The Paris Graduate School of Digital Innovation European Institute of Information Technology in English is a private institution of higher education in general computer science, founded in 1999. Headquartered in Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, south of Paris, the school has campuses in Bordeaux, Marseille, Lyon, Nancy, Nice, Strasbourg and Saint-André, Réunion; the school has locations in Barcelona, Tirana and Brussels. The school has the particularity to teach with practical cases instead of theoretical.. Epitech has an Executive MBA in IT and entrepreneurship course targeting executive managers in computer science; the institution is part of IONIS Education Group. Epitech was created in 1999, taking advantage of the keen interest of the École Pour l'Informatique et les Techniques Avancées EPITA to train students with a specific interest for computer sciences related matter only. In 2007, Epitech opened new campuses in Casablanca, Bordeaux, Lyon, Nantes and Toulouse. Since January 2008, the degree delivered has been recognized by the Commission nationale de la certification professionnelle, as level 1.
In 2008, the campuses of Nice, Nancy and Rennes were opened. In early 2013, Epitech announced it would open a campus in Beijing, China in September 2013 and further international branches in California, United Kingdom and Spain by September 2014. EPITECH has partnered with the Zup de Co association to create the Web@cademie, a 2-year training free for students without the French Baccalaureate and with a strong motivation in computer science; this course has the goal to attain a job of software developer for young people who have stopped their regular studies. They are trained by EPITECH teachers in Lyon. Solomon Hykes, CEO of Docker, Inc..
Mathematics includes the study of such topics as quantity, structure and change. Mathematicians use patterns to formulate new conjectures; when mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back; the research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or centuries of sustained inquiry. Rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclid's Elements. Since the pioneering work of Giuseppe Peano, David Hilbert, others on axiomatic systems in the late 19th century, it has become customary to view mathematical research as establishing truth by rigorous deduction from appropriately chosen axioms and definitions. Mathematics developed at a slow pace until the Renaissance, when mathematical innovations interacting with new scientific discoveries led to a rapid increase in the rate of mathematical discovery that has continued to the present day.
Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, medicine and the social sciences. Applied mathematics has led to new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics and game theory. Mathematicians engage in pure mathematics without having any application in mind, but practical applications for what began as pure mathematics are discovered later; the history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions. The first abstraction, shared by many animals, was that of numbers: the realization that a collection of two apples and a collection of two oranges have something in common, namely quantity of their members; as evidenced by tallies found on bone, in addition to recognizing how to count physical objects, prehistoric peoples may have recognized how to count abstract quantities, like time – days, years. Evidence for more complex mathematics does not appear until around 3000 BC, when the Babylonians and Egyptians began using arithmetic and geometry for taxation and other financial calculations, for building and construction, for astronomy.
The most ancient mathematical texts from Mesopotamia and Egypt are from 2000–1800 BC. Many early texts mention Pythagorean triples and so, by inference, the Pythagorean theorem seems to be the most ancient and widespread mathematical development after basic arithmetic and geometry, it is in Babylonian mathematics that elementary arithmetic first appear in the archaeological record. The Babylonians possessed a place-value system, used a sexagesimal numeral system, still in use today for measuring angles and time. Beginning in the 6th century BC with the Pythagoreans, the Ancient Greeks began a systematic study of mathematics as a subject in its own right with Greek mathematics. Around 300 BC, Euclid introduced the axiomatic method still used in mathematics today, consisting of definition, axiom and proof, his textbook Elements is considered the most successful and influential textbook of all time. The greatest mathematician of antiquity is held to be Archimedes of Syracuse, he developed formulas for calculating the surface area and volume of solids of revolution and used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under the arc of a parabola with the summation of an infinite series, in a manner not too dissimilar from modern calculus.
Other notable achievements of Greek mathematics are conic sections, trigonometry (Hipparchus of Nicaea, the beginnings of algebra. The Hindu–Arabic numeral system and the rules for the use of its operations, in use throughout the world today, evolved over the course of the first millennium AD in India and were transmitted to the Western world via Islamic mathematics. Other notable developments of Indian mathematics include the modern definition of sine and cosine, an early form of infinite series. During the Golden Age of Islam during the 9th and 10th centuries, mathematics saw many important innovations building on Greek mathematics; the most notable achievement of Islamic mathematics was the development of algebra. Other notable achievements of the Islamic period are advances in spherical trigonometry and the addition of the decimal point to the Arabic numeral system. Many notable mathematicians from this period were Persian, such as Al-Khwarismi, Omar Khayyam and Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī. During the early modern period, mathematics began to develop at an accelerating pace in Western Europe.
The development of calculus by Newton and Leibniz in the 17th century revolutionized mathematics. Leonhard Euler was the most notable mathematician of the 18th century, contributing numerous theorems and discoveries; the foremost mathematician of the 19th century was the German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss, who made numerous contributions to fields such as algebra, differential geometry, matrix theory, number theory, statistics. In the early 20th century, Kurt Gödel transformed mathematics by publishing his incompleteness theorems, which show that any axiomatic system, consistent will contain unprovable propositions. Mathematics has since been extended, there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to
École pour l'informatique et les techniques avancées
The École Pour l'Informatique et les Techniques Avancées, more known as EPITA is a private French Grande École specialized in the field of computer science and software engineering created in 1984 by Patrice Dumoucel. It is a private engineering school, member since 1994 of IONIS Education Group, accredited by the Commission des titres d'ingénieur to deliver the French Diplôme d'Ingénieur, based at Le Kremlin-Bicêtre south of Paris. In June 2013, EPITA becomes member of the Union of Independent Grandes Écoles, which includes 30 grandes écoles; the school is part of IONIS Education Group. The first two years of studies are preparatory years. During these two years, students study mathematics and electronics as well as algorithmics and computer science; the third year is the first year of engineering studies, where students learn the fundamentals in information technology and software engineering. This year is famous for its first month, during which students will be asked to make several projects, which lead them to code more than 15 hours per day.
Third year students are known to say that "sleeping is cheating" and remember this year as their most painstaking year at EPITA. During the fourth and fifth years students have to choose one of the eight majors: SRS, Systèmes, Réseaux et Sécurité MTI, Multimédia et Technologies de l'Information SCIA, Sciences Cognitives et Informatique Avancée GISTRE, Génie Informatique des Systèmes Temps Réel et Embarqués SIGL, Systèmes d’Information et Génie Logiciel TCOM, Télécommunications CSI, Calcul Scientifique et Image GITM, Global IT Management Official website The Multimedia and Information Technology major The Information Systems and Software Engineering major The Systems and Security major The Research and Development laboratory The Systems and Security laboratory The Innovation laboratory
Management is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural and human resources; the term "management" may refer to those people who manage an organization. Social scientists study management as an academic discipline, investigating areas such as social organization and organizational leadership; some people study management at universities. Individuals who aim to become management specialists or experts, management researchers, or professors may complete the Doctor of Management, the Doctor of Business Administration, or the PhD in Business Administration or Management. Larger organizations have three levels of managers, which are organized in a hierarchical, pyramid structure: Senior managers, such as members of a Board of Directors and a Chief Executive Officer or a President of an organization.
They set the strategic goals of the organization and make decisions on how the overall organization will operate. Senior managers are executive-level professionals, provide direction to middle management who directly or indirectly report to them. Middle managers, examples of these would include branch managers, regional managers, department managers and section managers, who provide direction to front-line managers. Middle managers communicate the strategic goals of senior management to the front-line managers. Lower managers, such as supervisors and front-line team leaders, oversee the work of regular employees and provide direction on their work. In smaller organizations, an individual manager may have a much wider scope. A single manager may perform several roles or all of the roles observed in a large organization. Views on the definition and scope of management include: According to Henri Fayol, "to manage is to forecast and to plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control."
Fredmund Malik defines it as "the transformation of resources into utility." Management included as one of the factors of production – along with machines and money. Ghislain Deslandes defines it as “a vulnerable force, under pressure to achieve results and endowed with the triple power of constraint and imagination, operating on subjective, interpersonal and environmental levels”. Peter Drucker saw the basic task of management as twofold: innovation. Innovation is linked to marketing. Peter Drucker identifies marketing as a key essence for business success, but management and marketing are understood as two different branches of business administration knowledge. Management involves identifying the mission, procedures and manipulation of the human capital of an enterprise to contribute to the success of the enterprise; this implies effective communication: an enterprise environment implies human motivation and implies some sort of successful progress or system outcome. As such, management is not the manipulation of a mechanism, not the herding of animals, can occur either in a legal or in an illegal enterprise or environment.
From an individual's perspective, management does not need to be seen from an enterprise point of view, because management is an essential function to improve one's life and relationships. Management is therefore everywhere and it has a wider range of application. Based on this, management must have humans. Communication and a positive endeavor are two main aspects of it either through enterprise or independent pursuit. Plans, motivational psychological tools and economic measures may or may not be necessary components for there to be management. At first, one views management functionally, such as measuring quantity, adjusting plans, meeting goals; this applies in situations where planning does not take place. From this perspective, Henri Fayol considers management to consist of five functions: planning organizing commanding coordinating controllingIn another way of thinking, Mary Parker Follett defined management as "the art of getting things done through people", she described management as philosophy.
Critics, find this definition useful but far too narrow. The phrase "management is what managers do" occurs suggesting the difficulty of defining management without circularity, the shifting nature of definitions and the connection of managerial practices with the existence of a managerial cadre or of a class. One habit of thought regards management as equivalent to "business administration" and thus excludes management in places outside commerce, as for example in charities and in the public sector. More broadly, every organization must "manage" its work, processes, etc. to maximize effectiveness. Nonetheless, many people refer to university departments that teach management as "business schools"; some such institutions use that name, while others employ the broader term "management". English-speakers may use the term
The baccalauréat known in France colloquially as bac, is an academic qualification that French students are required to take to graduate high school. Introduced by Napoleon I in 1808, it is the main diploma, required to pursue university studies. Similar university entrance qualifications exist elsewhere in Europe, variously known as Bachillerato in Germany and Italy, Bachillerato in Spain and South America as well as Baccalaureus in the Netherlands and Sweden. There is the European Baccalaureate, which students take at the end of the European School education, it gives access to a wide range of university education. It differs from British A levels and Scottish Highers but is similar to a US two-year college diploma in that it is earned comprehensively and can be obtained in streams requiring a high level in a number of different subjects, depending on the stream; the general streams are Sciences and Social Sciences and Literature. Much like British A levels or European Matura, the baccalauréat allows French and international students to obtain a standardised qualification at the age of 18.
It qualifies holders to work in certain areas, go on to tertiary education, or acquire some other professional qualification or training. Although it is not required, the vast majority of students in their final year of secondary school take a final exam. Unlike some US high school diplomas, this exam is not for lycée completion but university entrance; the word bac is used to refer to one of the end-of-year exams that students must pass to get their baccalauréat diploma: le bac de philo, for example, is the philosophy exam, which all students must take, regardless of their field of study. Within France, there are three main types of baccalauréat: the baccalauréat général. For entrance to regular universities within France, there are some restrictions as to the type of baccalauréat that can be presented. In some cases, it may be possible to enter a French university without the bac by taking a special exam, the diploma for entrance to higher education. Though most students take the bac at the end of secondary school, it is possible to enter as a candidat libre without affiliation to a school.
Students who did not take the bac upon completion of secondary school and would like to attend university, or feel that the bac would help them accomplish professional aspirations, may exercise that option. The exam is the same as the one administered to secondary-school students except that free candidates are tested in Physical Education, but students' Physical Education grade is calculated based on evaluation throughout the year; the students who sit for the baccalauréat général choose one of three streams in the penultimate lycée year. Each stream carries different weights associated with each subject. Another terminology is sometimes used, which existed before 1994 and further divided the different séries; until it was possible to sit for a bac C or D, B, or A1, A2, A3. People who passed the baccalauréat before the reform still use that terminology in referring their diploma. However, the streams for the baccalauréat général are now as follows: The baccalauréat permits students to choose to sit for exams in over forty world languages or French regional languages.
The S stream prepares students for work in scientific fields such as medicine and the natural sciences. Natural sciences students must specialise in either Mathematics, Physics & Chemistry, Computer science or Earth & Life Sciences. Students of the Baccalauréat économique et social prepare for careers in the social sciences, in Philosophy in management and business administration, in economics; the subject Economics & Social Sciences is the most weighed and is only offered in this stream. History & Geography and Mathematics are important subjects in ES. Students in the L stream prepare for careers in the humanities such as education, literature, law and public service, they have interests in the arts. The most important subjects in the literary stream are Philosophy and French language and literature and other languages English and Spanish; the majority of the baccalauréat examination takes place in a week in June. For lycée students, the end of the last year, terminale. Most examinations are given in essay-form.
The student is given a substantial block of time to complete a well-argued paper. The number of pages varies from exam to exam but is substantial considering all answers have to be written down and justified. Mathematics and science exams are problem sets but some science questions require an essay-type answer. Foreign-language exams have a short translation section, as well. In the S stream, the Mathematics and the Earth & Life Sciences examinations sometimes contain some multiple-choice questions. All students have to work on a scientific research project; those are conducted in groups of 2, 3 or 4 and focus on a subject determined by the students, under the supervision of a faculty member. When taken in mainland France, the baccalauréat material is the same for all students in a given stream. Secrecy surrounding the material is tight, a
Mairie d'Ivry (Paris Métro)
Mairie d'Ivry is a station of the Paris Métro, serving Line 7 in the commune of Ivry-sur-Seine, opened on 1 May 1946, when the line was extended from Porte d'Ivry. The station serves as the southeastern terminus of Paris Métro Line 7
Computer science is the study of processes that interact with data and that can be represented as data in the form of programs. It enables the use of algorithms to manipulate and communicate digital information. A computer scientist studies the theory of computation and the practice of designing software systems, its fields can be divided into practical disciplines. Computational complexity theory is abstract, while computer graphics emphasizes real-world applications. Programming language theory considers approaches to the description of computational processes, while computer programming itself involves the use of programming languages and complex systems. Human–computer interaction considers the challenges in making computers useful and accessible; the earliest foundations of what would become computer science predate the invention of the modern digital computer. Machines for calculating fixed numerical tasks such as the abacus have existed since antiquity, aiding in computations such as multiplication and division.
Algorithms for performing computations have existed since antiquity before the development of sophisticated computing equipment. Wilhelm Schickard designed and constructed the first working mechanical calculator in 1623. In 1673, Gottfried Leibniz demonstrated a digital mechanical calculator, called the Stepped Reckoner, he may be considered the first computer scientist and information theorist, among other reasons, documenting the binary number system. In 1820, Thomas de Colmar launched the mechanical calculator industry when he released his simplified arithmometer, the first calculating machine strong enough and reliable enough to be used daily in an office environment. Charles Babbage started the design of the first automatic mechanical calculator, his Difference Engine, in 1822, which gave him the idea of the first programmable mechanical calculator, his Analytical Engine, he started developing this machine in 1834, "in less than two years, he had sketched out many of the salient features of the modern computer".
"A crucial step was the adoption of a punched card system derived from the Jacquard loom" making it infinitely programmable. In 1843, during the translation of a French article on the Analytical Engine, Ada Lovelace wrote, in one of the many notes she included, an algorithm to compute the Bernoulli numbers, considered to be the first computer program. Around 1885, Herman Hollerith invented the tabulator, which used punched cards to process statistical information. In 1937, one hundred years after Babbage's impossible dream, Howard Aiken convinced IBM, making all kinds of punched card equipment and was in the calculator business to develop his giant programmable calculator, the ASCC/Harvard Mark I, based on Babbage's Analytical Engine, which itself used cards and a central computing unit; when the machine was finished, some hailed it as "Babbage's dream come true". During the 1940s, as new and more powerful computing machines were developed, the term computer came to refer to the machines rather than their human predecessors.
As it became clear that computers could be used for more than just mathematical calculations, the field of computer science broadened to study computation in general. In 1945, IBM founded the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in New York City; the renovated fraternity house on Manhattan's West Side was IBM's first laboratory devoted to pure science. The lab is the forerunner of IBM's Research Division, which today operates research facilities around the world; the close relationship between IBM and the university was instrumental in the emergence of a new scientific discipline, with Columbia offering one of the first academic-credit courses in computer science in 1946. Computer science began to be established as a distinct academic discipline in the 1950s and early 1960s; the world's first computer science degree program, the Cambridge Diploma in Computer Science, began at the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory in 1953. The first computer science degree program in the United States was formed at Purdue University in 1962.
Since practical computers became available, many applications of computing have become distinct areas of study in their own rights. Although many believed it was impossible that computers themselves could be a scientific field of study, in the late fifties it became accepted among the greater academic population, it is the now well-known IBM brand that formed part of the computer science revolution during this time. IBM released the IBM 704 and the IBM 709 computers, which were used during the exploration period of such devices. "Still, working with the IBM was frustrating if you had misplaced as much as one letter in one instruction, the program would crash, you would have to start the whole process over again". During the late 1950s, the computer science discipline was much in its developmental stages, such issues were commonplace. Time has seen significant improvements in the effectiveness of computing technology. Modern society has seen a significant shift in the users of computer technology, from usage only by experts and professionals, to a near-ubiquitous user base.
Computers were quite costly, some degree of humanitarian aid was needed for efficient use—in part from professional computer operators. As computer adoption became more widespread and affordable, less human assistance was needed for common usage. Despite its short history as a formal academic discipline, computer science has made a number of fundamental contributions to science and society—in fact, along with electronics, it is