École Centrale Paris
École Centrale Paris was a French postgraduate-level institute of research and higher education in engineering and science. It was known by its official name École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures. Founded in 1829, it was among the most selective grandes écoles. Rooted in rich entrepreneurial tradition since the industrial revolution era, it served as the cradle for top-level engineers and executives who continue to constitute a major part of the industry leadership in France. Since the 19th century, its model of education for training generalist engineers inspired the establishment of several engineering institutes around the world, such as the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in Switzerland, Faculté polytechnique de Mons in Belgium, as well as other member schools of the Ecole Centrales Group alliance in France, Morocco and India. In 2015, École Centrale Paris merged with Supélec to form CentraleSupélec, a constituent institute of the University of Paris-Saclay. "Between 1832 and 1870, the Central School of Arts and Manufactures produced 3,000 engineers, served as a model for most of the industrialized countries."
École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures was founded in 1829 as a private institute by Alphonse Lavallée, a lawyer and a prominent businessman from Nantes, who put forward most of his personal capital into founding the school, together with three top scientists who became its founding associates: Eugène Peclet, Jean-Baptiste Dumas, Théodore Olivier. Notably, Lavallée was a shareholder of Le Globe, which became in 1831 the official organ of the Saint-Simonian movement; the founding vision of École Centrale was to train multidisciplinary engineers who will become the first "doctors of factories and mills" of the then-emerging industrial sector in France, at a time when most of the other engineering schools trained students for public service. As the scientific discoveries in this era were beginning to have a major impact on industrial development in Europe, a new breed of engineers with a broad and rigorous knowledge of sciences and mathematics were needed in order for France to develop its industry and compete amongst the world's superpowers.
The school was located in various premises in Paris, including Hotel Salé and buildings which now belong to Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers. Lavallée served as the first president of École Centrale. In 1857, Lavallée transferred the ownership of the school to the French state in order to ensure its sustainability. Under Napoleon's initiative for an imperial university, the school was temporarily renamed as École Impériale des Arts et Manufactures. In 1862, graduates of the school were awarded accredited graduate diplomas in engineering, with the official academic title of'ingénieur des arts et manufactures', the first of its kind in France; the school was transferred in 1969 to a new campus located in Châtenay-Malabry. The Châtenay-Malabry campus was designed by architect Jean Fayeton, was inaugurated by President Georges Pompidou, accompanied on this occasion by Robert Galley; the school was renamed as École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures. In 2015, the school formed a strategic alliance with Supélec to create CentraleSupélec, part of the University of Paris-Saclay.
The new campus is located in Gif-sur-Yvette 20 km from the center of Paris. École Centrale Paris was one of the Centrale Graduate Schools associated as the Groupe Centrale network with its sister institutes. Since 1837, the school had established several international partnerships with the world's leading universities, such as California Institute of Technology, University of Cambridge, ETH Zurich, Georgia Institute of Technology, Harvard University, Indian Institutes of Technology, KAIST, Princeton University, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Politecnico di Milano, National University of Singapore, Stanford University, University of Toronto, Tsinghua University, TU Delft and Technische Universität München, it was a founding member of the TIME network among top engineering schools in Europe, a member of the UniverSud Paris and the CESAER association of European engineering schools. Located in the Hôtel de Juigné, the main campus of the school was transferred to rue Montgolfier in 1884, where it stayed until 1969.
Its current location neighbours the Parc de Sceaux. Former location of the École Centrale, rue Montgolfier in Paris: The school is now located at Châtenay-Malabry, Hauts-de-Seine, a southern suburb of Paris, next to the Parc de Sceaux and its Château de Sceaux. Within the main campus at Châtenay Malabry, ECP hosts eight laboratories: Molecular and Macroscopic Energy, Combustion System Analysis and Macroeconomics Modeling Industrial Engineering Chemical Engineering and Materials Processing Laboratory Applied Mathematics Soil and Structure Mechanics Technology and Strategy Solids Structure and PropertiesMost of the 2000 students at École Centrale Paris stay in dedicated on-campus student residences, located near the research labs and accessible via public transport. Following the merger of the school with Supelec, now forming CentraleSupelec, the progressive move of the campus has started from Chatenay-Malabry to Gif-sur-Yvette. Most French students who were admitted to École Centrale Paris had completed 2 to 3 years of post high school education in sciences through the classes préparatoires or
Communication is the act of conveying meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules. The main steps inherent to all communication are: The formation of communicative motivation or reason. Message composition. Message encoding. Transmission of the encoded message as a sequence of signals using a specific channel or medium. Noise sources such as natural forces and in some cases human activity begin influencing the quality of signals propagating from the sender to one or more receivers. Reception of signals and reassembling of the encoded message from a sequence of received signals. Decoding of the reassembled encoded message. Interpretation and making sense of the presumed original message; the scientific study of communication can be divided into: Information theory which studies the quantification and communication of information in general. The channel of communication can be visual, auditory and haptic, electromagnetic, or biochemical.
Human communication is unique for its extensive use of abstract language. Development of civilization has been linked with progress in telecommunication. Nonverbal communication describes the processes of conveying a type of information in the form of non-linguistic representations. Examples of nonverbal communication include haptic communication, chronemic communication, body language, facial expressions, eye contact, how one dresses. Nonverbal communication relates to the intent of a message. Examples of intent are voluntary, intentional movements like shaking a hand or winking, as well as involuntary, such as sweating. Speech contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage, e.g. rhythm, intonation and stress. It establishes trust. Written texts include nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, the spatial arrangement of words and the use of emoticons to convey emotion. Nonverbal communication demonstrates one of Paul Wazlawick's laws: you cannot not communicate. Once proximity has formed awareness, living creatures begin interpreting.
Some of the functions of nonverbal communication in humans are to complement and illustrate, to reinforce and emphasize, to replace and substitute, to control and regulate, to contradict the denovative message. Nonverbal cues are relied on to express communication and to interpret others' communication and can replace or substitute verbal messages. However, non-verbal communication is ambiguous; when verbal messages contradict non-verbal messages, observation of non-verbal behaviour is relied on to judge another's attitudes and feelings, rather than assuming the truth of the verbal message alone. There are several reasons as to why non-verbal communication plays a vital role in communication: "Non-verbal communication is omnipresent." They are included in every single communication act. To have total communication, all non-verbal channels such as the body, voice, touch, distance and other environmental forces must be engaged during face-to-face interaction. Written communication can have non-verbal attributes.
E-mails and web chats allow an individual's the option to change text font colours, stationary and capitalization in order to capture non-verbal cues into a verbal medium. "Non-verbal behaviours are multifunctional." Many different non-verbal channels are engaged at the same time in communication acts and allow the chance for simultaneous messages to be sent and received. "Non-verbal behaviours may form a universal language system." Smiling, pointing and glaring are non-verbal behaviours that are used and understood by people regardless of nationality. Such non-verbal signals allow the most basic form of communication when verbal communication is not effective due to language barriers. Verbal communication is the written conveyance of a message. Human language can be defined as a system of symbols and the grammars by which the symbols are manipulated; the word "language" refers to common properties of languages. Language learning occurs most intensively during human childhood. Most of the thousands of human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others around them.
Languages tend to share certain properties. There is no defined line between a dialect. Constructed languages such as Esperanto, programming languages, various mathematical formalism is not restricted to the properties shared by human languages; as mentioned, language can be characterized as symbolic. Charles Ogden and I. A Richards developed The Triangle of Meaning model to explain the symbol, the referent, the meaning; the properties of language are governed by rules. Language follows phonological rules, syntactic rules, semantic rules, pragmatic rules; the meanings that are attached to words can be otherwise known as denotative.
École européenne de chimie, polymères et matériaux
The École européenne de chimie, polymères et matériaux of Strasbourg is a public engineering school in the city of Strasbourg, in Alsace, France. It was founded in 1948, is located on the Cronenbourg Campus of the University of Strasbourg; each year 90 students graduate from the school with a diplôme d'ingénieur. It is a National School of Engineers, part of the University of Strasbourg and a member of the Fédération Gay-Lussac, which recruits from the common polytechnic entrance examination, it is part of the Alsace Tech network of nine engineering schools in Alsace. The ECPM offers its students three specialties: polymers or materials. 1919 - Creation of the chemical institute by the professors T. Muller and H. Gault. Lectures are taught rue Goethe in Strasbourg. 1948 - Creation at the same place of the Ecole nationale supérieure de chimie by the professor H. Forestier. 1962 - The Ecole de chimie has place in new premises on the campus central de l'Esplanade. The first practical sessions from the ENSCS in analytical chemistry begin at the start of the school year 1962.
1968 - The ENSCS becomes a public organization. 1981 - The professor M. Daire introduces the European teaching program. 1986 - The ENSCS becomes Ecole Européenne des hautes études des industries chimiques de Strasbourg 1995 - The EHICS, the Ecole d'application des hauts Polymères and the Magistère matériaux de l'université de Strasbourg-I group together and form the Ecole de chimie, Polymères et Matériaux. 1998-1999 - The ECPM moves to new premises on the University's Cronenbourg campus. 2006 - Strasbourg becomes business cluster of the French chemistry. 2009 - The université Louis Pasteur and the other universities of Strasbourg are joined and form l'Université de Strasbourg 2011 - Opening of the new Classe préparatoire intégrée internationale - CHEM. I. ST. At the start of the school year 2011. → To enter the First year: - The school recruit with the «Concours Communs Polytechniques» or the DEUG. - The admission could be done by an interview with a License 3 in Chemistry or in Physics at the university, a DUT for example, in Chemistry, physical measurements optional materials or chemical engineering.
- For international students, they must have a Bachelor of an equivalent foreign degree. - After 2 years in CPI classes at Rennes, Clermont-Ferrand or in Strasbourg. → To enter the Second year, students can have access at the ECPM having an interview, with a Master M1 in Physics with a speciality in Polymers or materials. → Admission to the CP2i class in the ECPM, after the Baccalaureate, or an equivalent foreign degree for the international students. There is no competitive exam. There are interviews to evaluate the motivations with the people in charge of the Chem. I. St programme. 50 students are selected every year. There are nearly 20% international students; this class allows the students to gain admission to a school of the Fédération Gay Lussac after two years. These 2 years consist of studying engineer's trades in the domain of chemistry. There are 5 CPIs in France: Rennes, Clermont-Ferrand, Lille and Strasbourg at the ECPM The last one was opened at the start of the 2011-12 school year in Strasbourg.
The speciality of this school is that it welcomes a large number of international students, as well as that 20% of the courses are delivered in English and 10% are delivered in German. There are 50 students in each year. To gain admission to the CP2I: French students register on Admission Post-Bac and follow the steps. Students are selected on the basis of a 20-minute interview. International students submit their dossiers directly to the school. International students are selected on the basis of their academic record and an interview. General presentation of CPI-CHEM. I. ST: A strong scientific program: a major part of chemistry and maths during the 2 years with a total, for the first year, of around 700 hours of scientific lesson. We must add Lab Work of this scientific formation, with a total of 102 hours for the first year; the CPI-CHEM. I. ST base of more practical work than in an intensive foundation degree, with high-quality laboratory; the program includes group work to develop the communication, the creativity around scientists projects.
Moreover, in 2016, a "videxo" program was created. During, the "videxo" student solves a science problem on a board and in the same time someone films him to send the video to the teachers; the goal of this is to promote self-confidence and the scientist reflexion which are important qualities for the future engineer. An international program in a multicultural environment: many students with different cultures and two foreign languages to learn. At the beginning of the formation, students can participate in an English language session for one week in order to learn the fundamentals of the scientific English. Insertions travels are organised in England; the students will participate in lab work in a foreign university. Most of the time the foreign students come from China; the speciality is chosen in the second year. Students have four possibilities: Chemistry: Organic Chemistry: With this speciality, students attain a high level in synthesis and characterization of organic chemistry. Analytical Chemistry: Students are trained in techniques of analysis within the context of quality control.
Polymers: Students are trained to become fle
École des ponts ParisTech
École des Ponts ParisTech is a university-level institution of higher education and research in the field of science and technology. Founded in 1747 by Daniel-Charles Trudaine, it is one of the oldest and one of the most prestigious French Grandes Écoles, its primary mission has been to train engineering officials and civil engineers but the school now offers a wide-ranging education including computer science, applied mathematics, civil engineering, finance, innovation, urban studies and transport engineering. École des Ponts is today international: 43% of its students obtain a double degree abroad, 30% of an ingénieur cohort is foreign. It is headquartered in Marne-la-Vallée, is a founding member of ParisTech and of the Paris School of Economics; the school is under the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Energy of France. Following the creation of the Corps of Bridges and Roads in 1716, the King's Council decided in 1747 to found a specific training course for the state's engineers, as École royale des ponts et chaussées.
In 1775, the school took its current name as École nationale des ponts et chaussées, by Daniel-Charles Trudaine, in a moment when the state decided to set up a progressive and efficient control of the building of roads and canals, in the training of civil engineers. The school's first director, from 1747 until 1794, was Jean-Rodolphe Perronet, civil service administrator and a contributor to the Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert. Without lecturer, fifty students taught themselves geometry, algebra and hydraulics. Visits of building sites, cooperations with scientists and engineers and participation to the drawing of the map of the kingdom used to complete their training, four to twelve years long. During the First French Empire run by Napoleon I from 1804 to 1814, a number of members of the Corps of Bridges and Roads took part in the reconstruction of the French road network that had not been maintained during the Revolution, in large infrastructural developments, notably hydraulic projects.
Under the orders of the emperor, French scientist Gaspard Riche de Prony, second director of the school from 1798 to 1839, adapts the education provided by the school in order to improve the training of future civil engineers, whose purpose is to rebuild the major infrastructures of the country: roads, but administrative buildings and fortifications. Prony is now considered as a influential figure of the school. During the twenty years that followed the First Empire, the experience of the faculty and the alumni involved in the reconstruction influenced its training methods and internal organisation. In 1831, the school opens its first laboratory, which aims at concentrating the talents and experiences of the country's best civil engineers; the school gradually becomes a place of reflection and debates for urban planning. As a new step in the evolution of the school, the decree of 1851 insists on the organisation of the courses, the writing of an annual schedule, the quality of the faculty, the control of the students’ works.
For the first time in its history, the school opens its doors to a larger public. At this time, in France, the remarkable development of transports, roads and canals is influenced by engineers from the school, who modernised the country by creating the large traffic networks, admired in several European countries. After the Second World War, the school focused on developing the link between economics and engineering; as civil engineering was requiring higher financial investments, the state needed engineers to be able to understand the economic situation of post-war Europe. From on, the program of the school had three different aspects: scientific and technic and economic; the number of admitted students increased in order to provide both the Corps of Bridges and Roads and the private sector trained young engineers. At the time, technical progress and considerable development of sciences and techniques used in building and the protection of the environment imposed a change of strategy in the training programme.
More specialisations were progressively created and the overall programme was adapted to national issues. École des Ponts ParisTech offers high-level programmes in an extensive range of fields, with traditional competences in mathematics, computer science, civil engineering, economics, environment, town & regional planning and innovation. École des Ponts ParisTech is among the schools called "généralistes", which means that students receive a broad, management-oriented and non-specialised education. The school offers specialized/research masters and PhDs, it has opened a design school, with programmes in innovation and startup creation. This undergraduate-graduate engineering programme is the original and main programme offered by the school, it is quite different from typical university or college studies and specific to the French system of Grandes Écoles. The Ingénieur degree of École des Ponts – the Diplôme d'Ingénieur – is equivalent to a Master of Science. Admissions for engineering students is done
École des ingénieurs de la Ville de Paris
The École des ingénieurs de la ville de Paris or "Engineering School of Paris City" is the only French « Grande École d'ingenieurs», with an emphasis on urban engineering. Supported by the City of Paris, this higher education school is a member of the PRES Paris-Est, along with the École des Ponts; the top-level graduate school, actively involved in networks bringing together distinguished schools of higher education, has taken another step by partnering with École des Ponts ParisTech. Established in 1959 to educate the junior civil servants for the City of Paris, EIVP nowadays educates young professionals for the private sector, they have to deal with the educational disciplines linked to cities: building, urbanism and environment. Foreign students are welcomed to train for internships; the students are recruited through a competitive exam after 2 to 3 years of higher education in preparatory classes to enter elite schools. Laureates acquire a status of trainee civil servant, receive a salary while they are students at the school.
EIVP students are selected through an exacting competitive process and are well trained: 100 students join the school every year. A new campus opened during fall 2012 at 80 rue Rebeval, in the 19th arrondissement of Paris, in the former building of the Ecole d'Architecture Paris-Belleville, a former factory of Meccano model construction system. EIVP students participate each year in ATHENS Programme. Édouard Fritch Jacques Monthioux, director of The Paris Heritage and Architecture Services Ghislaine Geffroy, director of the Paris Roads and travel Services Christophe Dalstein, director of Europa City Céline Lepault, chief engineer for the Velib' Sylvain Marty, chief engineer for the Autolib' Official Website
Arts et Métiers ParisTech
Arts et Métiers ParisTech is a French engineering and research graduate school. It is a general engineering school recognized for leading French higher education in the fields of mechanics and industrialization. Founded in 1780, it is among the oldest French institutions and is one of the most prestigious engineering schools in France; the school has trained 85,000 engineers since its foundation by François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt. It is a "Public Scientific and Professional Institution" under the authority of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research and has the special status of Grand établissement; the École nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers, which adopted the brand name "Arts et Mėtiers ParisTech" in 2007, was a founding member of ParisTech, héSam and France AEROTECH. Arts et Métiers ParisTech consists of eight Teaching and Research Centres and three institutes spread across the country, its students are called Gadz'Arts. The school was founded in Liancourt, Oise, by Duke of Rochefoucauld-Liancourt in 1780.
After 1800, the institution became known as the École d'Arts et Métiers. Under Napoleon's reign, it was known as the "Ecole impériale des Arts et Métiers", he intended to use the school to train "Non-commissioned officers of Industry". The empire decided to move the school to a bigger city, Compiègne, in 1799; when Napoléon Bonaparte visited the castle where the school was located, he thought that it was inappropriate for such an industrial school to occupy the place. He decided to relocate the school to Châlons-en-Champagne in 1806, where two former monasteries were made available to offer much more space. Many students and alumni enlisted in the armed forces during the World War I, it is estimated that of the 6500 gadzarts who joined the army, 1100 died the first year of the conflict. Many campuses were damaged by the war that of Châlons-sur-Marne, in the middle of the Battle of the Marne; the Lille campus was occupied by the Germans and used as a military hospital. The other campuses were closed from 1916–17 and the new Parisian campus was undamaged.
Between the wars, the rapid industrialization of Europe favoured the Gadzarts. The arms race pushed industry to hire more engineers and the gadzarts matched their needs perfectly; the other important factor was the creation of new ranks in the hierarchical working organization. The middle management and upper management positions were perfect for the gadzarts engineers who filled these positions in most industries. During World War II, the school tried to keep a certain level of activity; the only campuses to experience some difficulties were Lille and Châlons-sur-Marne: in 1939 no new students were admitted. The Cluny campus was the target of a roundup in 1943 and a large part of students and staff were deported; the death of Jacques Bonsergent left a mark on the conflict, he became a symbol of resistance to the oppressor. The second school of this kind was founded in 1804 at Beaupréau and transferred to Angers in 1815. Three decades a third school was built in Aix-en-Provence in 1843, in former barracks and monasteries.
At the dawn of the 20th century, the development of the school expanded to three new campuses. In 1891, the ancient abbey of Cluny was chosen to host the activities of the 4th school. To go hand in hand with the industrial revolution, the members of parliament decided to create a 5th campus in Lille, a city, growing; the facilities of Lille were the first ones to be built expressly for the school. The campus of Paris, a long-standing project, was built between 1906 and 1912, it became the biggest campus of the Arts et World War II delayed the school's opening. By the end of the war, the campus had over 500 students. In the middle of the "Trentes Glorieuses", the 7th campus was created near Bordeaux, in the science park of Talence; the modern buildings were operational in 1963. The latest campus established was Metz; the campus was built in the science park, close to the transportation hubs. The school wanted this campus to become an international one, being close to Belgium and Germany, its construction was motivated by partnerships with German and American universities.
Between 1990 and 2000, the 3 institutes of research were created: Chambéry in 1994, Chalons-sur-Saône in 1997 and Bastia in 2000. The school has 2 satellite campuses in Bouc-bel-Air and Laval that are under the authority of the main campuses of Aix-en-provence and Angers; these satellites are linked to the research laboratories of the school. In 1817, the school's military status was removed by royal order and the official goal of the school was set to train qualified technicians. However, in practice, the organisation remained military and the students continued to wear the uniform; this tradition continues today. In 1826, a second royal order confirmed this new status and the military organisation was removed; the students were granted the right to wear the uniform as a civil one. After a third attempt, the students gained the right to form an association of the Arts et Métiers alumni in 1847; the regional campuses were transformed into engineer training institutions in 1907. In 1963, the curriculum was modified in order to recruit new students from the Classes préparatoires.
In 1964, the first woman was enrolled at the Arts et Métiers. The school became a grande école in 1976 and received the EPSCP status in 1990. In 2007, the school created the PRES ParisTech and adopted the brand name "Arts et Métiers
Agrocampus Ouest is a French higher education institution of university-level, grande école-type. Its official name is Institut supérieur des sciences agronomiques, horticoles et du paysage, it operates under the supervision of the French Ministry of Agriculture. It trains agricultural sciences engineers and research scientists, it has one in Rennes and the other in Angers. Agrocampus Ouest was created in 2008, as the merger of two institutions: Institut National d'Horticulture et de Paysage in Angers. Agrocampus Rennes in Rennes, its head office is located in Rennes, has a second campus in Angers. Agrocampus Ouest trains engineers, 4 specializations being available: agricultural sciences engineer horticulture sciences engineer landscape sciences engineer food industry sciences engineerDepending on the chosen specialization, trainings are held in one or the other campus. Agrocampus Ouest offers 16 Master's degrees and 9 Bachelor's degrees in life sciences. Moreover, Agrocampus Ouest has 6 doctoral schools: Life-Agro-Health Plants, health Materials science Human sciences and society Mathematics, telecommunications, signal, electronics Law, management, environment and territories The institution has 80 acamedic partnerships across the world.
According to its website, Agrocampus Ouest has: 14 research units in partnership with the INRA research institute 398 associated researchers. According to the 2011 ranking published by the L'Etudiant and L'Expansion, Agrocampus Ouest is the third French grande école for agricultural sciences, ex-æquo with l'ENSA de Toulouse. List of agricultural universities