École des ponts ParisTech
École des Ponts ParisTech is a university-level institution of higher education and research in the field of science and technology. Founded in 1747 by Daniel-Charles Trudaine, it is one of the oldest and one of the most prestigious French Grandes Écoles, its primary mission has been to train engineering officials and civil engineers but the school now offers a wide-ranging education including computer science, applied mathematics, civil engineering, finance, innovation, urban studies and transport engineering. École des Ponts is today international: 43% of its students obtain a double degree abroad, 30% of an ingénieur cohort is foreign. It is headquartered in Marne-la-Vallée, is a founding member of ParisTech and of the Paris School of Economics; the school is under the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Energy of France. Following the creation of the Corps of Bridges and Roads in 1716, the King's Council decided in 1747 to found a specific training course for the state's engineers, as École royale des ponts et chaussées.
In 1775, the school took its current name as École nationale des ponts et chaussées, by Daniel-Charles Trudaine, in a moment when the state decided to set up a progressive and efficient control of the building of roads and canals, in the training of civil engineers. The school's first director, from 1747 until 1794, was Jean-Rodolphe Perronet, civil service administrator and a contributor to the Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert. Without lecturer, fifty students taught themselves geometry, algebra and hydraulics. Visits of building sites, cooperations with scientists and engineers and participation to the drawing of the map of the kingdom used to complete their training, four to twelve years long. During the First French Empire run by Napoleon I from 1804 to 1814, a number of members of the Corps of Bridges and Roads took part in the reconstruction of the French road network that had not been maintained during the Revolution, in large infrastructural developments, notably hydraulic projects.
Under the orders of the emperor, French scientist Gaspard Riche de Prony, second director of the school from 1798 to 1839, adapts the education provided by the school in order to improve the training of future civil engineers, whose purpose is to rebuild the major infrastructures of the country: roads, but administrative buildings and fortifications. Prony is now considered as a influential figure of the school. During the twenty years that followed the First Empire, the experience of the faculty and the alumni involved in the reconstruction influenced its training methods and internal organisation. In 1831, the school opens its first laboratory, which aims at concentrating the talents and experiences of the country's best civil engineers; the school gradually becomes a place of reflection and debates for urban planning. As a new step in the evolution of the school, the decree of 1851 insists on the organisation of the courses, the writing of an annual schedule, the quality of the faculty, the control of the students’ works.
For the first time in its history, the school opens its doors to a larger public. At this time, in France, the remarkable development of transports, roads and canals is influenced by engineers from the school, who modernised the country by creating the large traffic networks, admired in several European countries. After the Second World War, the school focused on developing the link between economics and engineering; as civil engineering was requiring higher financial investments, the state needed engineers to be able to understand the economic situation of post-war Europe. From on, the program of the school had three different aspects: scientific and technic and economic; the number of admitted students increased in order to provide both the Corps of Bridges and Roads and the private sector trained young engineers. At the time, technical progress and considerable development of sciences and techniques used in building and the protection of the environment imposed a change of strategy in the training programme.
More specialisations were progressively created and the overall programme was adapted to national issues. École des Ponts ParisTech offers high-level programmes in an extensive range of fields, with traditional competences in mathematics, computer science, civil engineering, economics, environment, town & regional planning and innovation. École des Ponts ParisTech is among the schools called "généralistes", which means that students receive a broad, management-oriented and non-specialised education. The school offers specialized/research masters and PhDs, it has opened a design school, with programmes in innovation and startup creation. This undergraduate-graduate engineering programme is the original and main programme offered by the school, it is quite different from typical university or college studies and specific to the French system of Grandes Écoles. The Ingénieur degree of École des Ponts – the Diplôme d'Ingénieur – is equivalent to a Master of Science. Admissions for engineering students is done
École normale supérieure de Rennes
The École normale supérieure de Rennes called ENS Rennes is a French scientific Grande École, belonging to the network of Écoles normales supérieures. Its mission subsequently consists in preparing students "aimed at becoming researchers in fundamental or applied sciences, Professors in universities and classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles, as well as in secondary teaching, more at serving administrations of the State and local authorities, or their public establishments or enterprises." Established by a decree of the 17 October 2013 of the Prime Minister, the ENS Rennes is placed under the direct authority of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research, is a founder of the Université Européenne de Bretagne. Before 2013, it was a branch of the École normale supérieure Paris-Saclay, but the great geographical distance between Cachan and Rennes led to a bigger autonomy; the school is divided in five departments, admitting every year 80 to 100 Normaliens, students under the status of paid civil servants.
These are selected through selective entrance examinations, after at least two years of classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles. There are auditors, called "magistériens"; these two groups of students receive the same formation, during a typical four-year cursus. The ENS Rennes is efficient in leading its students to research, as albeit a wide range of possible career paths, more than 80% of a promotion pass the agrégation, more than 70% continue their formation by a PhD. ENS Ulm ENS Lyon ENS Paris-Saclay Classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles official website of the École normale supérieure de Rennes
The École nationale supérieure des arts et industries textiles is a French Engineering grand établissement and a member of UP-TEX research cluster. ENSAIT is a higher education and research institute, gathering all the disciplines related to textiles. ENSAIT chairs include four departments related to research. A majority of full-time students requesting admission have to pass a competitive exam in order to attend ENSAIT at the end of their undergraduate studies. International students with a bachelor's degree can request for admission. About fifty percent of students at ENSAIT have an international profile. Professional part-time education is developed. ENSAIT different curricula lead to the following degrees: Ingénieur ENSAIT Master's degree Masters Research and Specialized Masters, in cooperation with the University of Lille, École centrale de Lille and École nationale supérieure de chimie de Lille. Doctoral degreeThe major fields of study and research at ENSAIT are: Technical textiles, Mechanical engineering Industrial and manufacturing engineering Smart material Textiles Chemistry, Biotechnology in Textiles Clothing Technologies, DesignDuring first year at ENSAIT, students study all the basics of textile technology.
Each year 80 students receive an ENSAIT Master's degree referred-to as diplôme d'ingénieur ENSAIT, around 10 students receive a doctoral degree. The school was founded in Roubaix with municipal funding, it was meant to provide a special studying program for the requirements of the textile industry at Roubaix and France. After 1889, the institution became known as the École d'Arts et Métiers Textiles; because the school was near from the war front, it was closed in some wartime periods, many students and academic staff died in these wars. Nowadays, the ENSAIT has a large parc of machinery. In 1991, the GEMTEX was inaugurated as the first French center with research competence in all textile engineering fields. Entrepreneurship is promoted with GENI-INNOTEX. Since the ENSAIT foundation, the students perpetuate their own traditions and folklore, are members of a student society, they call themselves "AIT". The "BDE" folklore includes traditional clothing, language and legends, related symbolism, ceremonials.
BDE activities are independent of the administration of the school and are run by the students, although the two parts cooperate for organising cultural or sporting events. The ENSAIT has a partnership with more than 300 institutions around the world
University of Strasbourg
The University of Strasbourg in Strasbourg, France, is a university in France with nearly 51,000 students and over 3,200 researchers. The French university traces its history to the earlier German-language Universität Straßburg, founded in 1538, was divided in the 1970s into three separate institutions: Louis Pasteur University, Marc Bloch University, Robert Schuman University. On 1 January 2009, the fusion of these three universities reconstituted a united University of Strasbourg. With as many as 19 Nobel laureates, the university is now ranked among the best in the League of European Research Universities; the university emerged from a Lutheran humanist German Gymnasium, founded in 1538 by Johannes Sturm in the Free Imperial City of Strassburg. It was transformed to a university in 1621 and elevated to the ranks of a royal university in 1631. Among its earliest university students was Johann Scheffler who studied medicine and converted to Catholicism and became the mystic and poet Angelus Silesius.
The Lutheran German university still persisted after the annexation of the City by King Louis XIV in 1681, but turned into a French speaking university during the French Revolution. The university was refounded as the German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Universität in 1872, after the Franco-Prussian war and the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany provoked a westwards exodus of Francophone teachers. During the German Empire the university was expanded and numerous new buildings were erected because the university was intended to be a showcase of German against French culture in Alsace. In 1918, Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France, so a reverse exodus of Germanophone teachers took place. During the Second World War, when France was occupied and equipment of the University of Strasbourg were transferred to Clermont-Ferrand. In its place, the short-lived German Reichsuniversität Straßburg was created. In 1971, the university was subdivided into three separate institutions: Louis Pasteur University Marc Bloch University Robert Schuman University These were, reunited in 2009, were able to be among the first twenty French universities to gain greater autonomy.
The university campus covers a vast part near the center of the city, located between the "Cité Administrative", "Esplanade" and "Gallia" bus-tram stations. Modern architectural buildings include: Escarpe, the Doctoral College of Strasbourg, Pangloss, PEGE and others; the student residence building for the Doctoral College of Strasbourg was designed by London-based Nicholas Hare Architects in 2007. The structures are depicted on the main inner wall of the Esplanade university restaurant, accompanied by the names of their architects and years of establishment; the administrative organisms, attached to the university, are located in the "Agora" building. Karl Ferdinand Braun Paul Ehrlich Hermann Emil Fischer Jules Hoffmann Albrecht Kossel Martin Karplus Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran Jean-Marie Lehn Otto Loewi Otto Fritz Meyerhof Louis Néel Wilhelm Röntgen Albert Schweitzer Hermann Staudinger Adolf von Baeyer Max von Laue Pieter Zeeman Jean-Pierre Sauvage Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire Jardin botanique de l'Université de Strasbourg List of early modern universities in Europe Observatory of Strasbourg On the Poverty of Student Life Musée de minéralogie Musée zoologique de la ville de Strasbourg Reichsuniversität Straßburg University of Strasbourg The Art and Science collections of the University of Strasbourg
École pour l'informatique et les techniques avancées
The École Pour l'Informatique et les Techniques Avancées, more known as EPITA is a private French Grande École specialized in the field of computer science and software engineering created in 1984 by Patrice Dumoucel. It is a private engineering school, member since 1994 of IONIS Education Group, accredited by the Commission des titres d'ingénieur to deliver the French Diplôme d'Ingénieur, based at Le Kremlin-Bicêtre south of Paris. In June 2013, EPITA becomes member of the Union of Independent Grandes Écoles, which includes 30 grandes écoles; the school is part of IONIS Education Group. The first two years of studies are preparatory years. During these two years, students study mathematics and electronics as well as algorithmics and computer science; the third year is the first year of engineering studies, where students learn the fundamentals in information technology and software engineering. This year is famous for its first month, during which students will be asked to make several projects, which lead them to code more than 15 hours per day.
Third year students are known to say that "sleeping is cheating" and remember this year as their most painstaking year at EPITA. During the fourth and fifth years students have to choose one of the eight majors: SRS, Systèmes, Réseaux et Sécurité MTI, Multimédia et Technologies de l'Information SCIA, Sciences Cognitives et Informatique Avancée GISTRE, Génie Informatique des Systèmes Temps Réel et Embarqués SIGL, Systèmes d’Information et Génie Logiciel TCOM, Télécommunications CSI, Calcul Scientifique et Image GITM, Global IT Management Official website The Multimedia and Information Technology major The Information Systems and Software Engineering major The Systems and Security major The Research and Development laboratory The Systems and Security laboratory The Innovation laboratory
Arts et Métiers ParisTech
Arts et Métiers ParisTech is a French engineering and research graduate school. It is a general engineering school recognized for leading French higher education in the fields of mechanics and industrialization. Founded in 1780, it is among the oldest French institutions and is one of the most prestigious engineering schools in France; the school has trained 85,000 engineers since its foundation by François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt. It is a "Public Scientific and Professional Institution" under the authority of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research and has the special status of Grand établissement; the École nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers, which adopted the brand name "Arts et Mėtiers ParisTech" in 2007, was a founding member of ParisTech, héSam and France AEROTECH. Arts et Métiers ParisTech consists of eight Teaching and Research Centres and three institutes spread across the country, its students are called Gadz'Arts. The school was founded in Liancourt, Oise, by Duke of Rochefoucauld-Liancourt in 1780.
After 1800, the institution became known as the École d'Arts et Métiers. Under Napoleon's reign, it was known as the "Ecole impériale des Arts et Métiers", he intended to use the school to train "Non-commissioned officers of Industry". The empire decided to move the school to a bigger city, Compiègne, in 1799; when Napoléon Bonaparte visited the castle where the school was located, he thought that it was inappropriate for such an industrial school to occupy the place. He decided to relocate the school to Châlons-en-Champagne in 1806, where two former monasteries were made available to offer much more space. Many students and alumni enlisted in the armed forces during the World War I, it is estimated that of the 6500 gadzarts who joined the army, 1100 died the first year of the conflict. Many campuses were damaged by the war that of Châlons-sur-Marne, in the middle of the Battle of the Marne; the Lille campus was occupied by the Germans and used as a military hospital. The other campuses were closed from 1916–17 and the new Parisian campus was undamaged.
Between the wars, the rapid industrialization of Europe favoured the Gadzarts. The arms race pushed industry to hire more engineers and the gadzarts matched their needs perfectly; the other important factor was the creation of new ranks in the hierarchical working organization. The middle management and upper management positions were perfect for the gadzarts engineers who filled these positions in most industries. During World War II, the school tried to keep a certain level of activity; the only campuses to experience some difficulties were Lille and Châlons-sur-Marne: in 1939 no new students were admitted. The Cluny campus was the target of a roundup in 1943 and a large part of students and staff were deported; the death of Jacques Bonsergent left a mark on the conflict, he became a symbol of resistance to the oppressor. The second school of this kind was founded in 1804 at Beaupréau and transferred to Angers in 1815. Three decades a third school was built in Aix-en-Provence in 1843, in former barracks and monasteries.
At the dawn of the 20th century, the development of the school expanded to three new campuses. In 1891, the ancient abbey of Cluny was chosen to host the activities of the 4th school. To go hand in hand with the industrial revolution, the members of parliament decided to create a 5th campus in Lille, a city, growing; the facilities of Lille were the first ones to be built expressly for the school. The campus of Paris, a long-standing project, was built between 1906 and 1912, it became the biggest campus of the Arts et World War II delayed the school's opening. By the end of the war, the campus had over 500 students. In the middle of the "Trentes Glorieuses", the 7th campus was created near Bordeaux, in the science park of Talence; the modern buildings were operational in 1963. The latest campus established was Metz; the campus was built in the science park, close to the transportation hubs. The school wanted this campus to become an international one, being close to Belgium and Germany, its construction was motivated by partnerships with German and American universities.
Between 1990 and 2000, the 3 institutes of research were created: Chambéry in 1994, Chalons-sur-Saône in 1997 and Bastia in 2000. The school has 2 satellite campuses in Bouc-bel-Air and Laval that are under the authority of the main campuses of Aix-en-provence and Angers; these satellites are linked to the research laboratories of the school. In 1817, the school's military status was removed by royal order and the official goal of the school was set to train qualified technicians. However, in practice, the organisation remained military and the students continued to wear the uniform; this tradition continues today. In 1826, a second royal order confirmed this new status and the military organisation was removed; the students were granted the right to wear the uniform as a civil one. After a third attempt, the students gained the right to form an association of the Arts et Métiers alumni in 1847; the regional campuses were transformed into engineer training institutions in 1907. In 1963, the curriculum was modified in order to recruit new students from the Classes préparatoires.
In 1964, the first woman was enrolled at the Arts et Métiers. The school became a grande école in 1976 and received the EPSCP status in 1990. In 2007, the school created the PRES ParisTech and adopted the brand name "Arts et Métiers
École Centrale Paris
École Centrale Paris was a French postgraduate-level institute of research and higher education in engineering and science. It was known by its official name École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures. Founded in 1829, it was among the most selective grandes écoles. Rooted in rich entrepreneurial tradition since the industrial revolution era, it served as the cradle for top-level engineers and executives who continue to constitute a major part of the industry leadership in France. Since the 19th century, its model of education for training generalist engineers inspired the establishment of several engineering institutes around the world, such as the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in Switzerland, Faculté polytechnique de Mons in Belgium, as well as other member schools of the Ecole Centrales Group alliance in France, Morocco and India. In 2015, École Centrale Paris merged with Supélec to form CentraleSupélec, a constituent institute of the University of Paris-Saclay. "Between 1832 and 1870, the Central School of Arts and Manufactures produced 3,000 engineers, served as a model for most of the industrialized countries."
École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures was founded in 1829 as a private institute by Alphonse Lavallée, a lawyer and a prominent businessman from Nantes, who put forward most of his personal capital into founding the school, together with three top scientists who became its founding associates: Eugène Peclet, Jean-Baptiste Dumas, Théodore Olivier. Notably, Lavallée was a shareholder of Le Globe, which became in 1831 the official organ of the Saint-Simonian movement; the founding vision of École Centrale was to train multidisciplinary engineers who will become the first "doctors of factories and mills" of the then-emerging industrial sector in France, at a time when most of the other engineering schools trained students for public service. As the scientific discoveries in this era were beginning to have a major impact on industrial development in Europe, a new breed of engineers with a broad and rigorous knowledge of sciences and mathematics were needed in order for France to develop its industry and compete amongst the world's superpowers.
The school was located in various premises in Paris, including Hotel Salé and buildings which now belong to Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers. Lavallée served as the first president of École Centrale. In 1857, Lavallée transferred the ownership of the school to the French state in order to ensure its sustainability. Under Napoleon's initiative for an imperial university, the school was temporarily renamed as École Impériale des Arts et Manufactures. In 1862, graduates of the school were awarded accredited graduate diplomas in engineering, with the official academic title of'ingénieur des arts et manufactures', the first of its kind in France; the school was transferred in 1969 to a new campus located in Châtenay-Malabry. The Châtenay-Malabry campus was designed by architect Jean Fayeton, was inaugurated by President Georges Pompidou, accompanied on this occasion by Robert Galley; the school was renamed as École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures. In 2015, the school formed a strategic alliance with Supélec to create CentraleSupélec, part of the University of Paris-Saclay.
The new campus is located in Gif-sur-Yvette 20 km from the center of Paris. École Centrale Paris was one of the Centrale Graduate Schools associated as the Groupe Centrale network with its sister institutes. Since 1837, the school had established several international partnerships with the world's leading universities, such as California Institute of Technology, University of Cambridge, ETH Zurich, Georgia Institute of Technology, Harvard University, Indian Institutes of Technology, KAIST, Princeton University, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Politecnico di Milano, National University of Singapore, Stanford University, University of Toronto, Tsinghua University, TU Delft and Technische Universität München, it was a founding member of the TIME network among top engineering schools in Europe, a member of the UniverSud Paris and the CESAER association of European engineering schools. Located in the Hôtel de Juigné, the main campus of the school was transferred to rue Montgolfier in 1884, where it stayed until 1969.
Its current location neighbours the Parc de Sceaux. Former location of the École Centrale, rue Montgolfier in Paris: The school is now located at Châtenay-Malabry, Hauts-de-Seine, a southern suburb of Paris, next to the Parc de Sceaux and its Château de Sceaux. Within the main campus at Châtenay Malabry, ECP hosts eight laboratories: Molecular and Macroscopic Energy, Combustion System Analysis and Macroeconomics Modeling Industrial Engineering Chemical Engineering and Materials Processing Laboratory Applied Mathematics Soil and Structure Mechanics Technology and Strategy Solids Structure and PropertiesMost of the 2000 students at École Centrale Paris stay in dedicated on-campus student residences, located near the research labs and accessible via public transport. Following the merger of the school with Supelec, now forming CentraleSupelec, the progressive move of the campus has started from Chatenay-Malabry to Gif-sur-Yvette. Most French students who were admitted to École Centrale Paris had completed 2 to 3 years of post high school education in sciences through the classes préparatoires or