The École Navale is the French naval academy, in charge of the education of the officers of the French Navy. They are educated at the academy for responsibilities onboard surface ships and submarines, in French Naval Aviation, with the fusiliers marins and commandos, on the general staff; the École Navale and its research institute are in Lanvéoc-Poulmic, south of the roadstead of Brest. The academy was founded by order of King Louis-Philippe; the academy was based on ships, anchored in the harbour of Brest, such as the Borda, hence the nickname of "Bordache" given to the students. In 1914, the École Navale was transferred ashore in Brest; the school was destroyed by Allied bombing raids during World War II, was moved to nearby Lanvéoc-Poulmic, on the opposite side of the bay of Brest. The academy remained in this location after the war, was inaugurated by Charles de Gaulle in 1965; the École Navale, created in 1830, was located onboard vessels harboured in Brest all of which were nicknamed Borda.
The first vessel to house the École Navale was named Orion. This ship had an inappropriate name for a naval academy, so it was renamed Borda. In 1863, the academy was transferred to the Valmy in 1890, to the Intrépide, in 1913, to the Duguay-Trouin, a school vessel for those applying to the Navy between 1900 and 1912. With the exceptions of the Orion and the Duguay-Trouin, each of these vessels was still christened as Borda; the new pupils are boarded from one day before the others. Crammed like sheep in a gunboat, they were bouncy and happy while launching a goodbye to their families; as soon as arrived, they were sorted, undressed in order to give them the white blouse and linen trousers. Their hair was shorn. Two days the parents were authorised onboard for the opening mass for the new cadets. Flags were placed around the altar, a single seat was reserved for the "Pope", the nickname of the captain commanding the academy; the parents took place on bench, the pupils entered, the senior ones first, tiding themselves on the sides, the new cadets in their new suit under the quip of the others who were screaming "Caillou!
Caillou!" to recognize the new cadets. This was followed by the first formal dinner of the new students. A traditional ceremony onboard the Borda was the presentation and delivery of the sword to the son by his "baille" father, for the first day of outing. In the spring, when the first outing in dinghy occurred, another consecration took place, this of baptism of the new cadets by the senior cadets of the academy, as the latter throw water buckets upon the former; the École Navale is traditionally called "La Baille". Its jargon comes principally from maritime slang. Like every "Grande Ecole", the jargon is wide-used among its student body. For example, the commander in second is the "widow"; the elephants, or the "pékins", are the civilians. The "chafustard" is the mechanic; the songs of the board are crude, but of high musical and literary standard. Nowadays, the student body uses some expressions coming from other military academies and from military high schools; the standard reference book about the jargon at "La Baille" was written by Commander Roger Coindeau, illustrated by Luc-Marie Bayle.
All this will not impede the future Navy officers to work hard. It is the first step. Comes the climbing of the second hune, little by little, everyone gets accustomed not to have dizziness, but to run on the footboard stretched beneath each yardarm, to unfurl the sail. All this is commanded by a whistle. If the job of topsman had become unuseful with the modern war boats, it was still taught to the student-officers, in order for them to be able to bring back a catch in time of war with its sails, because it was part of the old traditions of the French Navy; the two years of school were well filled up with everything that a Navy officer had to learn: rowing, the machines, armed drill and weapons instruction, combat training aboard or onshore, signal flags, vessel maintenance, superior mathematics, hydrography, English language, a lot more. At the 3rd year of studies, the 2nd classmen left the Borda for their training cruises to various parts of the world. In the beginning of the 20th century, a project to move the Ecole Naval, to the ground, had made its way.
The chosen place was in the district of Recouvrance. The project failed due to a lack of money; however the school settled in 1915 in buildings built in Laninon situated in Recouvrance, as the First World War was raging. Work for the campus began November 14, 1929 and was presided by Georges Leygues, minister of the Navy, the school was inaugurated on 30 May 1936 by Albert Lebrun, President of the Republic. Regardless of the grounding of the school, the final year of formation and training at sea has been preserved in the form of traditional cruisi
École nationale de l'aviation civile
The École nationale de l'aviation civile is one of the 207 schools that offers engineering degrees in France. ENAC has been classified as a Grande école by the Conférence des Grandes Écoles. Conférence des Grandes Écoles is a non-profit organisation which accredits and delivers the master's degrees of all Grandes écoles; the group of Grandes écoles in France, was founded on August 28, 1949 to provide initial and continuing education in the field of civil aviation. This university is a établissement public à caractère scientifique, culturel et professionnel and functions under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Housing, it is member of the following apart from Conférence des Grandes Écoles, University of Toulouse, Aerospace Valley and is one of the five founders of France AEROTECH. ENAC offers 30 engineering degrees in civil aviation/aeronautics; some of the most notable ones include aerospace engineering, aircraft technicians, commercial airline pilots licenses, air traffic control, flight instructors.
The university offers 3 masters of science programmes and 12 Advanced masters degrees for students with industry/relevant experience. In 1945 after the WWII, the French air transport industry witnessed a rapid growth. To ensure safety and compliance to regulations, there was a high demand for qualified staff, as well as a need to harmonise communications between various sectors of the aviation industry. ENAC was founded to address this issue. Among the founders was Max Hymans, the secretary general of civil and commercial aviation at the time, who played a prominent role in ENAC's creation. In the years following the Western Front, there was a distinct lack of unity within the civil aviation industry due to the recruitment of people with various backgrounds. In order to standardize backgrounds, many centers were created to train aeronautic personnel. Airfield commanders were trained in Orly while technical staff for air navigation were trained in Le Bourget. Wireless operators and radio technicians were trained in Orly, although under the Department of Telecommunications and Signaling, not connected directly to the world of aviation.
Technical managers were trained in engineering schools, including Arts et Métiers and the National School of Meteorology. Designers were trained by the École spéciale des travaux aéronautiques while aircrew were trained by other public or private institutions. ENAC's mission was to unify the training of all aviation personnel. Through Decree No. 49-970, the rules of the French public administration were laid down. A complete overhaul of the regulations applying to civil aviation officials was made, affecting the technical staff in particular. Several new bodies of civil servants were established: air traffic engineers, air navigation operation engineers, aerial telecommunication civil engineers, air traffic controllers, telecommunication controllers and air navigation agents; the creation of these new bodies was followed by a ministerial decision on 12 August 1948 that paved the way for the first recruitment by competitive examination. The examinations themselves were organized in October 1948.
Independently of these events, on 14 April 1948, the International Civil Aviation Organization established prerequisite conditions for air crew licensing, notably including a minimum number of flight hours for each category of aircraft pilots. Before adopting the name ENAC, the school was called a "service of education and internships" and was provided by the General secretariat for civil and commercial aviation; that contrasted with that the longstanding tradition of French civil service personnel being trained in higher education institutions called Grande écoles. Jules Moch, the Minister of Works and Tourism at the time, proposed the name: "École nationale de l'aviation marchande", a name, not chosen. ENAC was created on 28 August 1949 in Paris at the initiative of Max Hymans, Secretary General of Civil Aviation, Jules Moch. in order to train all the professionals of civil aeronautics and harmonize all the air transport stakeholders, aircrew or not, commercial or technical, including the civil services of civil aviation.
The university is located at Orly, south of Paris. René Lemaire considers ENAC as "a university of aviation safety"; this priority given to aviation safety is somehow consubstantial with ENAC, being the first reason for the training of future technicians and future airmen in a single university. As noted in a report of the Inspection générale de l'aviation civile, "It was in the minds of the creators of the university, to develop between the aircrew and the ground staff a community of ideas, reciprocal knowledge, esteem, that are essential for the teamwork required by air transport." However, it is doubtful that the "community of ideas" the author of the report wishes could be only expressed by the coexistence of different courses in the same university. Other factors work in opposite directions, including the significant disparity of durations of the training cycles. Thus, air navigation civil engineers of the branch "telecommunications" stays 30 months in the university. To realize the chemistry that, in the m
Biological engineering, or bioengineering/bio-engineering, is the application of principles of biology and the tools of engineering to create usable, economically viable products. Biological engineering employs knowledge and expertise from a number of pure and applied sciences, such as mass and heat transfer, biocatalysts, bioinformatics and purification processes, bioreactor design, surface science, fluid mechanics and polymer science, it is used in the design of medical devices, diagnostic equipment, biocompatible materials, renewable bioenergy, ecological engineering, agricultural engineering, other areas that improve the living standards of societies. Examples of bioengineering research include bacteria engineered to produce chemicals, new medical imaging technology and rapid disease diagnostic devices, biopharmaceuticals, tissue-engineered organs. Bioengineering overlaps with biotechnology and the biomedical sciences in a way analogous to how various other forms of engineering and technology relate to various other sciences.
In general, biological engineers attempt to either mimic biological systems to create products or modify and control biological systems so that they can replace, sustain, or predict chemical and mechanical processes. Bioengineers can apply their expertise to other applications of engineering and biotechnology, including genetic modification of plants and microorganisms, bioprocess engineering, biocatalysis. Working with doctors and researchers, bioengineers use traditional engineering principles and techniques and apply them to real-world biological and medical problems. Biological engineering is a science-based discipline founded upon the biological sciences in the same way that chemical engineering, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering can be based upon chemistry and magnetism, classical mechanics, respectively. Before WWII, biological engineering had just begun being recognized as a branch of engineering, was a new concept to people. Post-WWII, it started to grow more partially due to the term "bioengineering" being coined by British scientist and broadcaster Heinz Wolff in 1954 at the National Institute for Medical Research.
Wolff graduated that same year and became the director of the Division of Biological Engineering at the university. This was the first time. Electrical engineering is considered to pioneer this engineering sector due to its work with medical devices and machinery during this time; when engineers and life scientists started working together, they recognized the problem that the engineers didn't know enough about the actual biology behind their work. To resolve this problem, engineers who wanted to get into biological engineering devoted more of their time and studies to the details and processes that go into fields such as biology and medicine; the term biological engineering may be applied to environmental modifications such as surface soil protection, slope stabilization and shoreline protection, vegetation barriers including noise barriers and visual screens, the ecological enhancement of an area. Because other engineering disciplines address living organisms, the term biological engineering can be applied more broadly to include agricultural engineering.
The first biological engineering program was created at University of California, San Diego in 1966, making it the first biological engineering curriculum in the United States. More recent programs have been launched at Utah State University. Many old agricultural engineering departments in universities over the world have re-branded themselves as agricultural and biological engineering or agricultural and biosystems engineering, due to biological engineering as a whole being a developing field with fluid categorization. According to Professor Doug Lauffenburger of MIT, biological engineering has a broad base which applies engineering principles to an enormous range of size and complexities of systems; these systems range from the molecular level to cellular and tissue-based systems, to whole macroscopic organisms, can range up to entire ecosystems. The average length of study is three to five years, the completed degree is signified as a bachelor of engineering. Fundamental courses include thermodynamics, bio-mechanics, genetic engineering and mechanical dynamics, kinetics and materials properties.
Depending on the institution and particular definitional boundaries employed, some major branches of bioengineering may be categorized as: Biomedical Engineering: application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology for healthcare purposesTissue Engineering Genetic Engineering Neural engineering Pharmaceutical engineering Clinical engineering Bioinformatics Biomechanics Biochemical Engineering: fermentation engineering, application of engineering principles to microscopic biological systems that are used to create new products by synthesis, including the production of protein from suitable raw materials Biological Systems Engineering: application of engineering principles and design concepts to agriculture, food sciences, ecosystems. Bioprocess Engineering: develops technology to monitor the conditions of the where the process of making pharmaceuticals takes place
École nationale d'ingénieurs de Brest
The École nationale d'ingénieurs de Brest is a French grande école leading to the French “Diplôme d’Ingénieur” under the authority of the French Ministry of Education and Research. ENIB is located on the Technopole Brest-Iroise in Plouzané; the school is attached to the University of Western Brittany. This school is part of the ENI group and provides an engineer training certified by the Ministry of Higher Education and Research in the fields of electronics, of computer engineering and Mechatronics; the course lasts 3 years or 2 years according to the degree when entering the school. The main admission to the ENIB is made through a selective examination during the year leading to the baccalauréat, most of the successful candidates come from the série scientifique or Bac S. There is however further possibility to join the ENIB on after 2 years of studies in an IUT or at the University, the selection being on academic records. 1961 - Creation of the ENIB. 1987 - In 5 years. Diversification of recruitment, creation of two channels.
1988 - Establishment of the Research Laboratory for Electronics 1990 - Establishment of research laboratory computer 1991 - Ability to deliver a DEA in Electronics - Optronics. 1992 - New building on the Technopole Brest-Iroise. 1994 - Authorization to issue a Master: Real Time Software Engineering and for Industrial Computing. 1997 - Authorization for the Masters: Distributed Virtual Reality. 2000 - Opening of a mechatronics channel. 2004 - New 4000m² extension building and creation of the European Center for Virtual Reality. 2006 - Establishment of the mechanics research laboratory. 2009 - Introduction of the Professional Systems and Services option. 2011 - Integration of electronic and computer labs in the Lab-STICC 2012 - Inauguration of Student House 2013 - The Institut Mines-Télécom includes ENIB as an associate school Official site of school Official website of the ENIB students
École polytechnique is a French public institution of higher education and research in Palaiseau, a suburb southwest of Paris. It is one of the most prestigious and selective French scientific and engineering schools, called grandes écoles in French, it is known for its ingénieur polytechnicien scientific degree program, equivalent to both a bachelor and master of science. Its entrance exam, the X-ENS exam, is renowned for its selectivity with a little over 500 admitted students out of the 53 848 students enrolled in the preparatory programs for the French scientific and engineering schools entrance exams; the school was established in 1794 by the mathematician Gaspard Monge during the French Revolution, was a military academy under Napoleon I in 1804. Although Polytechnique is no longer a military academy, the school is still supervised by the French ministry of defense, though only a small number of its students choose to pursue a military career. Located in the Latin Quarter of central Paris, the school's main buildings were moved in 1976 to Palaiseau on the Saclay Plateau.
Polytechnique has engaged in several partnerships to improve its international renown. It is a founding member of ParisTech, a grouping of leading engineering colleges in the Paris region established in 2007. In 2014 it became a founding member of the confederal University of Paris-Saclay. Among its alumni are three Nobel prize winners, three Presidents of France and many CEOs of French and international companies; as of 2018, it is associated with 4 Fields Medal winners and is currently ranked as the world's third-best small university by Times Higher Education's World University Rankings. Every year, many outstanding Polytechnique students earn admissions to the most prestigious academic institutions and graduate programs in the USA and in the UK demonstrating the recognition of the school and its best performing students internationally. During the 19th century, the specific model of École Polytechnique inspired the foundation of other well-known schools named "Polytechnic," such as Polytechnique Montréal, Athens Polytechnic, MIT, EPFL and Caltech.
The history of the École Polytechnique dates back over 200 years, to the time of the French Revolution. In 1794, the École centrale des travaux publics was founded by Lazare Carnot and Gaspard Monge at the time of the National Convention, it was renamed École polytechnique one year later. In 1805, Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte settled the École on Montagne Sainte-Geneviève, in the Quartier Latin, in central Paris, as a military academy and gave its motto Pour la Patrie, les Sciences et la Gloire. In 1814, students took part in the Battle of Paris against the Sixth Coalition. In 1830, fifty students participated in the July Revolution. In 1848, Polytechnique students were the leaders of the French Revolution of 1848, they were an important part of the post-revolutionary process, with one student becoming part of the post-revolution government. They were given the right to wear a sword as a recognition. During the First World War, students were mobilized and the school building was transformed into a hospital.
More than two hundred students were killed fighting for France during the war. During the Second World War, Polytechnique was moved away to Lyon in the free zone. More than four hundred polytechniciens were killed during the war, as part of Free French and French Resistance operations, or in Nazi camps. In 1970, École Polytechnique became a state-supported civilian institution, under the auspices of the Ministry of Defence. In 1972, women were admitted for the first time. In 1976, École Polytechnique moved from Paris to Palaiseau. In 1994, celebration of the bicentennial was chaired by President François Mitterrand. In 2000, a new cursus was set in place, passing to four years and reforming the polytechnicien curriculum. In 2005, École Polytechnique started awarding master's degrees. In 2007, it became a founding member of UniverSud ParisTech. In December 2014, it became a founding member of University of Paris-Saclay. In 1794, Polytechnique was hosted in the Palais Bourbon. One year it moved to Hôtel de Lassay, an hôtel particulier in the 7th arrondissement of Paris.
Napoleon moved Polytechnique to the Quartier Latin in 1805 when he set the school under a military administration. The Paris' campus is located near the Panthéon, in rue Descartes, 5, it is nicknamed "Carva" by the students. At 15 kilometres from Paris, the campus of the École Polytechnique is a privileged setting, it offers about 164 ha teaching facilities, student housing, food services and hospitality and an exceptional range of sports facilities to the 4,600 people who live on a daily basis campus. The nearest regional train station is Gare de Lozère. A number of buses connect the École Polytechnique with the larger RER and TGV station Massy-Palaiseau; the campus is close to other great scientific institutions in Saclay and Gif. The campus will be at the heart of the Engineering and Innovation sector of the confederal "University of Paris in Saclay". Major works are in progress to connect it to an automatic metro line direct to Paris. Polytechnique is a higher education establishment running under the supervision of the F
École européenne de chimie, polymères et matériaux
The École européenne de chimie, polymères et matériaux of Strasbourg is a public engineering school in the city of Strasbourg, in Alsace, France. It was founded in 1948, is located on the Cronenbourg Campus of the University of Strasbourg; each year 90 students graduate from the school with a diplôme d'ingénieur. It is a National School of Engineers, part of the University of Strasbourg and a member of the Fédération Gay-Lussac, which recruits from the common polytechnic entrance examination, it is part of the Alsace Tech network of nine engineering schools in Alsace. The ECPM offers its students three specialties: polymers or materials. 1919 - Creation of the chemical institute by the professors T. Muller and H. Gault. Lectures are taught rue Goethe in Strasbourg. 1948 - Creation at the same place of the Ecole nationale supérieure de chimie by the professor H. Forestier. 1962 - The Ecole de chimie has place in new premises on the campus central de l'Esplanade. The first practical sessions from the ENSCS in analytical chemistry begin at the start of the school year 1962.
1968 - The ENSCS becomes a public organization. 1981 - The professor M. Daire introduces the European teaching program. 1986 - The ENSCS becomes Ecole Européenne des hautes études des industries chimiques de Strasbourg 1995 - The EHICS, the Ecole d'application des hauts Polymères and the Magistère matériaux de l'université de Strasbourg-I group together and form the Ecole de chimie, Polymères et Matériaux. 1998-1999 - The ECPM moves to new premises on the University's Cronenbourg campus. 2006 - Strasbourg becomes business cluster of the French chemistry. 2009 - The université Louis Pasteur and the other universities of Strasbourg are joined and form l'Université de Strasbourg 2011 - Opening of the new Classe préparatoire intégrée internationale - CHEM. I. ST. At the start of the school year 2011. → To enter the First year: - The school recruit with the «Concours Communs Polytechniques» or the DEUG. - The admission could be done by an interview with a License 3 in Chemistry or in Physics at the university, a DUT for example, in Chemistry, physical measurements optional materials or chemical engineering.
- For international students, they must have a Bachelor of an equivalent foreign degree. - After 2 years in CPI classes at Rennes, Clermont-Ferrand or in Strasbourg. → To enter the Second year, students can have access at the ECPM having an interview, with a Master M1 in Physics with a speciality in Polymers or materials. → Admission to the CP2i class in the ECPM, after the Baccalaureate, or an equivalent foreign degree for the international students. There is no competitive exam. There are interviews to evaluate the motivations with the people in charge of the Chem. I. St programme. 50 students are selected every year. There are nearly 20% international students; this class allows the students to gain admission to a school of the Fédération Gay Lussac after two years. These 2 years consist of studying engineer's trades in the domain of chemistry. There are 5 CPIs in France: Rennes, Clermont-Ferrand, Lille and Strasbourg at the ECPM The last one was opened at the start of the 2011-12 school year in Strasbourg.
The speciality of this school is that it welcomes a large number of international students, as well as that 20% of the courses are delivered in English and 10% are delivered in German. There are 50 students in each year. To gain admission to the CP2I: French students register on Admission Post-Bac and follow the steps. Students are selected on the basis of a 20-minute interview. International students submit their dossiers directly to the school. International students are selected on the basis of their academic record and an interview. General presentation of CPI-CHEM. I. ST: A strong scientific program: a major part of chemistry and maths during the 2 years with a total, for the first year, of around 700 hours of scientific lesson. We must add Lab Work of this scientific formation, with a total of 102 hours for the first year; the CPI-CHEM. I. ST base of more practical work than in an intensive foundation degree, with high-quality laboratory; the program includes group work to develop the communication, the creativity around scientists projects.
Moreover, in 2016, a "videxo" program was created. During, the "videxo" student solves a science problem on a board and in the same time someone films him to send the video to the teachers; the goal of this is to promote self-confidence and the scientist reflexion which are important qualities for the future engineer. An international program in a multicultural environment: many students with different cultures and two foreign languages to learn. At the beginning of the formation, students can participate in an English language session for one week in order to learn the fundamentals of the scientific English. Insertions travels are organised in England; the students will participate in lab work in a foreign university. Most of the time the foreign students come from China; the speciality is chosen in the second year. Students have four possibilities: Chemistry: Organic Chemistry: With this speciality, students attain a high level in synthesis and characterization of organic chemistry. Analytical Chemistry: Students are trained in techniques of analysis within the context of quality control.
Polymers: Students are trained to become fle
The ESIEE Amiens is a French Graduate School of Engineering located in Amiens delivering the equivalent of a master's degree. The school is part of the ESIEE network; the school is ISO 9001 certified by Bureau Veritas for its engineering formation. Since its founding, the school is accredited by the Commission des titres d'ingénieur to issue the engineering degree called Diplôme d'Ingénieur. 80 of the 450 students graduate every year in Amiens. The admittance is made after the baccalaureate through a competitive examination, or at the end of preparatory classes. Students with a bachelor's degree in science have the possibility to integrate the school to follow the engineering cycle; the total course lasts five years and is divided into two cycles: The preparatory cycle The engineering cycleThe preparatory cycle lasts 3 years where all the students follow the same course, this period aims to give both competences in basic sciences and engineering sciences to the students. The engineering cycle lasts 2 years where the students in Amiens have the opportunity to choose a specialization among the following subjects: Building services engineering Computer networks and telecommunications Electrical engineering and sustainable development Manufacturing systemsSome students have the possibility to pursue their last two years at ESIEE Paris in order to follow one of the specialization offered there.
The campus is situated in the French region of Picardy in the centre of the prefecture: Amiens. Hereafter is a list of some of the Universities where the students at Amiens have the opportunity to study three months, six months or a full year depending on the university chosen. - Universidad Nacional de San Juan - Universidade Estadual de Campinas - École Polytechnique de Montréal - Tsinghua University - Brunel University - King's College London - University of Southampton - Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - Dublin Institute of Technology - Politecnico di Milano - Poznań University of Technology - Chalmers University of Technology - École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne - California Institute of Technology - University of Florida Each year a Student Union is elected. The Student Union called BDE is in charge of organising events and enhancing the contact and team-spirit between students. Other clubs such as a junior enterprise, humanitarian association, robotic club or sports club are part of the students' life at ESIEE Amiens.
Régis Lacote, CEO of Orly Airport Grandes écoles Education in France Engineering education Alumni Association