Mechatronics, called mechatronic engineering, is a multidisciplinary branch of engineering that focuses on the engineering of both electrical and mechanical systems, includes a combination of robotics, computer, telecommunications, systems and product engineering. As technology advances over time, various subfields of engineering have succeeded in both adapting and multiplying; the intention of mechatronics is to produce a design solution that unifies each of these various subfields. The field of mechatronics was intended to be nothing more than a combination of mechanics and electronics, hence the name being a portmanteau of mechanics and electronics; the word mechatronics originated in Japanese-English and was created by Tetsuro Mori, an engineer of Yaskawa Electric Corporation. The word mechatronics was registered as trademark by the company in Japan with the registration number of "46-32714" in 1971. However, afterward the company released the right of using the word to public, the word begun being used across the world.
Nowadays, the word is translated into many languages and the word is considered as an essential term for industry. French standard NF E 01-010 gives the following definition: "approach aiming at the synergistic integration of mechanics, control theory, computer science within product design and manufacturing, in order to improve and/or optimize its functionality". Many people treat mechatronics as a modern buzzword synonymous with robotics and electromechanical engineering. A mechatronics engineer unites the principles of mechanics and computing to generate a simpler, more economical and reliable system; the term "mechatronics" was coined by Tetsuro Mori, the senior engineer of the Japanese company Yaskawa in 1969. An industrial robot is a prime example of a mechatronics system. Engineering cybernetics deals with the question of control engineering of mechatronic systems, it is used to regulate such a system. Through collaboration, the mechatronic modules perform the production goals and inherit flexible and agile manufacturing properties in the production scheme.
Modern production equipment consists of mechatronic modules that are integrated according to a control architecture. The most known architectures involve hierarchy, polyarchy and hybrid; the methods for achieving a technical effect are described by control algorithms, which might or might not utilize formal methods in their design. Hybrid systems important to mechatronics include production systems, synergy drives, planetary exploration rovers, automotive subsystems such as anti-lock braking systems and spin-assist, everyday equipment such as autofocus cameras, hard disks, CD players. Mechatronics students take courses in various fields: Mechanical engineering and materials science and engineering Electronics engineering Electrical engineering Computer engineering Computer science Systems engineering Control engineering Optical engineering Telecommunications Machine vision Automation and robotics Servo-mechanics Sensing and control systems Automotive engineering, automotive equipment in the design of subsystems such as anti-lock braking systems Computer-machine controls, such as computer driven machines like CNC milling machines, CNC waterjets, CNC plasma cutters Expert systems Industrial goods Consumer products Mechatronics systems Medical mechatronics, medical imaging systems Structural dynamic systems Transportation and vehicular systems Mechatronics as the new language of the automobile Computer aided and integrated manufacturing systems Computer-aided design Engineering and manufacturing systems Packaging Microcontrollers / PLCs Mechanical modeling calls for modeling and simulating physical complex phenomena in the scope of a multi-scale and multi-physical approach.
This implies to implement and to manage modeling and optimization methods and tools, which are integrated in a systemic approach. The specialty is aimed for students in mechanics who want to open their mind to systems engineering, able to integrate different physics or technologies, as well as students in mechatronics who want to increase their knowledge in optimization and multidisciplinary simulation techniques; the speciality educates students in robust and/or optimized conception methods for structures or many technological systems, to the main modeling and simulation tools used in R&D. Special courses are proposed for original applications to prepare the students to the coming breakthrough in the domains covering the materials and the systems. For some mechatronic systems, the main issue is no longer how to implement a control system, but how to implement actuators. Within the mechatronic field two technologies are used to produce movement/motion. An emerging variant of this field is biomechatronics, whose purpose is to integrate mechanical parts with a human being in the form of removable gadgets such as an exoskeleton.
This is the "real-life" version of cyberware. Another variant that we can consider is Motion control for Advanced Mechatronics, which presently is recognized as a key technology in mechatronics; the robustness of motion control will be represented as a function of stiffness and a basis for practical realization. Target of motion is parameterized by control stiffness which could be variable according to the task reference. However, the system robustness of motion always requires high stiffness
École nationale supérieure de l'électronique et de ses applications
École Nationale Supérieure de l'Électronique et de ses Applications is a graduate school of electrical engineering and computer science, located in Cergy close to Paris in France. It was founded in 1952 under the name of ENREA and became ENSEA in 1976. Future engineers are recruited after a centralized and selective country-wide specific entrance examination or laterally into final or pre-final year after a bachelor degree in electronics or relevant scientific fields; the Engineering degree delivered by L'Académie de Versailles. Courses spread over 3 years cover all aspects of electrical and computer science and engineering, e.g.: signal processing, embedded systems, software engineering, networking and power electronics besides some important non-engineering courses such as economics, business communications and foreign languages. ENSEA and ITIN offer an MS Specialized Master labelled by the Conférence des grandes écoles and named TIM The school presently offers 8 specialisations: 1-Electronics, Communications & Microwaves 2-Networks and Telecommunications 3-Embedded Electronic Systems 4-Mechatronics and Complex Systems 5-Electronics and Bioscience 6-Control Systems & Power Electronics 7-Computer Systems 8-Multimedia Systems The school has international links with universities from all over the world in the United States, Spain and UK.
It has dual master's degrees with several American and European universities including Technical University of Munich, Imperial College, Georgia Tech, Illinois Institute of Technology and Suny Buffalo. ENSEA is a member of the n+i network of engineering schools and admits 10 competitive students from around the world every year through the n+i program. ENSEA as well as all upper education institutions of Cergy-Pontoise are organized in a PRES including: Cergy-Pontoise University groupe ESSEC, ENSEA, École Nationale Supérieure de l'Électronique et de ses Applications ITIN, Ecole supérieure d’Informatique, Réseaux et Systèmes d’Information ENSAPC, École nationale supérieure d'arts de Cergy-Pontoise EISTI, EBI EPMI EPSS ESCOM ILEPS ISTOM ESCIA, École supérieure de comptabilité, gestion et finance Official web site Official web site
Conservatoire national des arts et métiers
The Conservatoire national des arts et métiers is a doctoral degree-granting higher education establishment and Grande école in engineering, operated by the French government, dedicated to providing education and conducting research for the promotion of science and industry. It has a large museum of inventions accessible to the public, it was founded on 10 October 1794, during the French Revolution. It was first proposed by Abbé Henri Grégoire as a "depository for machines, tools, drawings and books in all the areas of the arts and trades"; the deserted Saint-Martin-des-Champs Priory was selected as the site of collection, which formally opened in 1802. Charged with the collection of inventions, it has since become an educational institution. At the present time, it is known as a continuing education school for adults seeking engineering and business degrees, proposing evening classes in a variety of topics; the collection of inventions is now operated by the Musée des Arts et Métiers. The original Foucault pendulum was exhibited as part of the collection, but was moved to the Panthéon in 1995 during museum renovation.
It was reinstalled in the Musée des Arts et Métiers. On 6 April 2010, the cable suspending the original pendulum bob snapped causing irreparable damage to the pendulum and to the marble flooring of the museum; the novel Foucault's Pendulum by Umberto Eco deals with this establishment, as the Foucault pendulum hung in the museum plays a great role in the storyline. The novel was published in 1989 prior to the pendulum being moved back to the Panthéon during museum reconstruction; the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers is located at 292 rue Saint Martin, in the 3rd arrondissement of Paris, in the historical area of the city named Le Marais. The Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers is a public institution of the French government, in the scientific and professional fields, with the status of "Grand Etablissement". Under the supervision of the Ministry of Higher Education, it has 3 missions: Training throughout life, it is implemented in more than 150 cities in France and abroad. Cnam's motto is "Omnes docet ubique", which means "He teaches everyone everywhere."
Since July 2010, Cnam has been organized in two distinct "Schools", each one with seven departments: Industrial Sciences and Information Technology, directed by William Dab: Chemicals, Health, Risk. Mechanical and electrotechnical systems engineering; the CNAM supports continuing education. Multidisciplinary programs. All teachings are formatted to comply with the CNAM LMD, thus respecting the European Credit Transfer System. Léon Bourgeois, Nobel Peace Prize, Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers. Sadi Carnot, alumnus of the École Polytechnique and of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, physicist. Paul Doumer, alumnus of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, President of the French Republic. Louis Pasteur, alumnus of the École Normale Supérieure and of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers and biologist. From 1995 to 2009, the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers hosted the weekly seminar of psychoanalyst Jacques-Alain Miller.
Jean Ferrat, alumnus of the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers, singer-songwriter. Abbé Grégoire, founder of the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers. Jean-Baptiste Say, alumnus of the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers, classical economist, professor with the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers and the Collège de France. Alexandre Vandermonde, mathematician. From 1794 on, Vandermonde was member of the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers, examiner with the École polytechnique, professor with the École Normale Supérieure. Jacques de Vaucanson, famous engineer, gave his personal collection to the CNAM as well as his name to an adjacent street. Léon Vaudoyer, architecte of the CNAM building during the nineteenth century, together with the Institut de France building. Jean Prouvé, French metal worker, self-taught architect and designer, CNAM professor from 1957 to 1970. Alain Wisner Vandermonde: secret society of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers. Écoles de l'an III scientifiques Michel Nusimovici, Les écoles de l'an III, 2010 Official website Official website Official website CNAM lebanon
Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from about one meter to one millimeter. Different sources define different frequency ranges as microwaves. A more common definition in radio engineering is the range between 100 GHz. In all cases, microwaves include the entire SHF band at minimum. Frequencies in the microwave range are referred to by their IEEE radar band designations: S, C, X, Ku, K, or Ka band, or by similar NATO or EU designations; the prefix micro- in microwave is not meant to suggest a wavelength in the micrometer range. Rather, it indicates that microwaves are "small", compared to the radio waves used prior to microwave technology; the boundaries between far infrared, terahertz radiation and ultra-high-frequency radio waves are arbitrary and are used variously between different fields of study. Microwaves travel by line-of-sight. At the high end of the band they are absorbed by gases in the atmosphere, limiting practical communication distances to around a kilometer.
Microwaves are used in modern technology, for example in point-to-point communication links, wireless networks, microwave radio relay networks, radar and spacecraft communication, medical diathermy and cancer treatment, remote sensing, radio astronomy, particle accelerators, industrial heating, collision avoidance systems, garage door openers and keyless entry systems, for cooking food in microwave ovens. Microwaves occupy a place in the electromagnetic spectrum with frequency above ordinary radio waves, below infrared light: In descriptions of the electromagnetic spectrum, some sources classify microwaves as radio waves, a subset of the radio wave band; this is an arbitrary distinction. Microwaves travel by line-of-sight paths. Although at the low end of the band they can pass through building walls enough for useful reception rights of way cleared to the first Fresnel zone are required. Therefore, on the surface of the Earth, microwave communication links are limited by the visual horizon to about 30–40 miles.
Microwaves are absorbed by moisture in the atmosphere, the attenuation increases with frequency, becoming a significant factor at the high end of the band. Beginning at about 40 GHz, atmospheric gases begin to absorb microwaves, so above this frequency microwave transmission is limited to a few kilometers. A spectral band structure causes absorption peaks at specific frequencies. Above 100 GHz, the absorption of electromagnetic radiation by Earth's atmosphere is so great that it is in effect opaque, until the atmosphere becomes transparent again in the so-called infrared and optical window frequency ranges. In a microwave beam directed at an angle into the sky, a small amount of the power will be randomly scattered as the beam passes through the troposphere. A sensitive receiver beyond the horizon with a high gain antenna focused on that area of the troposphere can pick up the signal; this technique has been used at frequencies between 0.45 and 5 GHz in tropospheric scatter communication systems to communicate beyond the horizon, at distances up to 300 km.
The short wavelengths of microwaves allow omnidirectional antennas for portable devices to be made small, from 1 to 20 centimeters long, so microwave frequencies are used for wireless devices such as cell phones, cordless phones, wireless LANs access for laptops, Bluetooth earphones. Antennas used include short whip antennas, rubber ducky antennas, sleeve dipoles, patch antennas, the printed circuit inverted F antenna used in cell phones, their short wavelength allows narrow beams of microwaves to be produced by conveniently small high gain antennas from a half meter to 5 meters in diameter. Therefore, beams of microwaves are used for point-to-point communication links, for radar. An advantage of narrow beams is that they don't interfere with nearby equipment using the same frequency, allowing frequency reuse by nearby transmitters. Parabolic antennas are the most used directive antennas at microwave frequencies, but horn antennas, slot antennas and dielectric lens antennas are used. Flat microstrip antennas are being used in consumer devices.
Another directive antenna practical at microwave frequencies is the phased array, a computer-controlled array of antennas which produces a beam which can be electronically steered in different directions. At microwave frequencies, the transmission lines which are used to carry lower frequency radio waves to and from antennas, such as coaxial cable and parallel wire lines, have excessive power losses, so when low attenuation is required microwaves are carried by metal pipes called waveguides. Due to the high cost and maintenance requirements of waveguide runs, in many microwave antennas the output stage of the transmitter or the RF front end of the receiver is located at the antenna; the term microwave has a more technical meaning in electromagnetics and circuit theory. Apparatus and techniques may
Agrocampus Ouest is a French higher education institution of university-level, grande école-type. Its official name is Institut supérieur des sciences agronomiques, horticoles et du paysage, it operates under the supervision of the French Ministry of Agriculture. It trains agricultural sciences engineers and research scientists, it has one in Rennes and the other in Angers. Agrocampus Ouest was created in 2008, as the merger of two institutions: Institut National d'Horticulture et de Paysage in Angers. Agrocampus Rennes in Rennes, its head office is located in Rennes, has a second campus in Angers. Agrocampus Ouest trains engineers, 4 specializations being available: agricultural sciences engineer horticulture sciences engineer landscape sciences engineer food industry sciences engineerDepending on the chosen specialization, trainings are held in one or the other campus. Agrocampus Ouest offers 16 Master's degrees and 9 Bachelor's degrees in life sciences. Moreover, Agrocampus Ouest has 6 doctoral schools: Life-Agro-Health Plants, health Materials science Human sciences and society Mathematics, telecommunications, signal, electronics Law, management, environment and territories The institution has 80 acamedic partnerships across the world.
According to its website, Agrocampus Ouest has: 14 research units in partnership with the INRA research institute 398 associated researchers. According to the 2011 ranking published by the L'Etudiant and L'Expansion, Agrocampus Ouest is the third French grande école for agricultural sciences, ex-æquo with l'ENSA de Toulouse. List of agricultural universities
Georgia Institute of Technology
The Georgia Institute of Technology referred to as Georgia Tech, is a public research university and institute of technology in Atlanta, Georgia. It has satellite campuses in Savannah, Georgia; the school was founded in 1885 as the Georgia School of Technology as part of Reconstruction plans to build an industrial economy in the post-Civil War Southern United States. It offered only a degree in mechanical engineering. By 1901, its curriculum had expanded to include electrical and chemical engineering. In 1948, the school changed its name to reflect its evolution from a trade school to a larger and more capable technical institute and research university. Today, Georgia Tech is organized into six colleges and contains about 31 departments/units, with emphasis on science and technology, it is well recognized for its degree programs in engineering, business administration, the sciences and design. Georgia Tech is ranked 8th among all public national universities in the United States, 7th in the Best Engineering Schools ranking, 35th among all colleges and universities in the United States by U.
S. News & World Report rankings, 34th among global universities in the world by Times Higher Education rankings. Georgia Tech has been ranked as the "smartest" public college in America. Student athletics, both organized and intramural, are a part of alumni life; the school's intercollegiate competitive sports teams, the four-time football national champion Yellow Jackets, the nationally recognized fight song "Ramblin' Wreck from Georgia Tech", have helped keep Georgia Tech in the national spotlight. Georgia Tech fields eight men's and seven women's teams that compete in the NCAA Division I athletics and the Football Bowl Subdivision. Georgia Tech is a member of the Coastal Division in the Atlantic Coast Conference; the idea of a technology school in Georgia was introduced in 1865 during the Reconstruction period. Two former Confederate officers, Major John Fletcher Hanson and Nathaniel Edwin Harris, who had become prominent citizens in the town of Macon, Georgia after the Civil War believed that the South needed to improve its technology to compete with the industrial revolution, occurring throughout the North.
However, because the American South of that era was populated by agricultural workers and few technical developments were occurring, a technology school was needed. In 1882, the Georgia State Legislature authorized a committee, led by Harris, to visit the Northeast to see firsthand how technology schools worked, they were impressed by the polytechnic educational models developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Worcester County Free Institute of Industrial Science. The committee recommended adapting the Worcester model, which stressed a combination of "theory and practice", the "practice" component including student employment and production of consumer items to generate revenue for the school. On October 13, 1885, Georgia Governor Henry D. McDaniel signed the bill to create and fund the new school. In 1887, Atlanta pioneer Richard Peters donated to the state 4 acres of the site of a failed garden suburb called Peters Park; the site was bounded on the south by North Avenue, on the west by Cherry Street.
He sold five adjoining acres of land to the state for US$10,000. This land was near Atlanta's northern city limits at the time of its founding, although the city has expanded several miles beyond it. A historical marker on the large hill in Central Campus notes the site occupied by the school's first buildings once held fortifications to protect Atlanta during the Atlanta Campaign of the American Civil War; the surrender of the city took place on the southwestern boundary of the modern Georgia Tech campus in 1864. The Georgia School of Technology opened in the fall of 1888 with two buildings. One building had classrooms to teach students, it was designed for students to produce goods to sell and fund the school. The two buildings were equal in size to show the importance of teaching both the mind and the hands, though, at the time, there was some disagreement to whether the machine shop should have been used to turn a profit. On October 20, 1905, U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt visited Georgia Tech.
On the steps of Tech Tower, Roosevelt delivered a speech about the importance of technological education. He shook hands with every student. Georgia Tech's Evening School of Commerce began holding classes in 1912; the evening school admitted its first female student in 1917, although the state legislature did not authorize attendance by women until 1920. Annie T. Wise became the first female graduate in 1919 and was Georgia Tech's first female faculty member the following year. In 1931, the Board of Regents transferred control of the Evening School of Commerce to the University of Georgia and moved the civil and electrical engineering courses at UGA to Tech. Tech replaced the commerce school with what became the College of Business; the commerce school would split from UGA and become Georgia State University. In 1934, the Engineering Experiment Station was founded by W. Harry Vaughan with an initial budget of $5,000 and 13 part-time faculty. Founded as the Georgia School of Technology, Georgia Tech assumed its pre
École des ponts ParisTech
École des Ponts ParisTech is a university-level institution of higher education and research in the field of science and technology. Founded in 1747 by Daniel-Charles Trudaine, it is one of the oldest and one of the most prestigious French Grandes Écoles, its primary mission has been to train engineering officials and civil engineers but the school now offers a wide-ranging education including computer science, applied mathematics, civil engineering, finance, innovation, urban studies and transport engineering. École des Ponts is today international: 43% of its students obtain a double degree abroad, 30% of an ingénieur cohort is foreign. It is headquartered in Marne-la-Vallée, is a founding member of ParisTech and of the Paris School of Economics; the school is under the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Energy of France. Following the creation of the Corps of Bridges and Roads in 1716, the King's Council decided in 1747 to found a specific training course for the state's engineers, as École royale des ponts et chaussées.
In 1775, the school took its current name as École nationale des ponts et chaussées, by Daniel-Charles Trudaine, in a moment when the state decided to set up a progressive and efficient control of the building of roads and canals, in the training of civil engineers. The school's first director, from 1747 until 1794, was Jean-Rodolphe Perronet, civil service administrator and a contributor to the Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert. Without lecturer, fifty students taught themselves geometry, algebra and hydraulics. Visits of building sites, cooperations with scientists and engineers and participation to the drawing of the map of the kingdom used to complete their training, four to twelve years long. During the First French Empire run by Napoleon I from 1804 to 1814, a number of members of the Corps of Bridges and Roads took part in the reconstruction of the French road network that had not been maintained during the Revolution, in large infrastructural developments, notably hydraulic projects.
Under the orders of the emperor, French scientist Gaspard Riche de Prony, second director of the school from 1798 to 1839, adapts the education provided by the school in order to improve the training of future civil engineers, whose purpose is to rebuild the major infrastructures of the country: roads, but administrative buildings and fortifications. Prony is now considered as a influential figure of the school. During the twenty years that followed the First Empire, the experience of the faculty and the alumni involved in the reconstruction influenced its training methods and internal organisation. In 1831, the school opens its first laboratory, which aims at concentrating the talents and experiences of the country's best civil engineers; the school gradually becomes a place of reflection and debates for urban planning. As a new step in the evolution of the school, the decree of 1851 insists on the organisation of the courses, the writing of an annual schedule, the quality of the faculty, the control of the students’ works.
For the first time in its history, the school opens its doors to a larger public. At this time, in France, the remarkable development of transports, roads and canals is influenced by engineers from the school, who modernised the country by creating the large traffic networks, admired in several European countries. After the Second World War, the school focused on developing the link between economics and engineering; as civil engineering was requiring higher financial investments, the state needed engineers to be able to understand the economic situation of post-war Europe. From on, the program of the school had three different aspects: scientific and technic and economic; the number of admitted students increased in order to provide both the Corps of Bridges and Roads and the private sector trained young engineers. At the time, technical progress and considerable development of sciences and techniques used in building and the protection of the environment imposed a change of strategy in the training programme.
More specialisations were progressively created and the overall programme was adapted to national issues. École des Ponts ParisTech offers high-level programmes in an extensive range of fields, with traditional competences in mathematics, computer science, civil engineering, economics, environment, town & regional planning and innovation. École des Ponts ParisTech is among the schools called "généralistes", which means that students receive a broad, management-oriented and non-specialised education. The school offers specialized/research masters and PhDs, it has opened a design school, with programmes in innovation and startup creation. This undergraduate-graduate engineering programme is the original and main programme offered by the school, it is quite different from typical university or college studies and specific to the French system of Grandes Écoles. The Ingénieur degree of École des Ponts – the Diplôme d'Ingénieur – is equivalent to a Master of Science. Admissions for engineering students is done