered with powdered sugar associated with New Orleans; the earliest origins to the modern doughnuts are traced back to the olykoek Dutch settlers brought with them to early New York. These doughnuts resembled ones but did not yet have their current ring shape. One of the earliest mentions of "doughnut" was in Washington Irving's 1809 book A History of New York, from the Beginning of the World to the End of the Dutch Dynasty: Sometimes the table was graced with immense apple-pies, or saucers full of preserved peaches and pears.