Salon-de-Provence Air Base
Salon-de-Provence Air Base is a base of the French Air Force located 4 km south Salon-de-Provence in southern France. It hosts the training facilities for the officers of the air force: École de l'air: for young students pilot commissioned officers mechanics commissioned officers air base commissioned officers École militaire de l'Air: gives access to the same careers as the École de l'Air, for non-commissioned officers who want to become commissioned officers air commissary school special course of the École de l'Air: for foreign officers special course of formation of officersIt hosts the demonstration formations of the French Air Force, including the Patrouille de France. In addition, it hosts a school of the French Navy: the school of Naval Aviation. Salon-de-Provence Air Base is a pre-World War II airfield, used by the Armée de l'Air during the early part of the war, it was a base for RAF Bomber Command Wellingtons, which were sent to Salon from England, for raids on the Italian port of Genoa, as a part of Operation Haddock.
After the 1940 Battle of France and the June Armistice with Nazi Germany, it became part of the limited air force of the Vichy Government. Known Vichy units at Salon-de-Provence were: G. C. I/6 Morane-Saulnier M. S.406 fighters G. C. III/9 Bloch MB.152 fightersOn 11 November 1942, Salon-de-Provence Air Base was seized by Nazi forces as part of Case Anton, the occupation of Vichy and the Luftwaffe took control of the base. Under German control, the base became a bomber airfield for anti-shipping operations over the Mediterranean against American Convoys, attacking Allied forces on Corsica and Sardinia after their capture from Italian forces during 1943. Known units assigned were: Kampfgeschwader 100, flying Heinkel He 111Hs, February–April 1943 Kampfgeschwader 26, flying Heinkel He 111Hs, May 1943-March 1944 Zerstörergeschwader 1, flying Messerschmitt Bf 110s, May 1944Primarily air defense against Twelfth Air Force B-26 Marauder medium bomber attacks on Southern FranceKampfgeschwader 77, flying Junkers Ju 88s, June–July 1944.
It was attacked on several missions by Allied bombers based in England while under German control. The airfield was sized by Allied Forces in August 1944 during Operation Dragoon, the Invasion of Southern France in August 1944 and was repaired and placed into operational use by the United States Army Air Forces XII Engineer Command, being turned over to Twelfth Air Force on 28 August 1944, it was designated as Advanced Landing Ground "Y-16 Salon". Twelfth Air Force stationed the 27th Fighter Squadron at the repaired field from 30 August, flying A-36 Apaches until moving north into eastern France in October; the 47th Bombardment Group flew A-20 Havoc light bombers from the field during September. The use by American forces of the airfield was brief, on 20 November 1944 it was returned to French control. Advanced Landing Ground This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/. French Air Force link Official site Current weather for LFMY at NOAA/NWS
Institut supérieur de l'aéronautique et de l'espace
The Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace, translated as "National Higher French Institute of Aeronautics and Space", founded in 1909. It was the world's first dedicated aerospace engineering school and is considered to be one of the best in Europe in that field; the school delivers a range of engineering degree programs. ISAE-SUPAERO is part of University of Toulouse, ISSAT, PEGASUS, GEA, Toulouse Tech, CESAER and Aerospace Valley. ISAE-SUPAERO results from the merger between SUPAERO and ENSICA in the summer of 2007; the aim of this move was to increase the international visibility of SUPAERO and the ENSICA, by sharing their faculty and experimental means. Since its founding in 1909 ISAE-SUPAERO has produced more than 21,500 graduates. ISAE-SUPAERO has the following missions: • To educate engineers in the aeronautics and space fields and in related areas • To engage in scientific research and technological Innovation • To deliver specialized graduate education and continuing education programs • To deliver doctoral programs and national degrees equivalent or superior to the Masters degree.
ISAE was created by decree 2007-1384 of 24 September, 2007. Under the auspices of the Ministry of Defence, overseen by the DGA, the Institute is a public institution with a scientific and professional vocation, it is governed by articles R.3411-1 to R.3411-28 of the Defence Code and is accredited by the Engineering Education Commission. ISAE SUPAERO delivers national Doctorate and Masters degrees and Advanced Masters degrees accredited by la Conférence des Grandes Ecoles, an organization whose members are the most prestigious business and engineering schools in France; the Institute is governed by an Executive Board of 27 members, headed by the President. The Board meets three times a year; the Institute has an educational board, a research board, a continuing education board Members of the advisory boards come from within the Institute and academia and industry. ISAE-SUPAERO has implemented an ISO 9001 quality management system for all of its activities; the historic logo of the former SUPAERO school: the owl, associated with the Greek Goddess, Athena, is a symbol of knowledge.
Today, the owl is still part of the ISAE SUPAERO logo. In 1909, Colonel Jean-Baptiste Roche, a civil engineering officer and a graduate of l’Ecole Polytechnique, had the foresight and vision to anticipate the needs and future scope of the aeronautics industry in the world. Colonel Roche was the founder of l'École supérieure d'aéronautique et de constructions mécaniques, or the Higher School of Aeronautics and Mechanical Construction in Paris. In 1930, the latter became « l’Ecole Nationale Supérieure de l’Aeronautics », under the leadership of the renowned French engineer, Albert Caquot, in 1972 it became l’Ecole nationale supérieure de l’aeronautique et de l’espace, or the Higher School of Aeronautics and Space, better known as “SUPAERO”. In 1930, the School moved to more modern buildings in « la Cité de l’Air », located boulevard Victor in Paris. In 1968, SUPAERO moved to the vast aerospace hub of Toulouse-Lespinet, in the heart of a stimulating higher education and research environment, right near l’Ecole nationale de l’aviation civile, the School of Civil Aviation, transferred to Toulouse the same year.
In 1970, the former Paris premises of the School were home to l'École nationale supérieure de techniques avancées, until the latter moved to new premises on the campus of l'École Polytechnique in Palaiseau. They were transformed into the Conference Center of the Ministry of Defence. Several research laboratories were created in affiliation with the School and regrouped around the Toulouse ONERA center. Today, affiliated with the School, it conducts theoretical and applied research in defence in a wide range of fields including aerodynamics, automatic control, advanced robotics, aerospace electronics, computer systems, aerospace vehicles, aerospace mechanics, propulsive systems. In 1975, SUPAERO was one of the first engineering schools in France to be accredited to deliver the doctoral degree. In 1994, SUPAERO became a public body with legal personality reporting to the Ministry of Defence. In practice, the Institute is overseen by the DGA, Directorate General of Armaments and under the direction of an “ingénieur général de l'armement”.
ENSICA was created in Paris at the time of the Liberation, under the name, « École nationale des travaux aéronautiques », in accordance with article 8 of the law on finance of 1946. The first graduating class included 25 students who would join the military corps of engineers specialized in aeronautics. By decree of June 4th, 1957, the name of the School was changed to “l’École nationale d’ingénieurs des constructions aéronautiques; the degree program was extended to three years with a new focus on industry and a larger share of civilian students. In 1961, ENICA was relocated to Toulouse. Under the leadership of the Director, Émile Blouin, the School acquired its own identity and a new dimension; the geographic link was cut with SUPAERO, which until had housed the school on its premises, Boulevard Victor, in Paris. The building of a new student cen
Legion of Honour
The Legion of Honour is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoleon Bonaparte and retained by all French governments and régimes. The order's motto is Honneur et Patrie, its seat is the Palais de la Légion d'Honneur next to the Musée d'Orsay, on the left bank of the Seine in Paris; the order is divided into five degrees of increasing distinction: Chevalier, Commandeur, Grand officier, Grand-croix. During the French Revolution, all of the French orders of chivalry were abolished, replaced with Weapons of Honour, it was the wish of Napoleon Bonaparte, the First Consul, to create a reward to commend civilians and soldiers. From this wish was instituted a Légion d'honneur, a body of men, not an order of chivalry, for Napoleon believed that France wanted a recognition of merit rather than a new system of nobility. However, the Légion d'honneur did use the organization of the old French orders of chivalry, for example the Ordre de Saint-Louis; the insignia of the Légion d'honneur bear a resemblance to those of the Ordre de Saint-Louis, which used a red ribbon.
Napoleon created this award to ensure political loyalty. The organization would be used as a façade to give political favours and concessions; the Légion d'honneur was loosely patterned after a Roman legion, with legionaries, commanders, regional "cohorts" and a grand council. The highest rank was not a Grand Cross but a Grand aigle, a rank that wore the insignia common to a Grand Cross; the members were paid, the highest of them generously: 5,000 francs to a grand officier, 2,000 francs to a commandeur, 1,000 francs to an officier, 250 francs to a légionnaire. Napoleon famously declared, "You call these baubles, well, it is with baubles that men are led... Do you think that you would be able to make men fight by reasoning? Never; that is good only for the scholar in his study. The soldier needs glory, rewards." This has been quoted as "It is with such baubles that men are led." The order was the first modern order of merit. Under the monarchy, such orders were limited to Roman Catholics, all knights had to be noblemen.
The military decorations were the perks of the officers. The Légion d'honneur, was open to men of all ranks and professions—only merit or bravery counted; the new legionnaire had to be sworn into the Légion d'honneur. It is noteworthy that all previous orders were crosses or shared a clear Christian background, whereas the Légion d'honneur is a secular institution; the badge of the Légion d'honneur has five arms. In a decree issued on the 10 Pluviôse XIII, a grand decoration was instituted; this decoration, a cross on a large sash and a silver star with an eagle, symbol of the Napoleonic Empire, became known as the Grand aigle, in 1814 as the Grand cordon. After Napoleon crowned himself Emperor of the French in 1804 and established the Napoleonic nobility in 1808, award of the Légion d'honneur gave right to the title of "Knight of the Empire"; the title was made hereditary after three generations of grantees. Napoleon had dispensed 15 golden collars of the Légion d'honneur among his family and his senior ministers.
This collar was abolished in 1815. Although research is made difficult by the loss of the archives, it is known that three women who fought with the army were decorated with the order: Virginie Ghesquière, Marie-Jeanne Schelling and a nun, Sister Anne Biget; the Légion d'honneur was visible in the French Empire. The Emperor always wore it and the fashion of the time allowed for decorations to be worn most of the time; the king of Sweden therefore declined the order. Napoleon's own decorations were captured by the Prussians and were displayed in the Zeughaus in Berlin until 1945. Today, they are in Moscow. Louis XVIII changed the appearance of the order. To have done so would have angered the 35,000 to 38,000 members; the images of Napoleon and his eagle were removed and replaced by the image of King Henry IV, the popular first king of the Bourbon line. Three Bourbon fleurs-de-lys replaced the eagle on the reverse of the order. A king's crown replaced the imperial crown. In 1816, the grand cordons were renamed grand crosses and the legionnaires became knights.
The king decreed. The Légion d'honneur became the second-ranking order of knighthood of the French monarchy, after the Order of the Holy Spirit. Following the overthrow of the Bourbons in favour of King Louis Philippe I of the House of Orléans, the Bourbon monarchy's orders were once again abolished and the Légion d'honneur was restored in 1830 as the paramount decoration of the French nation; the insignia were drastically altered. In 1847, there were 47,000 members, yet another revolution in Paris brought a new design to the Légion d'honneur. A nephew of the founder, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, was elected president and he restored the image of his uncle on the crosses of the order. In 1852, the first recorded woman, Angélique Duchemin, an old revolutionary of the 1789 uprising against the absolute monarchy, was admitted into the order. On 2 December 1851, President Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte staged a coup d'état with the help of the armed forces, he made himself Emperor of the French one year on 2 December 1852, after a successful plebiscite.
An Imperial crown was added. During Napoleon III's reign, the first American was admitted
École nationale de l'aviation civile
The École nationale de l'aviation civile is one of the 207 schools that offers engineering degrees in France. ENAC has been classified as a Grande école by the Conférence des Grandes Écoles. Conférence des Grandes Écoles is a non-profit organisation which accredits and delivers the master's degrees of all Grandes écoles; the group of Grandes écoles in France, was founded on August 28, 1949 to provide initial and continuing education in the field of civil aviation. This university is a établissement public à caractère scientifique, culturel et professionnel and functions under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Housing, it is member of the following apart from Conférence des Grandes Écoles, University of Toulouse, Aerospace Valley and is one of the five founders of France AEROTECH. ENAC offers 30 engineering degrees in civil aviation/aeronautics; some of the most notable ones include aerospace engineering, aircraft technicians, commercial airline pilots licenses, air traffic control, flight instructors.
The university offers 3 masters of science programmes and 12 Advanced masters degrees for students with industry/relevant experience. In 1945 after the WWII, the French air transport industry witnessed a rapid growth. To ensure safety and compliance to regulations, there was a high demand for qualified staff, as well as a need to harmonise communications between various sectors of the aviation industry. ENAC was founded to address this issue. Among the founders was Max Hymans, the secretary general of civil and commercial aviation at the time, who played a prominent role in ENAC's creation. In the years following the Western Front, there was a distinct lack of unity within the civil aviation industry due to the recruitment of people with various backgrounds. In order to standardize backgrounds, many centers were created to train aeronautic personnel. Airfield commanders were trained in Orly while technical staff for air navigation were trained in Le Bourget. Wireless operators and radio technicians were trained in Orly, although under the Department of Telecommunications and Signaling, not connected directly to the world of aviation.
Technical managers were trained in engineering schools, including Arts et Métiers and the National School of Meteorology. Designers were trained by the École spéciale des travaux aéronautiques while aircrew were trained by other public or private institutions. ENAC's mission was to unify the training of all aviation personnel. Through Decree No. 49-970, the rules of the French public administration were laid down. A complete overhaul of the regulations applying to civil aviation officials was made, affecting the technical staff in particular. Several new bodies of civil servants were established: air traffic engineers, air navigation operation engineers, aerial telecommunication civil engineers, air traffic controllers, telecommunication controllers and air navigation agents; the creation of these new bodies was followed by a ministerial decision on 12 August 1948 that paved the way for the first recruitment by competitive examination. The examinations themselves were organized in October 1948.
Independently of these events, on 14 April 1948, the International Civil Aviation Organization established prerequisite conditions for air crew licensing, notably including a minimum number of flight hours for each category of aircraft pilots. Before adopting the name ENAC, the school was called a "service of education and internships" and was provided by the General secretariat for civil and commercial aviation; that contrasted with that the longstanding tradition of French civil service personnel being trained in higher education institutions called Grande écoles. Jules Moch, the Minister of Works and Tourism at the time, proposed the name: "École nationale de l'aviation marchande", a name, not chosen. ENAC was created on 28 August 1949 in Paris at the initiative of Max Hymans, Secretary General of Civil Aviation, Jules Moch. in order to train all the professionals of civil aeronautics and harmonize all the air transport stakeholders, aircrew or not, commercial or technical, including the civil services of civil aviation.
The university is located at Orly, south of Paris. René Lemaire considers ENAC as "a university of aviation safety"; this priority given to aviation safety is somehow consubstantial with ENAC, being the first reason for the training of future technicians and future airmen in a single university. As noted in a report of the Inspection générale de l'aviation civile, "It was in the minds of the creators of the university, to develop between the aircrew and the ground staff a community of ideas, reciprocal knowledge, esteem, that are essential for the teamwork required by air transport." However, it is doubtful that the "community of ideas" the author of the report wishes could be only expressed by the coexistence of different courses in the same university. Other factors work in opposite directions, including the significant disparity of durations of the training cycles. Thus, air navigation civil engineers of the branch "telecommunications" stays 30 months in the university. To realize the chemistry that, in the m
Bulgaria the Republic of Bulgaria, is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north and North Macedonia to the west and Turkey to the south, the Black Sea to the east; the capital and largest city is Sofia. With a territory of 110,994 square kilometres, Bulgaria is Europe's 16th-largest country. One of the earliest societies in the lands of modern-day Bulgaria was the Neolithic Karanovo culture, which dates back to 6,500 BC. In the 6th to 3rd century BC the region was a battleground for Thracians, Persians and ancient Macedonians; the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire lost some of these territories to an invading Bulgar horde in the late 7th century. The Bulgars founded the First Bulgarian Empire in AD 681, which dominated most of the Balkans and influenced Slavic cultures by developing the Cyrillic script; this state lasted until the early 11th century, when Byzantine emperor Basil II conquered and dismantled it. A successful Bulgarian revolt in 1185 established a Second Bulgarian Empire, which reached its apex under Ivan Asen II.
After numerous exhausting wars and feudal strife, the Second Bulgarian Empire disintegrated in 1396 and its territories fell under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 resulted in the formation of the current Third Bulgarian State. Many ethnic Bulgarian populations were left outside its borders, which led to several conflicts with its neighbours and an alliance with Germany in both world wars. In 1946 Bulgaria became part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc; the ruling Communist Party gave up its monopoly on power after the revolutions of 1989 and allowed multi-party elections. Bulgaria transitioned into a democracy and a market-based economy. Since adopting a democratic constitution in 1991, the sovereign state has been a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political and economic centralisation; the population of seven million lives in Sofia and the capital cities of the 27 provinces, the country has suffered significant demographic decline since the late 1980s.
Bulgaria is a member of the European Union, NATO, the Council of Europe. Its market economy is part of the European Single Market and relies on services, followed by industry—especially machine building and mining—and agriculture. Widespread corruption is a major socioeconomic issue; the name Bulgaria is derived from a tribe of Turkic origin that founded the country. Their name is not understood and difficult to trace back earlier than the 4th century AD, but it is derived from the Proto-Turkic word bulģha and its derivative bulgak; the meaning may be further extended to "rebel", "incite" or "produce a state of disorder", i.e. the "disturbers". Ethnic groups in Inner Asia with phonologically similar names were described in similar terms: during the 4th century, the Buluoji, a component of the "Five Barbarian" groups in Ancient China, were portrayed as both a "mixed race" and "troublemakers". Neanderthal remains dating to around 150,000 years ago, or the Middle Paleolithic, are some of the earliest traces of human activity in the lands of modern Bulgaria.
The Karanovo culture arose circa 6,500 BC and was one of several Neolithic societies in the region that thrived on agriculture. The Copper Age Varna culture is credited with inventing gold metallurgy; the associated Varna Necropolis treasure contains the oldest golden jewellery in the world with an approximate age of over 6,000 years. The treasure has been valuable for understanding social hierarchy and stratification in the earliest European societies; the Thracians, one of the three primary ancestral groups of modern Bulgarians, appeared on the Balkan Peninsula some time before the 12th century BC. The Thracians excelled in metallurgy and gave the Greeks the Orphean and Dionysian cults, but remained tribal and stateless; the Persian Achaemenid Empire conquered most of present-day Bulgaria in the 6th century BC and retained control over the region until 479 BC. The invasion became a catalyst for Thracian unity, the bulk of their tribes united under king Teres to form the Odrysian kingdom in the 470s BC.
It was weakened and vassalized by Philip II of Macedon in 341 BC, attacked by Celts in the 3rd century, became a province of the Roman Empire in AD 45. By the end of the 1st century AD, Roman governance was established over the entire Balkan Peninsula and Christianity began spreading in the region around the 4th century; the Gothic Bible—the first Germanic language book—was created by Gothic bishop Ulfilas in what is today northern Bulgaria around 381. The region came under Byzantine control after the fall of Rome in 476; the Byzantines were engaged in prolonged warfare against Persia and could not defend their Balkan territories from barbarian incursions. This enabled the Slavs to enter the Balkan Peninsula as marauders through an area between the Danube River and the Balkan Mountains known as Moesia; the interior of the peninsula became a country of the South Slavs, who lived under a democracy. The Slavs assimilated the Hellenized and Gothicized Thracians in the rural areas. Not l
Collioure is a commune in the southern French department of Pyrénées-Orientales. The town of Collioure is on the Côte Vermeille, in the canton of La Côte Vermeille and in the arrondissement of Céret. Collioure is named Cotlliure in Catalan. There is a record of the castle at "Castrum Caucoliberi" having been mentioned as early as 673, indicating that the settlement here was of strategic and commercial importance during the Visigoth ascendancy. Collioure used to be divided into two villages separated by the river Douy, the old town to the south named Port d'Avall and the upstream port, Port d'Amunt. Collioure was taken in 1642 by the French troops of Maréchal de la Meilleraye. A decade the town was surrendered to France by the 1659 Treaty of Pyrenees; because of its strategic importance, the town's fortifications, the Château Royal de Collioure and the Fort Saint-Elme stronghold, were improved by the military engineer Vauban during the reign of Louis XIV. Collioure was besieged and occupied by the Spanish troops in 1793, marking the last Spanish attempt to take the city.
The blockade was broken a year by general Jacques François Dugommier. In 1823, the territory of Port-Vendres became a commune, taking parts from the communes of Collioure and Banyuls-sur-Mer. On 21 January 1870, an exceptional climatic phenomenon occurred in Collioure, as observed by Charles Naudin at the time. Many orchards as well as cork oak woodlands were damaged. Soria, Castile and León, Spain. Collioure is the name of an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée situated around the town, producing red, rosé and a few white wines; the ancient terraced vines in the hills behind the town provide grapes for the apéritif and dessert wines of the appellation, which shares its boundaries with the Collioure appellation. Collioure is famous for its anchovies, its once-thriving fisheries is referenced in Mark Kurlansky's book Salt; as the town has a strong Catalan culture, its own motto has been adopted by one of the local Catalan rugby teams: Sempre endavant, mai morirem. Under Michel Moly's leadership, the town has an alternative motto, Collioure sera toujours Collioure quoting French singer Maurice Chevalier's famous song titled Paris sera toujours Paris.
The annual Saint Vincent festival is held around August 15, attracting twice the town's population in visitors for several days of celebration with music and fireworks. In the early 20th century Collioure became a center of artistic activity, with several Fauve artists making it their meeting place. André Derain, Georges Braque, Othon Friesz, Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, Charles Rennie Mackintosh, James Dickson Innes and Tsuguharu Fujita have all been inspired by Collioure's royal castle, medieval streets, its lighthouse converted into the church of Notre-Dame-des-Anges and its typical Mediterranean bay. Collioure's cemetery contains the tomb of Spanish poet Antonio Machado, who fled here to escape advancing Francoist troops at the end of the Spanish Civil War in 1939; the British novelist Patrick O'Brian lived in the town from 1949 until his death in 2000, his novel The Catalans describes Collioure life as it was in the past. He wrote a biography of Picasso, an acquaintance. O'Brian and his wife Mary are buried in the town cemetery.
Part of the action in Stephen Clarke's fourth comic novel featuring Paul West, Dial M for Merde, takes place in Collioure. Ninety-eight reproductions of Matisse’s and Derain’s works are exposed where these two masters of Fauvism painted the originals, in the early 20th century. Antonio Machado, Spanish poet died in Collioure. René Llense, football player born in Collioure. Patrick O'Brian, English novelist and translator and was buried in Collioure. Communes of the Pyrénées-Orientales department INSEE commune file Tourist office website Webpage about the fortifications of Collioure Photos of Collioure Information of the Royal Castle of Collioure Cotlliure History and information in Catalan Encyclopaedia