Vélib' was a large-scale public bicycle sharing system in Paris, France. Launched on 15 July 2007, the system encompassed around 14,500 bicycles and 1,230 bicycle stations, located across Paris and in some surrounding municipalities, with an average daily ridership of 85,811 in 2011; the name Vélib' is a portmanteau of the French words vélo and liberté. Vélib' was operated as a concession by the French advertising corporation JCDecaux; as of 2014, Vélib' was the world's 12th-largest bikesharing program by the number of bicycles in circulation. As of July 2013, Velib' had the highest market penetration with 1 bike per 97 inhabitants, followed by Vélo'v in Lyon with 1 bike per 121 residents, Hangzhou in China with 1 per 145. Since December 2011, Vélib’ had been complemented by Autolib', an electric car sharing scheme operating on similar principles; the system ended on 31 December 2017. The initiative was proposed by Paris mayor and French Socialist Party member Bertrand Delanoë; the system was launched on 15 July 2007, following Lyon's Vélo'v success and the pioneering 1974 scheme in La Rochelle.
7,000 bicycles were introduced to the city, distributed among 750 automated rental stations, with fifteen or more bicycle parking slots each. The following year, the initiative was enlarged to some 16,000 bicycles and 1,200 rental stations, with one station every 300 metres throughout the city centre. Making Vélib' the third-most-extensive system of its kind in the world, surpassed in station numbers only by systems in Hangzhou and Wuhan in China. During its first year in operation, Vélib' reported 20 million trips made, at its sixth anniversary, a total of 173 million journeys were reported; the system's grey bicycles are produced in Hungary by the French bicycle company Mercier and are repaired by JCDecaux. The price per bicycle has been variously stated as $1,300, € 300, $3,460, or $3,500 apiece, they are three-speed bicycles, each weighing 22.5 kilograms. Vélib' bikes are equipped with a locking system, a front basket and always-on LED lighting powered by a front-hub dynamo; each Vélib’ station is equipped with an automatic rental terminal, a map of other nearby stations and stands for dozens of bicycles.
The rental terminals display information about neighbouring Vélib’ stations, including location, number of available bicycles and open stands. If a user arrives with a rented bicycle at a station without open spots, the terminal grants another fifteen minutes of free rental time. A fleet of 23 bicycle-transporting vehicles are used daily to redistribute bicycles between empty and full stations. In order to use the system, users need to take out a subscription, which allows the subscriber an unlimited number of rentals. Subscriptions can be purchased at € 1.70 per € 8/week, € 29/year, or € 39/year. With a subscription, bike rental is free for the first half hour of every individual trip. A trip that lasts longer than 30 minutes incurs a charge of €1 to €4 for each subsequent 30‑minute period; the increasing price scale is intended to keep the bikes in circulation. A Vélib' Passion subscription allows the user to have the first 45 minutes free on each trip, its price is reduced to €29 for users aged under 27, to €19 for students receiving a scholarship.
Some stations located above an altitude of 60 metres are called V+. They give any user returning a bicycle from a non-V+ station 15 free minutes of rental: if a rental lasts more than 30 minutes, 15 minutes will be deducted to calculate the amount the user has to pay, meaning that, for example, a 45-minute trip to a V+ station is free. If the rental lasts 30 minutes or less, the 15 minutes are added to a bonus V+ account, can be used for future rentals exceeding 30 minutes. A credit card or debit card with a PIN is required to rent the bikes; the credit/debit card is charged a € 150 deposit. The credit card is required to contain an EMV chip. 1‑day and 1‑week subscribers are given a subscription number to be used for future rentals during their subscription period, while 1‑year subscribers are sent an RFID card. All types of sign-up can be attached to a Navigo pass; the RFID card and Navigo pass allow direct use of the card readers at Vélib stations. The system is financed by the JCDecaux advertising corporation, in return for the city of Paris signing over the income from a substantial portion of on‑street advertising hoardings.
JCDecaux won the contract over a rival bid from Clear Channel. JCDecaux paid the scheme's start-up costs, totalling about $140 million, employs around 285 people full-time to operate the system and repair the bikes on a ten-year contract; the city receives all revenue from the programme, as well as a fee of about $4.3 million a year. In return, JCDecaux receives exclusive control over 1,628 city-owned billboards; this model was first used in France in 1998 by Adshel in Rennes. Due to an unexpectedly high rate of vandalism compared to the Lyon bicycle hire system, the Paris City Council agreed to pay replacement costs of $500 per vandalised bicycle, leading to expected costs of up to €2 million per year. At least 3,000 bicycles were stolen in the first year of operation, a number far greater than had been anticipated. By August 2009, of 20,600
École nationale d'ingénieurs de Brest
The École nationale d'ingénieurs de Brest is a French grande école leading to the French “Diplôme d’Ingénieur” under the authority of the French Ministry of Education and Research. ENIB is located on the Technopole Brest-Iroise in Plouzané; the school is attached to the University of Western Brittany. This school is part of the ENI group and provides an engineer training certified by the Ministry of Higher Education and Research in the fields of electronics, of computer engineering and Mechatronics; the course lasts 3 years or 2 years according to the degree when entering the school. The main admission to the ENIB is made through a selective examination during the year leading to the baccalauréat, most of the successful candidates come from the série scientifique or Bac S. There is however further possibility to join the ENIB on after 2 years of studies in an IUT or at the University, the selection being on academic records. 1961 - Creation of the ENIB. 1987 - In 5 years. Diversification of recruitment, creation of two channels.
1988 - Establishment of the Research Laboratory for Electronics 1990 - Establishment of research laboratory computer 1991 - Ability to deliver a DEA in Electronics - Optronics. 1992 - New building on the Technopole Brest-Iroise. 1994 - Authorization to issue a Master: Real Time Software Engineering and for Industrial Computing. 1997 - Authorization for the Masters: Distributed Virtual Reality. 2000 - Opening of a mechatronics channel. 2004 - New 4000m² extension building and creation of the European Center for Virtual Reality. 2006 - Establishment of the mechanics research laboratory. 2009 - Introduction of the Professional Systems and Services option. 2011 - Integration of electronic and computer labs in the Lab-STICC 2012 - Inauguration of Student House 2013 - The Institut Mines-Télécom includes ENIB as an associate school Official site of school Official website of the ENIB students
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Meccano is a model construction system created in 1898 by Frank Hornby in Liverpool, United Kingdom. The system consists of reusable metal strips, angle girders, wheels and gears, plastic parts that are connected together using nuts and bolts, it enables the building of mechanical devices. Meccano maintains a manufacturing facility in France. In 1913, a similar construction set was introduced in the US under the brand name Erector. In 2000, Meccano unified its presence on all continents. In 1901 Frank Hornby, a clerk from Liverpool, England and patented a new toy called "Mechanics Made Easy", based on the principles of mechanical engineering, it was a model construction kit consisting of perforated metal strips and girders, with wheels, gears, shaft collars and axles for mechanisms and motion, nuts and bolts and set screws to connect the pieces. The perforations were at a standard ½ inch spacing, the axles were 8-gauge, the nuts and bolts used 5/32 inch BSW threads; the only tools required to assemble models were spanners.
It was more than just a toy: it was educational, teaching basic mechanical principles like levers and gearing. The parts for Hornby's new construction kit were supplied by outside manufacturers, but as demand began to exceed supply, Hornby set up his own factory in Duke Street, Liverpool; as the construction kits gained in popularity they soon became known as Meccano and went on sale across the world. In September 1907, Hornby registered the Meccano trade mark, in May 1908, he formed Meccano Ltd. To keep pace with demand, a new Meccano factory was built in Binns Road, Liverpool in 1914, which became Meccano Ltd's headquarters for the next 60 years. Hornby established Meccano factories in France and Argentina; the word "Meccano" was thought to have been derived from the phrase "Make and Know". The first construction sets had parts that were rather crudely made: the metal strips and plates had a tinplate finish, were not rounded at the ends and were not sturdy, but manufacturing methods were improving all the time and by 1907 the quality and appearance had improved considerably: the metal strips were now made of thicker steel with rounded ends and were nickel-plated, while the wheels and gears were machined from brass.
The first sets under the new Meccano name were numbered 1 to 6. In 1922 the No. 7 Meccano Outfit was introduced, the largest set of its day, the most sought after because of its model building capabilities and prestige. In 1926, to mark the 25th anniversary of his patent, Hornby introduced "Meccano in Colours" with the familiar red and green coloured Meccano pieces. Plates were a light red and items like the braced girders were a pea-green. However, the following year strips and girders were painted dark green, the plates Burgundy red, while the wheels and gears remained brass. In 1934 the Meccano pieces changed colour again: the strips and girders became gold while the plates were changed to blue with gold criss-cross lines on them, but only on one side, the reverse remaining plain blue; this new colour scheme was only available in the United Kingdom until the end of the Second World War in 1945. The old red and green sets were still produced for the export market and were re-introduced in the UK after the war.
In 1958 the colours were changed to what became known as'light red and green' but this incarnation had the shortest lifespan as the colours changed in 1964 to the black and yellow colour scheme. However, this light red and green period did see the introduction of about 90 new parts, more modern packaging, a new cabinet was introduced for the number 10 set, the first plastic parts were introduced, the "exploded diagram" instructions made their début. In 1934 the nine basic Meccano outfits were replaced by eleven outfits, labelled 0, A to H, K and L, the old No. 7 Outfit becoming the L Outfit. This L Outfit is regarded as the best of the largest Meccano outfits. In 1937 the alphabetical outfit series was replaced by a numeric series, 0 to 10, the L Outfit being replaced by the smaller No. 10 Outfit. Although having fewer pieces than the L Outfit, the No. 10 Outfit became Meccano's flagship set and remained unchanged until it was discontinued a half-century in 1992. Accessory sets were retained, numbered 1A to 9A, that converted a set to the next in the series.
As had been the case from early days, Meccano Ltd would supply individual Meccano parts to complement existing sets. World War II interrupted the production of Meccano in England when the Binns Road factory converted to manufacturing for the war effort; the Korean War in 1950 disrupted production due to a metal shortage and it was not until the mid-1950s that Meccano production returned to normal with new parts being added to all the sets. In 1955 outfits 00 to 10 as well as conversion sets 00A to 9A were available. In 1961 a Mechanisms Outfit and a Gears Outfit were added to the range, in 1962 outfit 00 was withdrawn. In the early 1960s Meccano Ltd experienced financial problems and was purchased by Lines Bros Ltd in 1964. In an attempt to redefine Meccano's image, the colour scheme was changed again, this time to yellow and black plates, with silver strips and girders; the silver was soon replaced by zinc in 1967. The colours of yellow and black were chosen because they were the colours used by most large construction vehicles of the day.
In 1970 electronic parts were introduced, the current black-coloured plates w
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles
The classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles called classes prépas or prépas, are part of the French post-secondary education system. They consist of two years of study which act as a preparatory course with the main goal of training students for enrolment in one of the grandes écoles; the workload is one of the highest in Europe. Unlike most students in France who enroll in public universities directly after receiving a high school diploma, students from CPGE have to take national competitive exams to be allowed to enrol in one of the Grandes Écoles; these Grandes Écoles are higher education establishments delivering master's degrees and/or doctorates. They include science and engineering schools, business schools, the four veterinary colleges and the four écoles normales supérieures but do not include medical or law schools, nor architecture schools, their competitive entrance exams make having attended one of the grandes écoles being regarded as a status symbol as they have traditionally produced most of France's scientists and intellectuals.
Hence, there are three kinds of different prépas: scientific and literary CPGE. Each of them prepare to pass the competitive exams of those grandes écoles; the CPGE are located within high schools for historical reasons but pertain to tertiary education, which means that each student must have passed their baccalauréat to be admitted to CPGE. Moreover, the admission to the CPGE is based on performance during the last two years of high school, called première and terminale. Thus, each CPGE receives hundreds of applications from around the world every April and May, selects its new students under its own criteria. A few CPGE programmes the private CPGEs have an interview process or look at a student's involvement in the community. In June 2007, 534,300 students passed the "Baccalauréat", 40,000 of them were admitted to CPGE. On a given class at one of the prep schools listed above, around 1500 application files will be examined for only 40 places. Students are selected according to their grades in High school and the first part of "Baccalauréat".
Preparatory classes are not authorized to deliver any degrees, but they give ECTS credits that can be used to fulfill university degree requirements since the 2009-2010 academic year, students who decide to can carry on their studies at a public university. However, many prépas establish conventions with universities to validate a full 2nd or 3rd year degree upon graduation for CPGE students who perform well in literary prépas. Most of the students in these classes receive part of their education at a public university, so that the teachers' council can deliver them the corresponding grade in one or two disciplines at the end of the year. CPGE exist in three different fields of study: science & engineering and humanities. All CPGE programs have a nominal duration of two years, but the second year is sometimes repeated once; the oldest CPGEs are the scientific ones. The different tracks are the following: MPSI, Mathématiques, Sciences de l'Ingénieur in the first year, followed by either MP or PSI PCSI, chimie, sciences de l'ingénieur in the first year, followed by PC or PSI PTSI, technologie, sciences de l'ingénieur in the first year, followed by PT or PSI TPC1, physique et chimie in the first year, followed by TPC2 TSI1, Technologie, sciences industrielles in the first year, followed by TSI2 BCPST1, Chimie, sciences de la terre in the first year, followed by BCPST2 TB1, biologie in the first year, followed by TB2The classes that train students for admission to the elite schools, such as Écoles Normales Supérieures or ParisTech schools, have an asterisk added to their name.
For example, MP*, are called MP étoile. Both the first and second year programmes include as much as ten to twelve hours of mathematics teaching per week, ten hours of physics, two hours of literature and philosophy, two to four hours of foreign language teaching and two to eight hours of minor options: either SI, engineering industrial science, chemistry or theoretical computer science, biology-geology, biotechnologies. Added to this are several hours of homework, which can amount to as much as the official hours of class; the BCPST classes prepare for exams of engineering sc
École de l'air
The École de l'Air is a military school and grande école training line officers in the French Air Force. It is located at Salon-de-Provence Air Base in France. In 1922, the École du génie of Versailles, was entrusted with the mission to train all officers and aircrew in aeronautics; the École militaire et d’application de l’Aéronautique was set up in 1925. The officer cadets from the non-commissioned officers' corps and young officers from the École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr and École Polytechnique attended training at Versailles for two years. For pilots, their training continued at Avord and Cazaux, where they trained in aerial combat and bombing. President Albert Lebrun created the École de l'Air by Presidential decree in 1933; the school's first class began training November 4, 1935. The school's motto, Faire Face is a tribute to Capitaine Georges Guynemer, a World War I fighter ace In 1937, the school moved into still-unfinished buildings in Salon, Bouches-du-Rhône; the outbreak of World War II forced the school to relocate several times from 1939 to 1945, to sites including Bordeaux and Marrakech.
It was not until 1946. The school received the Legion of Honor and the Croix de Guerre from President Vincent Auriol in 1947. Other specialized schools joined the École de l'Air, including the École du commissariat de l'Air, which trains administrative and financial officers, in 1953, the Cours Spécial de l'École de l'Air, which trains exchange cadets from French-speaking African countries, in 1973. In 1969, the École de l'Air began an exchange program with the United States Air Force Academy, for eight cadets per school each year; the school first accepted women in 1976. Since 2008, The École de l'Air proposes two mastères spécialisés courses in aviation safety aircraft airworthiness and aerospace project management in partnership with the École nationale de l'aviation civile and the Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace. In 2015, The École de l'air launched a MOOC titled Compréhension de l’Arme Aérienne on France Université Numérique's platform. Stéphane Abrial, French General, the previous Commander of Allied Command Transformation Caroline Aigle, first woman fighter pilot in the French Air Force Patrick Baudry, retired Lieutenant Colonel in the French Air Force and a former CNES astronaut Jean-Loup Chrétien, former CNES spationaut Olivier Dassault, French politician serving as a deputy in the French National Assembly Léopold Eyharts, ESA astronaut Jean-Pierre Haigneré, French Air Force officer and a former CNES spationaut Fleury Marius, French aviator Francis Pollet, Director of the Institut Polytechnique des Sciences Avancées Jacques Rosay, Vice President Chief Test Pilot of the aircraft manufacturer Airbus Michel Tognini, French test pilot, brigadier general in the French Air Force, a former CNES and ESA astronaut