The Robinson R44 is a four-seat light helicopter produced by Robinson Helicopter Company since 1992. Based on the company's two-seat Robinson R22, the R44 features hydraulically assisted flight controls, it was first flown on 31 March 1990 and received FAA certification in December 1992, with the first delivery in February 1993. The R44 has been the world's best-selling general aviation helicopter every year since 1999, it is the most-produced GA aircraft of the 21st century, with 5,805 deliveries from 2000–2017. The R44 is a single-engined helicopter with a semi-rigid two-bladed main rotor, a two-bladed tail rotor and a skid landing gear, it has an enclosed cabin with two rows of side-by-side seating for three passengers. Tail rotor direction of rotation on the R44 is reversed compared to the R22 for improved yaw control authority. On the R44 the advancing blade is on the bottom. Designed during the 1980s by Frank Robinson and his staff of engineers, the R44 first flew on 31 March 1990; the R44 Astro was awarded an FAA Type Certificate in December 1992, with the first deliveries taking place in January 1993.
The first R44 Newscopter featuring onboard electronic news gathering equipment was delivered in 1998. In January 2000, Robinson introduced the Raven with hydraulically assisted controls and adjustable pedals. In July 2002, Robinson introduced the Raven II featuring a more powerful, fuel-injected engine and wider blades, allowing a higher gross weight and improved altitude performance. During November 2015 Robinson announced the Cadet, a Raven I with a cargo area instead of the two back seats, a less powerful engine and a more efficient muffler. Robinson has carried out ground run testing with an aircraft diesel engine that could replace its Lycoming IO-540 avgas engine; the diesel could provide better altitude performance, a fuel burn reduced from 16 to 12 US gal per hour and better fuel availability. The aircraft is operated by many private individuals and flying clubs. In 1997, a Robinson R44 was piloted by Jennifer Murray for the first helicopter circumnavigation of the world by a woman, covering a distance of 36,000 miles in 97 days.
As of 2014, an R44 holds the piston speed record of 227 km/h. BoliviaBolivian Air Force Dominican RepublicDominican Republic Army EstoniaEstonian Air Force JordanRoyal Jordanian Air Force LebanonLebanese Air Force MexicoMexican Navy NicaraguaNicaraguan Air Force PeruPeruvian Army PhilippinesPhilippine National Police Russia Forest Protection Service South AfricaSouth African Police Service Air Wing ThailandRoyal Thai Army United StatesAlaska State Troopers UruguayPolice of Uruguay The R44 was found to be prone to post-accident fires due to damage to the aluminum fuel tanks, allowing fuel to leak out. In 2009, the company began installing bladder-type fuel tanks in all new R44 helicopters, it issued Service Bulletin SB-78 on 20 December 2010, requiring R44 helicopters with all-aluminum fuel tanks to be retrofitted with bladder-type tanks to "improve the R44's fuel system's resistance to a post-accident fuel leak." The company recommended that the change should be done as soon as practical, but no than 31 December 2014.
The compliance date was moved to 30 April 2013. An accident investigation by the Australian Transport Safety Bureau in March 2013 found, after analyzing historical data, that a higher proportion of R44 aircraft caught fire after crashing, compared to accidents involving other types of piston-engine helicopters. Preliminary analysis by the ATSB of the NTSB's accident database found a similar statistic, with 15% of accidents in the US involving R44 helicopters having post-crash fires. Although the data did not consider which type of fuel tanks were fitted, the report mentioned four fatal accidents to the R44 fitted with bladder-type tanks, but as far as they knew, did not involve a post-accident fire; the ATSB recommended that the Australian Civil Aviation Safety Authority take further action to urge R44 owners to fit bladder-type tanks. The FAA, the governing body in the country of manufacture whose directives would be followed in other countries like Australia, had not mandated the retrofit.
On 19 February 2015, the New Zealand Civil Aviation Authority issued an Airworthiness Directive grounding 80 of the country's R44 helicopters after two people were killed in an accident traced to a particular type of main rotor blade, the P/N C016-7 or Dash 7, which a preliminary investigation determined had failed in flight - the second failure or partial failure in two months. This was the largest-scale grounding of any aircraft in New Zealand's history; the CAA determined through laboratory tests that the rotor blade had failed due to overload during the crash and was not the cause of the accident and the fleet was ungrounded on 24 February 2015. The CAA left the Airworthiness Directive requiring repetitive inspections in place, however. Director of Civil Aviation Graeme Harris stated, "we don’t want to see any complacency amongst operators as there is still a concern with these blades and we are waiting on test results from the USA before we review the Airworthiness notice." Following the grounding in New Zealand, Australia's Civil Aviation Safety Authority grounded R44 helicopters with the same rotor blades.
Data from Robinson R44 Raven II Pilot's Operating Handbook and FAA approved rotorcraft flight manual, dated 13 June 2005. General characteristics Crew: one or two pilots Capacity: four, including pilot Payload: 748 lb Length: 38 ft 3 in Rotor diameter: 33 ft Tail rotor diameter: 4 ft 10 in ) Height: 10 ft 9 in Empty weight: 14
The Canadair CL-415 is an amphibious aircraft based on the Canadair CL-215 and designed for aerial firefighting, built by Canadair Bombardier. In 1987, following market trends towards more efficient and reliable turboprop powerplants, Canadair undertook the task of retrofitting 17 CL-215 airframes with the Pratt & Whitney Canada PW123AF engines, providing a 15% power increase over the original piston engines, as well as enhanced reliability and safety; the retrofitted aircraft were designated CL-215T and featured many aerodynamic and systems improvements including powered flight controls, cockpit air conditioning, as well as upgraded electrical and avionics systems. The most notable external features of the CL-215T retrofit were the aerodynamic additions to the wings and empennage. Based on the success of the CL-215, the company introduced the CL-415, a new-build production series beginning in 1993; the CL-415 first flew on December 6, 1993, with the first deliveries in November 1994. Orders from several countries soon followed.
The CL-415 was assembled at the Bombardier Aerospace facility near North Bay/Jack Garland Airport in North Bay and tested on Lake Nipissing. On June 20, 2016, Viking Air purchased the CL-415 type certificate from Bombardier along with the older CL-215 and CL-215T; the acquisition was finalised on 3 October. The CL-415 has an updated cockpit, aerodynamics enhancements and changes to the water-release system as well, creating a modern firefighting amphibious flying boat for use in detecting and suppressing forest fires. Compared to the CL-215, the CL-415 has increased operating weight and speed, yielding improved productivity and performance; the 415 can scoop up to 6,140 litres of water from a nearby water source, mix it with a chemical foam if desired, drop it on a fire without having to return to base to refill its tanks. The CL-415 was developed to provide the capability to deliver large quantities of suppressant in quick response to fires; the aircraft is built with use of corrosion-resistant materials.
The new 415GR has higher operating weights, while the CL-415 multi-role is available for use in a paramilitary search and rescue role and utility transport. The aircraft requires 1,340 metres of flyable area to descend from 15 metres altitude, scoop 6,137 litres of water during a twelve-second 410-metre-long run on the water at 70 knots climb back to 15 m altitude; the aircraft can pick up partial loads in smaller areas and can turn while scooping, if necessary. Derived from its predecessor's nickname, it acquired the name, "Super Scooper" in light of its enhanced performance as a water bomber and fire suppresser. In recognition of its abilities, the aircraft was awarded the Batefuegos de oro by the Asociacion para la Promocion de Actividades Socioculturales; the award citation in part read "This is the most efficient tool for the aerial combat of forest fires, key to the organization of firefighting in a large number of countries. The continuous improvements to meet the needs of forest firefighting have made these aircraft the aerial means most in demand over more than 30 years."Of the 95 built, seven have been removed from service due to accidents.
CL-415 The original model, 86 built. CL-415MP Maritime patrol version, 3 built. CL-415GR Improved version for the Hellenic Air Force, 6 built. In 2018, there were CL-415s in 11 countries. Data from VikingGeneral characteristics Crew: 2 Capacity: 6,137 l / 1,621 USG, up to 18 paratroops, up to 2903 kg of cargo Length: 20.4 m Wingspan: 28.38 m Height: 9.01 m Wing area: 100 m2 Aspect ratio: 8.03 Empty weight: 13,608 kg Gross weight: 21,319 kg Maximum After-scooping Weight Max takeoff weight: 19,890 kg Firefighting, Land Fuel capacity: 4,650 kg / 10,250 lb Cabin volume: 35.6 m3 Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney Canada PW123AF turboprop, 1,775 kW each ISA+20ºC Flat rated Propellers: 4-bladed Hamilton Sunstrand 14SF-19, 3.97 m diameter Fully reversible, feathering bladesPerformance Maximum speed: 359 km/h Max Cruise Cruise speed: 333 km/h Normal Cruise Stall speed: 126 km/h MLW, Landing Configuration Ferry range: 2,427 km 278 km/h / 140 kn Long Range Cruise Endurance: 3 hours at 200 nmi from base g limits: +3.25 g to -1.0 g Rate of climb: 5.9 m/s Wing loading: 212.5 kg/m2 Maximum After-scooping Takeoff: 783 m / 2570 ft, 814 m / 2670 ft Landing: 674 m / 2210 ft, 665 m / 2180 ft Avionics Honeywell EFIS, Primus II Nav/Comm Radio System, VOR, ILS, MKR, ADF, DME, AA-300 Radio Altimeter Parker Gull IIDS Litef AHRS Collins HF-230 HF Communications System Global Wulfsberg RT-5000 VHF/FM Dorne & Margolin ELT CIC / Aerosonic Air Data Computing System Related development Canadair CL-215Aircraft of comparable role and era Beriev Be-12 Beriev Be-200 Harbin PS-5 ShinMaywa US-2 Airliners.net The Canadair CL-215 & 415 Bombardier's homepage of the SuperScooper Canadair CL-415MP
MBB Bo 105
The Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm Bo 105 is a light, twin-engine, multi-purpose helicopter developed by Bölkow of Ottobrunn, West Germany. It holds the distinction of being the first light twin-engine helicopter in the world, is the first rotorcraft that could perform aerobatic maneuvers such as inverted loops; the Bo 105 features a revolutionary hingeless rotor system, at that time a pioneering innovation in helicopters when it was introduced into service in 1970. Production of the Bo 105 began at the then-recently merged Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm; the main production facilities for producing the Bo 105 were located in Canada. MBB became a part of Eurocopter in 1991, who continued production of the type until 2001; the Bo 105 was formally replaced in Eurocopter's product range by the newer Eurocopter EC135, itself a development of the Bo 105. In 1964, development work began at Bölkow upon the helicopter that would become the Bo 105, although work on the hingeless rotor it would use had begun earlier.
On 16 February 1967, the second Bo 105A prototype conducted its maiden flight at Ottobrunn in Germany. The test program was broken down into stages as the Bo 105 comprised a new airframe, new rotor system, a new engine. Sud Aviation worked with Bölkow on developing the rotorcraft; the third Bo 105 prototype was equipped with the initial production standard MAN Turbo 6022 turboshaft engines. On 13 October 1970, the German Civil Aviation Authority certified the Bo 105. In 1972, further type certification was granted by the Federal Aviation Administration and the Civil Aviation Authority, enabling export orders from the United States and Britain which soon followed. In 1972, an improved version of the rotorcraft with more powerful engines, the Bo 105C, was developed, this model superseded the Bo 105A. On 25 September 1973, the prototype Bo 106 performed its first flight. However, nothing further came of the Bo 106 project. In 1976, the Bo 105CB, equipped with more powerful Allison 250-C20B engines, was introduced.
The Bo 105C was further developed to become the Bo 105CBS, the primary change being a fuselage stretch of 10 inches to meet American demand for emergency medical service operations. US aerospace firm Boeing-Vertol served as a partner in the type's production and further development, marketed the BO 105 in the US; the Bo 105 CB and the Bo 105 CBS variants were subject to license manufacturing agreements, leading to them being produced by the Philippine Aerospace Development Corporation in the Philippines, Indonesian Aerospace in Indonesia, Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA in Spain in addition to the main production line in Germany. In 1984, the Bo 105LS was developed with the enlarged fuselage of the Bo 105CBS combined with more powerful Allison 250-C28C engines to increase the maximum take-off weight as well as hot-and-high flight performance. Improvements and modifications to the Bo 105 LS continued until 1995. Production of the Bo 105 by Eurocopter formally ended in 2001, principally due to the type having been superseded by the more modern Eurocopter EC135, itself a direct development from the Bo 105.
By the end of production, 1,406 rotorcraft had been manufactured and delivered to operators in 55 nations worldwide. The Bo 105 has a reputation for having high levels of maneuverability. During the 1970s, the Bo 105 was known for having a great useful load capacity and higher cruise speed than the majority of its competitors. While not being considered a visually attractive helicopter by some pilots, the Bo 105 was known for possessing steady, responsive controls and a good flight attitude. Most models could perform steep dives, loops and various aerobatic maneuvers. One benefit of the Bo 105's handling and control style is superior takeoff performance, including significant resistance to catastrophic dynamic rollover; the most significant feature of the Bo 105 is its rotor blades and rotor head. The rotor system is hingeless, the rotor head consisting of a solid titanium block to which the four blades are bolted; the rotor blades are made from reinforced-plastic glass-fiber composite material.
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Dassault Mirage 2000
The Dassault Mirage 2000 is a French multirole, single-engine fourth-generation jet fighter manufactured by Dassault Aviation. It was designed in the late 1970s as a lightweight fighter to replace the Mirage III for the French Air Force; the Mirage 2000 evolved into a multirole aircraft with several variants developed, with sales to a number of nations. It was developed into the Mirage 2000N and 2000D strike variants, the improved Mirage 2000-5 and several export variants. Over 600 aircraft were built and it has been in service with nine nations; the origins of the Mirage 2000 could be traced back to 1965, when France was involved with Britain "Anglo-French Variable Geometry" swing-wing aircraft. Two years the country withdrew from the project on grounds of costs, after which Britain would collaborate with Western Germany and Italy to produce the Panavia Tornado, Dassault focused its energy on its own variable-geometry aircraft, the Dassault Mirage G experimental prototype; the design was expected to materialise in the Mirage G8, which would serve as the replacement for the popular Mirage III in French Air Force service.
The Mirage 2000 started out as a project of secondary project tentatively named "Delta 1000" in 1972. Dassault at the time was devoting considerable attention on a more ambitious design, the Mirage G8A, a fixed-geometry derivative of the Mirage G8 that served as the competitor to the Panavia Tornado; the Mirage G8, envisioned as the "Avion de Combat Futur" of the French Air Force, did not align with the service's conception of its future aircraft. More the AdA wanted a Mach 3 fighter, not an interdictor aircraft incapable of dogfighting, the Mirage G8; as such, Dassault redesigned the Mirage G8 into the two-engine Super Mirage G8A that would prove to be ambitious and expensive, being two and a half times the price of the Mirage F1, over-engineered compared to the F-16 that had just won orders from a number of European countries. During a meeting of the National Defence Council on 18 December 1975, the Super Mirage was cancelled; the ACF was a strike aircraft first and an interceptor second, while the Delta 2000 was the reverse, but the single-engine Delta 2000 was much more affordable.
At the same meeting, what was now redesignated as the Mirage 2000 was offered to the AdA and three prototypes were ordered. The AdA in March 1976 would issue a set of official requirements whose parameters matched that of Dassault's performance estimates of the new fighter; the aircraft's primary role was interception with a secondary ground-attack capability. The first aircraft was to be delivered in 1982; this was a return to the first generation Mirages, but with several important innovations that tried to solve their shortcomings. The production of the Mirage 2000 involves three construction sites, all located in Bordeaux, that specialise in different components; the wings are built at Martignas, the fuselages are fabricated at Argenteuil, with final assembly taking place at Bordeaux-Merignac. However, the first prototype, Mirage 2000 No. 01, was hand built before being moved to Dassault's Istres facility for assembly. At the hands of Jean Coureau, No. 01 made its first flight on 10 March 1978, a mere 27 months after the programme go-ahead.
During the 65-minute flight, Coureau took the aircraft to Mach 1.02 without afterburner, before climbing to more than 12,000 m and accelerating the aircraft to Mach 1.3. By the end of May, the aircraft had surpassed an indicated airspeed of 650 knots. On the other end of the speed spectrum, the Mirage 2000 proved to be a capable low-speed aircraft, as demonstrated at the Farnborough Air Show in September 1978, during which Dassault pilot Guy Mitaux-Maurourd raised the aircraft's nose to 25° angle of attack as the aircraft slowed to 100 knots. Tests showed that the aircraft could attain 30° AoA while carrying fuel tanks and weapons; the second prototype, No. 02, made its 50-minute first flight in September 1978 at the controls of Maurourd. The aircraft was tasked with the testing of some of the avionics systems and the carriage of weapons. Due to a flame out while on a landing approach, the aircraft was lost in May 1984. No. 03 would make its first flight in April 1979. After 400 hours of flight, they were sent to CEV.
Although three prototypes were ordered in December 1975, Dassault constructed an additional fourth single-seat demonstrator for its own purposes, which embodied lessons on the earlier aircraft, namely the reduction in fin height and an increased fin sweep, redesigned air inlets and FBW system. The only dual-seat Mirage 2000B of the test programme first flew on 11 October 1980; the first production Mirage 2000C flew on 20 November 1982. Deliveries to the AdA began in 1983; the first 37 Mirage 2000Cs delivered were fitted with the Thomson-CSF RDM and were powered by the SNECMA M53-5 turbofan engine. The 38th Mirage 2000C had an upgraded SNECMA M53-5 P2 turbofan engine; the Radar Doppler Impulse built by Thales for the Mirage 2000C entered service in 1987. It has a much improved range of about 150 km, is linked to Matra Super 530D missiles, which are much improved compared to the older Super 530F. Look-down/shoot-down capabilities are much improved as well, but this radar is not used for air-to-surface roles.
The Mirage 2000N is a dedicated nuclear strike variant, intended to carry the Air-Sol Moyenne Portée nuclear stand-off missile. Flight tests of the first of two protot
U.S. Air Force Test Pilot School
The U. S. Air Force Test Pilot School is the Air Force's advanced flight training school that trains experimental test pilots, flight test engineers, flight test navigators to carry out tests and evaluations of new aerospace weapon systems and other aircraft of the U. S. Air Force; this school was established on 9 September 1944 as the Flight Test Training Unit at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio. To take advantage of the uncongested skies superb flying weather, the lack of developed zones in the event of crashing, the test pilot school was moved to its present location at Edwards Air Force Base in the northwestern Mojave Desert of Southern California on 4 February 1951; the Test Pilot School was created to formalize and standardize test pilot training in order to reduce the high accident rate during the 1940s and increase the number of productive test flights. In response to the increasing complexity of aircraft and their electronic systems, the school added training programs for flight test engineers and flight test navigators.
Between 1962 and 1972, the test pilot school included astronaut training for armed forces test pilots, but these classes were dropped when the U. S. Air Force manned. Class sizes have been uniformly quite small, with recent classes having about twenty students; the school is a component of the 412th Test Wing of the Air Force Materiel Command. The mission of the USAF Test Pilot School is to produce adaptive, critical-thinking flight test professionals to lead and conduct full-spectrum test and evaluation of aerospace weapon systems. Performing this mission allows the school to fulfill the vision of being the world’s premiere educational and training center of excellence for theoretical and applied flight test engineering. Admission into the USAF TPS is competitive, with thousands of pilots to select from; the best and the brightest of the available thousands compete to attend this School. It is not uncommon for potential students to have been alternates two or three times before being accepted.
Civilians are permitted and encouraged to apply for the long course program. Prospective students should provide AF Form 1711, USAF Test Pilot School Application, plus additional forms specific to a) USAF Pilot/Navigator, b) Experimental FTE, c) Civilian applicant for the selection board. Experimental FTE and civilian applicants are required to undergo a flying Class III physical prior to the TPS selection board Applications must be received by Special Flying Programs Section HQ AFPC/DPAOT3 no than 45 days before the selection boards meets. USAF selection boards are held once a year at the Headquarters of the Air Force Personnel Center; the boards are held in November, the board selects the TPS two classes for the next year. It is at this point that AFIT-TPS students, students for foreign TPS schools are selected; the USAF TPS Commandant Chairs the Chair of the Board. Board members consist of a HQ AFPC Colonel, at least a majority of the board members must be TPS graduates who are standing flight test squadron commanders.
The AFMC/DO selects board members. All candidates require secret clearance; as of May 2015, the minimum admission requirements for application to the USAF TPS are: Grade Point Average is on a 4.0 scale. Air Force standards for flying duty are defined in Air Force Instruction 48-123, Chapter 6. Air Force Specialty Codes listed for engineers include:13XX—Operations: Space, Missile and Control 14NX—Operations: Intelligence 21AX—Logistics: Aircraft Maintenance 21CX—Logistics: 21LX—Logistics: Logistician 21MX—Logistics: Munitions and Missile Maintenance 33SX—Support: Communications and Information 61SX—Acquisition: Scientist 62EX—Acquisition: Developmental Engineer 63AX—Acquisition: Acquisition Manager From time to time, students are selected to attend different test pilot schools in an exchange program between test cultures. Toward this end, students can be sent to the Naval Test Pilot School at the Patuxent River Naval Air Station and vice versa; the USAF Test Pilot School has an exchange program with the Empire Test Pilots' School at Boscombe Down and the EPNER, the French Test Pilot's School.
The USAF Test Pilot School curriculum is designed to grant a Master of Science degree in Flight Test Engineering through the Air Force's Air University at the end of the 48-week course. Students are required to take all of the 20 offered courses in order to graduate; this is a total of 50 credit hours for the 48-week course. Each of the four phases is broken down into three or four main lecture courses, plus their associated flight laboratory work or flight simulator work, actual practice flights. To graduate from the USAF TPS, a student must be in good standing and satisfactorily complete all academic tests, all oral and written reports, all of the required flight missions, complete comprehensive pre-graduation written and oral evaluations with an overall GPA of 3.0 or better. Accreditation from the American Council of Education has been in effect since July 1974 to recommend selected coursework for transfer credit to other higher education institutions. At graduation, the Commandant presents the following awardsLiethen-Tittle Award to the experimental test pilot graduate with the best overall record for outstanding performance and academic excellence.
R. L. Jones Award to the outstanding experimental test navigator or experimental flight test engineer graduate with the best overall record for outstanding performance and academic excellence. There are two classes held a year, each 48 weeks each
Minister of the Armed Forces (France)
The Ministry of the Armed Forces is the French cabinet member charged with running the French Armed Forces. The minister in charge of the Armed Forces has evolved within regimes; the minister is always attached to a ministry or state secretary bureau, today attached to the Ministry of the Armed Forces. The Secretary of State of War was one of the four specialised secretaries of state established in France in 1589; this State Secretary was responsible for the French Army. In 1791, the Secretary of State of War became Minister of War, with this ministerial function being abolished in 1794 and re-established in 1795. In 1930, the position was referred to as Minister of War and National Defense. In 1947, two years after World War II, the ministry merged with the Ministry of the Navy and the Ministry of Air, while being headed by a Minister of National Defence responsible for the French Armed Forces referred to as Minister of the Armed Forces and since 1947 until 2017, designated as Minister of Defense.
Based on the governments, he or she may be assisted by a state secretary for veterans' affairs. The current Minister of the Armed Forces is Florence Parly. Ministre of Armed Forces: 21 November 1945 - 24 June 1946: Edmond MicheletMinister of National Defence: 24 June 1946 - 16 December 1946: Félix Gouin 16 December 1946 - 22 January 1947: André Le Troquer 22 January 1947 - 4 May 1947: François Billoux 4 May 1947 - 22 October 1947: Yvon Delbos Ministre of the Armed Forces: 24 June 1946 - 16 December 1946: Edmond MicheletMinister of War: 22 January 1947 - 22 October 1947: Paul Coste-FloretMinister of the Navy: 22 January 1947 - 22 October 1947: Louis JacquinotMinister of the Air Force: 22 January 1947 - 22 October 1947: André MaroselliMinister of National Defence: 22 October 1947 - 26 July 1948: Pierre-Henri Teitgen 26 July 1948 - 11 September 1948: René Mayer 11 September 1948 - 28 October 1949: Paul Ramadier 28 October 1949 - 12 July 1950: René Pleven 12 July 1950 - 11 August 1951: Jules Moch 11 August 1951 - 8 March 1952: Georges Bidault 8 March 1952 - 8 January 1953: René PlevenMinister of Natinonal Defence and the Armed Forces: 8 January 1953 - 19 June 1954: René Pleven 19 June 1954 - 14 August 1954: Marie-Pierre Kœnig 14 August 1954 - 20 January 1955 Emmanuel Temple – By interim until 3 September 1954Minister of National Defence: 20 January 1955 - 23 February 1955: Jacques ChevallierMinistre of the Armed Forces: 20 January 1955 - 23 February 1955: Maurice Bourgès-MaunouryMinister of National Defence and the Armed Forces: 23 February 1955 - 6 October 1955: Pierre Kœnig 6 October 1955 - 1 February 1956: Pierre BillotteMinister of National Defence: 1 February 1956 - 13 June 1957: Maurice Bourgès-MaunouryMinister of National Defence and the Armed Forces: 13 June 1957 - 6 November 1957: André Morice 6 November 1957 - 14 May 1958: Jacques Chaban-DelmasMinister of the Armed Forces: 14 May 1958 - 1 June 1958: Pierre de ChevignéMinister of National Defence: 1 June 1958 - 8 January 1959: Charles de GaulleMinister of the Armed Forces: 1 June 1958 - 5 February 1960: Pierre Guillaumat Minister of the Armed Forces: 8 January 1959 – 5 February 1960: Pierre Guillaumat 5 February 1960 – 22 June 1969: Pierre MessmerMinister of National Defence: 22 June 1969 – 4 April 1973: Michel DebréMinister of the Armed Forces: 4 April 1973 – 28 May 1974: Robert GalleyMinister of the Armed Forces: 17 May–19 June 2017: Sylvie Goulard 21 June 2017–present: Florence Parly Secretary of State of the Navy Secretary of State for War Minister of the Navy Chief of the general staff headquarters of the Armies Chief of Staff of the French Army Chief of Staff of the French Air Force Chief of Staff of the French Navy French Special Operations Command Direction générale de la Gendarmerie Nationale Ministry of Defence Ministry of Defence "Ministries 1700–1870", Rulers.org