Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical and information sciences to the study of the environment, the solution of environmental problems. Environmental science emerged from the fields of natural history and medicine during the Enlightenment. Today it provides an integrated and interdisciplinary approach to the study of environmental systems. Related areas of study include environmental engineering. Environmental studies incorporates more of the social sciences for understanding human relationships and policies towards the environment. Environmental engineering focuses on design and technology for improving environmental quality in every aspect. Environmental scientists work on subjects like the understanding of earth processes, evaluating alternative energy systems, pollution control and mitigation, natural resource management, the effects of global climate change. Environmental issues always include an interaction of physical and biological processes.
Environmental scientists bring a systems approach to the analysis of environmental problems. Key elements of an effective environmental scientist include the ability to relate space, time relationships as well as quantitative analysis. Environmental science came alive as a substantive, active field of scientific investigation in the 1960s and 1970s driven by the need for a multi-disciplinary approach to analyze complex environmental problems, the arrival of substantive environmental laws requiring specific environmental protocols of investigation and the growing public awareness of a need for action in addressing environmental problems. Events that spurred this development included the publication of Rachel Carson's landmark environmental book Silent Spring along with major environmental issues becoming public, such as the 1969 Santa Barbara oil spill, the Cuyahoga River of Cleveland, Ohio, "catching fire", helped increase the visibility of environmental issues and create this new field of study.
In common usage, "environmental science" and "ecology" are used interchangeably, but technically, ecology refers only to the study of organisms and their interactions with each other and their environment. Ecology could be considered a subset of environmental science, which could involve purely chemical or public health issues ecologists would be unlikely to study. In practice, there is considerable overlap between the work of ecologists and other environmental scientists; the National Center for Education Statistics in the United States defines an academic program in environmental science as follows: A program that focuses on the application of biological and physical principles to the study of the physical environment and the solution of environmental problems, including subjects such as abating or controlling environmental pollution and degradation. Includes instruction in biology, physics, climatology and mathematical modeling. Atmospheric sciences focus on the Earth's atmosphere, with an emphasis upon its interrelation to other systems.
Atmospheric sciences can include studies of meteorology, greenhouse gas phenomena, atmospheric dispersion modeling of airborne contaminants, sound propagation phenomena related to noise pollution, light pollution. Taking the example of the global warming phenomena, physicists create computer models of atmospheric circulation and infra-red radiation transmission, chemists examine the inventory of atmospheric chemicals and their reactions, biologists analyze the plant and animal contributions to carbon dioxide fluxes, specialists such as meteorologists and oceanographers add additional breadth in understanding the atmospheric dynamics. Ecology is the study of the interactions between their environment. Ecologists might investigate the relationship between a population of organisms and some physical characteristic of their environment, such as concentration of a chemical. For example, an interdisciplinary analysis of an ecological system, being impacted by one or more stressors might include several related environmental science fields.
In an estuarine setting where a proposed industrial development could impact certain species by water and air pollution, biologists would describe the flora and fauna, chemists would analyze the transport of water pollutants to the marsh, physicists would calculate air pollution emissions and geologists would assist in understanding the marsh soils and bay muds. Environmental chemistry is the study of chemical alterations in the environment. Principal areas of study include water pollution; the topics of analysis include chemical degradation in the environment, multi-phase transport of chemicals, chemical effects upon biota. As an example study, consider the case of a leaking solvent tank which has entered the habitat soil of an endangered species of amphibian; as a method to resolve or understand the extent of soil contamination and subsurface transport of solvent, a computer model would be implemented. Chemists would characterize the molecular bonding of the solvent to the specific soil type, biologists would study the impacts upon soil arthr
MINES ParisTech, created in 1783 by King Louis XVI, is a French engineer school and a constituent college of Université PSL. MINES ParisTech is distinguished for the outstanding performance of its research centers and the quality of its international partnerships with other prestigious universities in the world, which include Massachusetts Institute of Technology, California Institute of Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, University of Hong Kong, National University of Singapore, Novosibirsk State University, Pontifical Catholic University of Chile and Tokyo Tech; the École des Mines de Paris publishes a world university ranking based on the number of alumni holding the post of CEO in one of the 500 largest companies in the world: the Mines ParisTech: Professional Ranking of World Universities. The school is a member of the ParisTech alliance. Created by decree of the French King's Counsel on March 19, 1783, the first school of Mines was located in the Hôtel de la Monnaie, in Paris.
The school disappeared at the beginning of the French Revolution but was re-established by decree of the Committee of Public Safety in 1794, the 13th Messidor Year II. It moved to Savoie, after a decree of the consuls the 23rd Pluviôse Year X. After the Bourbon Restoration in 1814, the school moved to the Hôtel de Vendôme. From the 1960s onwards, it created research laboratories in Fontainebleau, Évry and Sophia Antipolis; the initial aim of the Ecole des mines de Paris, namely to train high-level mining engineers, evolved with time to adapt to the technological and structural transformations undergone by society. Mines ParisTech has now become one of the most prestigious French engineering schools with a broad variety of subjects, its students are trained to have management positions, work in research and development departments, or as operations officers, etc. They receive a well-rounded education in a variety of subjects, ranging from the most technical to economics, social sciences or art in order to be able to tackle the managing or engineering-related issues they are to face.
Exchange programs are possible during the third semester with prestigious universities around the world, such as Massachusetts Institute of Technology, California Institute of Technology, University of Hong Kong, National University of Singapore, Tokyo Tech, Seoul National University... Mines ParisTech provides different educational paths: The Ingénieurs civils degree, ranked among the best French Grande école engineering degrees, similar to that offered at École polytechnique, École des Ponts ParisTech or École Centrale Paris; the Corps of Mines, one of the greatest technical corps of the French state. It is a third cycle degree, lasting for three years, consisting in two long-term internships both in public and private economical institutions and courses in economics and public institutions; the admission to the Corps des Mines is selective as only the top students from École polytechnique, École normale supérieure, Mines ParisTech and Telecom ParisTech may apply Mastère Spécialisé degrees, post-graduate programs accredited by the Conférence des Grandes écoles, in the fields of Energy, Environment and Logistics, Informatics and management in industry and Materials engineering Doctoral and Master studies in various fields For students having studied in the Classe Préparatoire aux Grandes Ecoles, admission to Civil Engineer of Mines is decided through a nationwide competitive examination.
Every year, ten applications are accepted from students around the world according to their academic achievements. Admission to the Corps of Mines is possible for French students at the end of the studies in École polytechnique, École normale supérieure, École des télécommunications de Paris and École des mines de Paris, or from the other great technical corps of the French state. Admission in third year is open to one Ph. D graduate. A Student Union is elected every year after a one-week campaign, is in charge of enhancing the contact between students and various sponsoring industries as well as organizing events for the students. Various other organizations are part of the students' lives: the Students' Sport Committee, the Junior Enterprise, the Arts' Office, Cahier Vert, CAV, Catholic community, Fanfare band, Entrepreneur club, humanitarian organizations, photography club, Sailing club, among others. Maurice Allais, Nobel Prize in Economics, 1988 Jean-Louis Bianco, General Secretary of President of France, Minister of Social Affairs, Minister of Transport, députy of Alpes de Haute Provence's 1st constituency Louis Paul Cailletet and inventor Georges Charpak, Nobel Prize in Physics 1992 Jean-Baptiste Élie de Beaumont, founder of geology, Wollaston Medal 1843 Thierry Desmarest, former CEO of Total Jean-Martin Folz, former CEO of PSA Peugeot Citroën Noël Forgeard, former CEO of Airbus and EADS Charles de Freycinet, prime minister of France at the end of the 19th century Tidjane Thiam, CEO of Credit Suisse Car
École des ponts ParisTech
École des Ponts ParisTech is a university-level institution of higher education and research in the field of science and technology. Founded in 1747 by Daniel-Charles Trudaine, it is one of the oldest and one of the most prestigious French Grandes Écoles, its primary mission has been to train engineering officials and civil engineers but the school now offers a wide-ranging education including computer science, applied mathematics, civil engineering, finance, innovation, urban studies and transport engineering. École des Ponts is today international: 43% of its students obtain a double degree abroad, 30% of an ingénieur cohort is foreign. It is headquartered in Marne-la-Vallée, is a founding member of ParisTech and of the Paris School of Economics; the school is under the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Energy of France. Following the creation of the Corps of Bridges and Roads in 1716, the King's Council decided in 1747 to found a specific training course for the state's engineers, as École royale des ponts et chaussées.
In 1775, the school took its current name as École nationale des ponts et chaussées, by Daniel-Charles Trudaine, in a moment when the state decided to set up a progressive and efficient control of the building of roads and canals, in the training of civil engineers. The school's first director, from 1747 until 1794, was Jean-Rodolphe Perronet, civil service administrator and a contributor to the Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert. Without lecturer, fifty students taught themselves geometry, algebra and hydraulics. Visits of building sites, cooperations with scientists and engineers and participation to the drawing of the map of the kingdom used to complete their training, four to twelve years long. During the First French Empire run by Napoleon I from 1804 to 1814, a number of members of the Corps of Bridges and Roads took part in the reconstruction of the French road network that had not been maintained during the Revolution, in large infrastructural developments, notably hydraulic projects.
Under the orders of the emperor, French scientist Gaspard Riche de Prony, second director of the school from 1798 to 1839, adapts the education provided by the school in order to improve the training of future civil engineers, whose purpose is to rebuild the major infrastructures of the country: roads, but administrative buildings and fortifications. Prony is now considered as a influential figure of the school. During the twenty years that followed the First Empire, the experience of the faculty and the alumni involved in the reconstruction influenced its training methods and internal organisation. In 1831, the school opens its first laboratory, which aims at concentrating the talents and experiences of the country's best civil engineers; the school gradually becomes a place of reflection and debates for urban planning. As a new step in the evolution of the school, the decree of 1851 insists on the organisation of the courses, the writing of an annual schedule, the quality of the faculty, the control of the students’ works.
For the first time in its history, the school opens its doors to a larger public. At this time, in France, the remarkable development of transports, roads and canals is influenced by engineers from the school, who modernised the country by creating the large traffic networks, admired in several European countries. After the Second World War, the school focused on developing the link between economics and engineering; as civil engineering was requiring higher financial investments, the state needed engineers to be able to understand the economic situation of post-war Europe. From on, the program of the school had three different aspects: scientific and technic and economic; the number of admitted students increased in order to provide both the Corps of Bridges and Roads and the private sector trained young engineers. At the time, technical progress and considerable development of sciences and techniques used in building and the protection of the environment imposed a change of strategy in the training programme.
More specialisations were progressively created and the overall programme was adapted to national issues. École des Ponts ParisTech offers high-level programmes in an extensive range of fields, with traditional competences in mathematics, computer science, civil engineering, economics, environment, town & regional planning and innovation. École des Ponts ParisTech is among the schools called "généralistes", which means that students receive a broad, management-oriented and non-specialised education. The school offers specialized/research masters and PhDs, it has opened a design school, with programmes in innovation and startup creation. This undergraduate-graduate engineering programme is the original and main programme offered by the school, it is quite different from typical university or college studies and specific to the French system of Grandes Écoles. The Ingénieur degree of École des Ponts – the Diplôme d'Ingénieur – is equivalent to a Master of Science. Admissions for engineering students is done
École nationale de l'aviation civile
The École nationale de l'aviation civile is one of the 207 schools that offers engineering degrees in France. ENAC has been classified as a Grande école by the Conférence des Grandes Écoles. Conférence des Grandes Écoles is a non-profit organisation which accredits and delivers the master's degrees of all Grandes écoles; the group of Grandes écoles in France, was founded on August 28, 1949 to provide initial and continuing education in the field of civil aviation. This university is a établissement public à caractère scientifique, culturel et professionnel and functions under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Housing, it is member of the following apart from Conférence des Grandes Écoles, University of Toulouse, Aerospace Valley and is one of the five founders of France AEROTECH. ENAC offers 30 engineering degrees in civil aviation/aeronautics; some of the most notable ones include aerospace engineering, aircraft technicians, commercial airline pilots licenses, air traffic control, flight instructors.
The university offers 3 masters of science programmes and 12 Advanced masters degrees for students with industry/relevant experience. In 1945 after the WWII, the French air transport industry witnessed a rapid growth. To ensure safety and compliance to regulations, there was a high demand for qualified staff, as well as a need to harmonise communications between various sectors of the aviation industry. ENAC was founded to address this issue. Among the founders was Max Hymans, the secretary general of civil and commercial aviation at the time, who played a prominent role in ENAC's creation. In the years following the Western Front, there was a distinct lack of unity within the civil aviation industry due to the recruitment of people with various backgrounds. In order to standardize backgrounds, many centers were created to train aeronautic personnel. Airfield commanders were trained in Orly while technical staff for air navigation were trained in Le Bourget. Wireless operators and radio technicians were trained in Orly, although under the Department of Telecommunications and Signaling, not connected directly to the world of aviation.
Technical managers were trained in engineering schools, including Arts et Métiers and the National School of Meteorology. Designers were trained by the École spéciale des travaux aéronautiques while aircrew were trained by other public or private institutions. ENAC's mission was to unify the training of all aviation personnel. Through Decree No. 49-970, the rules of the French public administration were laid down. A complete overhaul of the regulations applying to civil aviation officials was made, affecting the technical staff in particular. Several new bodies of civil servants were established: air traffic engineers, air navigation operation engineers, aerial telecommunication civil engineers, air traffic controllers, telecommunication controllers and air navigation agents; the creation of these new bodies was followed by a ministerial decision on 12 August 1948 that paved the way for the first recruitment by competitive examination. The examinations themselves were organized in October 1948.
Independently of these events, on 14 April 1948, the International Civil Aviation Organization established prerequisite conditions for air crew licensing, notably including a minimum number of flight hours for each category of aircraft pilots. Before adopting the name ENAC, the school was called a "service of education and internships" and was provided by the General secretariat for civil and commercial aviation; that contrasted with that the longstanding tradition of French civil service personnel being trained in higher education institutions called Grande écoles. Jules Moch, the Minister of Works and Tourism at the time, proposed the name: "École nationale de l'aviation marchande", a name, not chosen. ENAC was created on 28 August 1949 in Paris at the initiative of Max Hymans, Secretary General of Civil Aviation, Jules Moch. in order to train all the professionals of civil aeronautics and harmonize all the air transport stakeholders, aircrew or not, commercial or technical, including the civil services of civil aviation.
The university is located at Orly, south of Paris. René Lemaire considers ENAC as "a university of aviation safety"; this priority given to aviation safety is somehow consubstantial with ENAC, being the first reason for the training of future technicians and future airmen in a single university. As noted in a report of the Inspection générale de l'aviation civile, "It was in the minds of the creators of the university, to develop between the aircrew and the ground staff a community of ideas, reciprocal knowledge, esteem, that are essential for the teamwork required by air transport." However, it is doubtful that the "community of ideas" the author of the report wishes could be only expressed by the coexistence of different courses in the same university. Other factors work in opposite directions, including the significant disparity of durations of the training cycles. Thus, air navigation civil engineers of the branch "telecommunications" stays 30 months in the university. To realize the chemistry that, in the m
École nationale supérieure des mines de Nancy
Mines Nancy is one of the French generalist engineering Grandes Ecoles. It is located in the campus Artem, in the city of Nancy, Eastern France, is part of the University of Lorraine. Around 400 students are taught general science and management and 300 follow specialised Master programs; these students are taught by 60 permanent professors. There are 400 researchers including a hundred doctorants. Despite its small size, it is well represented in the French industry. Most of its students hold executive positions in the industry and large corporations or scientific research positions in France or abroad, it was created in 1919 on the request of the University of Nancy in order to contribute to the reconstruction of the mining and steel industry in the east of France after World War I. At the end of the 1950s, under the impulse of its then-director Bertrand Schwartz, the school reorganized its curriculum to include a balanced blend of engineering and social sciences. At the time, it was an innovative educational model for engineers, extended to other Grandes Ecoles.
The school was aimed at training mining engineers. In 1957, its director Bertrand Schwartz began its transformation into a modern "generalist" school; the school focuses on training innovative managers for the industry and researchers, with a broad generalist and high scientific knowledge, able to communicate in different languages. The Ingénieurs civils des Mines degree, is ranked among the best French Grande Ecole degrees. 20% of the students are international students from Morocco and China. In addition to the general science and management classes, the students have to specialise from their second year to the third year: "Département Matériaux" "Département Énergie" "Département Génie industriel" "Département Information et Systèmes" "Département Géoingénierie"; the students must learn English and at least another language. The students have to do at least three internships. Operator internship, whose aim is to discover the reality of work, become aware of the repetitive nature or physical difficulties of the tasks and understand human relations within a company.
Assistant-engineer internship. Engineer internship, the end of course thesis has to be research oriented; the engineer internship is an opportunity for the companies to hire the students. For students having taken studied in the Classe Préparatoire aux Grandes Ecoles, admission to the Ingénieur Civil des Mines degree is decided through a nationwide competitive examination and there origin is different: MP, PC, PSI... with a nombre of places for each option in 2015 is: MP: 54 PC: 32 PSI: 40 PT: 4 TSI: 3 CCP: 5 AST: 5It is possible for any student to be accepted for specialised masters or an exchange program in particular through the partnerships with other schools or universities in the world. Master's Degree in Mechanical Engineering. Master's Degree in Production Management. LSG2M: science and engineering of materials and metallurgy LSGS: science and engineering of surfaces LPM: physics of materials LAEGO: environment, buildings CRPG: petrography and geochemistry LORIA: computer science and its applications ERPI: innovative Processes The students of the ENSMN organize their own meeting with professionals, who present their companies and their activities.
The FORUM EST-HORIZON is the biggest meeting between the professional world and the students in the East of France. With 50 exhibitors covering a large variety of economic and industrial fields, the forum gathered last year more than 1000 students, looking for advice and internships. Jean-Claude Trichet, president of the European Central Bank from 2003 to 2011 Jacques Bouriez, chief executive officer of Louis Delhaize Group Patrick Cousot, professor at New York University Louis Doucet, chief executive officer of GE Money Bank Bertrand Méheut, chief executive officer of Canal+ group Amina Benkhadra, former Moroccan minister of energy, mines and environment since 2007. Kofi Yamgnane, mayor of Saint-Coulitz, mayor of Saint-Briac, French junior minister of social integration in 1991-1993 and deputy of Finistère in the French Parlement in 1997-2002, he ran for the 2010 Togolese presidential election. Philippe Guillemot, chief executive officer of AREVA T&D among its members: Anne Lauvergeon, chief executive officer of AREVA Claude Imauven, chief executive officer of Saint-Gobain PAM, chief executive officer of Saint-Gobain Jean-Yves Koch, managing director of Capgemini École nationale supérieure des Mines d'Albi Carmaux École nationale supérieure des Mines d'Alès École nationale supérieure des Mines de Douai École nationale supérieure des Mines de Nantes École nationale supérieure des Mines de Paris École nationale supérieure des Mines de Saint-Étienne École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Rabat Site of the école nationale supérieure des mines de Nancy Promotional site of
Logistics is the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation. In a general business sense, logistics is the management of the flow of things between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet requirements of customers or corporations; the resources managed in logistics can include physical items such as food, animals and liquids. The logistics of physical items involves the integration of information flow, materials handling, packaging, transportation and security. In military science, logistics is concerned with maintaining army supply lines while disrupting those of the enemy, since an armed force without resources and transportation is defenseless. Military logistics was practiced in the ancient world and as modern military have a significant need for logistics solutions, advanced implementations have been developed. In military logistics, logistics officers manage how and when to move resources to the places they are needed. Logistics management is the part of supply chain management that plans and controls the efficient, effective forward, reverse flow and storage of goods and related information between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet customer's requirements.
The complexity of logistics can be modeled, analyzed and optimized by dedicated simulation software. The minimization of the use of resources is a common motivation in all logistics fields. A professional working in the field of logistics management is called a logistician; the term logistics is attested in English from 1846, is from French: logistique, where it was either coined or popularized by military officer and writer Antoine-Henri Jomini, who defined it in his Summary of the Art of War. The term appears in the 1830 edition titled Analytic Table, Jomini explains that it is derived from French: logis, lit.'lodgings', in the terms French: maréchal des logis, lit.'marshall of lodgings' and French: major-général des logis, lit.'major-general of lodging': Autrefois les officiers de l’état-major se nommaient: maréchal des logis, major-général des logis. The officers of the general staff were named: marshall of lodgings, major-general of lodgings; the term is credited to Jomini, the term and its etymology criticized by Georges de Chambray in 1832, writing: Logistique: Ce mot me paraît être tout-à-fait nouveau, car je ne l'avais encore vu nulle part dans la littérature militaire.
… il paraît le faire dériver du mot logis, étymologie singulière … Logistic: This word appears to me to be new, as I have not yet see it anywhere in military literature. … he appears to derive it from the word lodgings, a peculiar etymology … Chambray notes that the term logistique was present in the Dictionnaire de l'Académie française as a synonym for algebra. The French word: logistique is a homonym of the existing mathematical term, from Ancient Greek: λογῐστῐκός, translit. Logistikós, a traditional division of Greek mathematics; some sources give this instead as the source of logistics, either ignorant of Jomini's statement that it was derived from logis, or dubious and instead believing it was in fact of Greek origin, or influenced by the existing term of Greek origin. Jomini defined logistics as:... L'art de bien ordonner les marches d'une armée, de bien combiner l'ordre des troupes dans les colonnes, les tems de leur départ, leur itinéraire, les moyens de communications nécessaires pour assurer leur arrivée à point nommé...... the art of well ordering the functionings of an army, of well combining the order of troops in columns, the times of their departure, their itinerary, the means of communication necessary to assure their arrival at a named point...
The Oxford English Dictionary defines logistics as "the branch of military science relating to procuring and transporting material and facilities". However, the New Oxford American Dictionary defines logistics as "the detailed coordination of a complex operation involving many people, facilities, or supplies", the Oxford Dictionary on-line defines it as "the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation"; as such, logistics is seen as a branch of engineering that creates "people systems" rather than "machine systems". According to the Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals, logistics is the process of planning and controlling procedures for the efficient and effective transportation and storage of goods including services and related information from the point of origin to the point of consumption for the purpose of conforming to customer requirements and includes inbound, outbound and external movements. Academics and practitioners traditionally refer to the terms operations or production management when referring to physical transformations taking place in a single business location and reserve the term logistics for activities related to distribution, that is, moving products on the territory.
Managing a distribution center is seen, therefore, as pertaining to the realm of logistics since, while in theory the products made by a factory are ready
French Ministry for the Economy and Finance
The Ministry for the Economy and Finance, called the Finance Ministry for short and informally referred to as Bercy, is one of the most important ministries in the Government of France. Its minister is one of the most prominent cabinet members after the Prime Minister. An other minister, who helps the Minister of the Economy, is a part of the Ministry, it is the Minister of the Public Account, it is not mandatory that there is a Minister of Public Accounts but this position has always been assured. The exact name of the ministry has changed over time, has included the terms "economy", "industry", "finances", or "employment" through history; the Minister of Finance oversees: the drafting of laws on taxation by exercising direct authority over the Tax Policy Board of the Departement of Public Finances the Department of Revenue. By her authority above the financial assets of the State, the financial and economic national system and the taxation rules, the Minister is allowed to represent France in the European Union council of the minister of the Economy and Finance.
The Minister for the Budget, Public Accounts, the Civil Service and State Reform supervises: the preparation of the finance law, submitted to Parliament for amendment and final approval. See: https://web.archive.org/web/20100712035129/http://www.budget.gouv.fr/ The French taxation system is supervised by two separate board: the Direction générale des Finances Publiques for tax evaluation and collecting taxes such as VAT or corporate tax, income tax or local taxes based on Estate locative value. The Direction générale des douanes et des droits indirects for customs, for tax on petrol and fuels and for special indirect taxes such as taxes on alcohol, etc.). By delegation of the Prime Minister, he supervises the Public Services and the modernisation of the State, he is responsible with their colleagues for Health and Sport and for Labour, Labour Relations and Solidarity of the equilibrium of social accounts. See: https://web.archive.org/web/20070929104359/http://www.minefi.gouv.fr/directions_services/sircom/ministere/organigramme_mbcpfp.htm The Ministry of Finance is situated in Bercy, in the 12th arrondissement of Paris.
The building extends to the Seine River, where there is an embarcadero with fast river boats for faster liaisons to other government agencies. That is why the French media refer to it as "Bercy"; the sentence the Bercy Fortress refers to the Ministry as a dark department with obtuse civil servants of high rank. That is emphasized by the impressive look of the building. For evident practical reasons, the two ministers share the building and some common services that were under the former ministry of Economy and Industry. List of Finance Ministers of France Superintendent of Finances - French Minister of Finance 1561–1661 Controller-General of Finances - French Minister of Finance 1661–1791 Composition of Government Common site of the two ministries The French taxation site