The École nationale supérieure des beaux-arts is a fine arts grand school of PSL Research University in Paris, France. The École des beaux-arts is made up of a complex of buildings located at 14 rue Bonaparte, between the quai Malaquais and the rue Bonaparte; this is in the heart of Saint-Germain-des-Prés, just across the Seine from the Louvre museum. The school was founded in 1648 by Charles Le Brun as the famed French academy Académie de peinture et de sculpture. In 1793, at the height of the French Revolution, the institutes were suppressed. However, in 1817, following the Bourbon Restoration, it was revived under a changed name after merging with the Académie d'architecture. Held under the King's tutelage until 1863, an imperial decree on November 13, 1863 named the school's director, who serves for a five-year term. Long supervised by the Ministry of Public Instruction, the École des Beaux-Arts is now a public establishment under the Ministry of Culture; the École nationale supérieure des beaux-arts in Paris is the original of a series of Écoles des beaux-arts in French regional centers.
Since its founding in 1648, the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture has had a school, France's elite institution of instruction in the arts. Its program was structured around a series of anonymous competitions that culminated in the grand prix de l'Académie Royale, more familiar as the Grand Prix de Rome, for its winner was awarded a bourse and a place at the French Academy in Rome. During his stay in Rome, a pensionnaire was expected to send regular envois of his developing work back to Paris. Contestants for the Prix were assigned a theme from the literature of Classical Antiquity. With his final admission into the Académie, the new member had to present his fellow academicians a morceau de réception, a painting or sculpture that demonstrated his learning and proficiency in his art. Jacques-Louis David's Andromache Mourning Hector was his reception offering in 1783. In 1793, during the French Revolution, the Académie Royale and the grand prix de l'Académie Royale were abolished, but only a few years in 1797, the Prix de Rome was re-established.
Each year throughout the nineteenth century, the winner of the Prix de Rome was granted five years of study at the Villa Medici, after which the painter or sculptor could expect to embark on a successful official career. The program resulted in the accumulation of some great collections at the Académie, one of the finest collections of French drawings, many of them sent as envoies from Rome, as well as the paintings and sculptures the winners, of the competitions, or salons. Lesser competitions, known as the petits concours, took themes like history composition, expressions of the emotions, full and half-figure painting. In its role as a teaching institution, the École assembled a large collection of Italian and French etchings and engravings, dating from the 16th through the 18th century; such prints published the composition of paintings to a wide audience. The print collection was first made available to students outside the Académie in 1864. Today, studies include: painting, graphic arts, sculpture, digital media and video.
ENSBA provides the highest level of training in contemporary art production. Throughout history, many world-renowned artists have either studied at this institution; the faculty is made up of recognized international artists. Theoretical courses permitting diverse approaches to the history of the arts complement studio work, supported by technical training and access to technical bases; the ENSBA media center provides students with rich documentation on art, organizes conferences and debates throughout the year. The School buildings have architectural interest and house prestigious historical collections and an extensive fine arts library; the school publishes a dozen texts per year on different collections, holds exhibitions ranging from the school's excellent collection of old-master drawings to the most up to date contemporary works, in the Quai Malaquais space and the Chapel throughout the year. The school owns circa 450,000 items divided between artworks and historical books, making it one of the largest public art collections in France.
The collection encompasses many types of artistic productions, from painting and sculpture to etching, furniture or decorated books and from all the periods of art history. Many pieces of the collection are artworks created by students of the School throughout its history but former students and scholars contributed to enlarge the holdings with many gifts and donations to the institution; the collection consists in approximatively 2,000 paintings, 600 pieces of decorative arts, 600 architectural elements, nearly 15,000 medals, 3,700 sculptures, 20,000 drawings including works by Paolo Veronese, Jacques Bellange, Charles Le Brun, Nicolas Poussin, Claude Gellée, Dürer, Ingres, François Boucher or Pierre Alechinsky, 45,000 architectural drawings, 100,000 etchings and engravings, 70,000 photographs, 65,000 books dating from the 15th to the 20th century, 1,000 handwritten pieces of archive and 390 important fragments or complete illuminated manuscripts. The physical setting of the school stands on about two hectares in the Saint-G
John Paton Davies Jr. was an American diplomat and Medal of Freedom recipient. He was one of the China Hands, whose careers in the Foreign Service were ended by McCarthyism and the reaction to the loss of China. Davies was born in Sichuan, the son of Baptist missionaries John Paton and Helen Elizabeth Davies Sr, his grandfather was Cleveland drygoods merchant Caleb Davies. He spent two years at the Experimental College at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, one year at Yenching University graduated from Columbia University in 1931, he joined the Foreign Service upon graduation, was posted to China in 1933. During World War II, Davies was assigned as political attaché to General Joseph Stilwell, he began the assignment in February 1942, arriving in the China Burma India Theater in March, based in Assam and Kunming, China. Upon a short return to Washington, D. C. he married Patricia Louise Grady on August 1942, before returning to India. He served under Stilwell until the general's recall from China in the fall of 1944.
Davies was instrumental in the creation of the U. S. Army Observation Group to Yan'an, China, in 1944; the group known as the Dixie Mission, established the first official diplomatic and military contact between the United States and the Chinese Communists. Many of its members became victims of McCarthyism. Davies saw the mission as means to prevent, or at least decrease, Soviet influence over the Chinese Communists; as time progressed, Davies saw the Communists as a realistic alternative to the Kuomintang. After General Stilwell's recall, Davies served under General Albert Coady Wedemeyer, General Patrick J. Hurley; the last three months of 1944 were to prove his last in China, as Davies found himself at odds with Hurley, appointed acting ambassador to China in mid-November. The main point of contention between the two men was their views on the future of China. Hurley advocated for a unified government of Communists and Nationalists with the Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek at its head. Davies, believed that not only was a coalition impossible to form, but that Chiang's regime was a dead end for American policy in China.
Further, Davies believed. Davies visited Yan'an, twice; the second trip, in mid-December, resulted in an intense argument with Hurley over Davies' motives. Hurley accused Davies of working to undermine Hurley's unification talks between the CCP and the KMT. At this time, Hurley undertook work to finalize Davies' transfer out of China to Moscow. A second argument in the first week of January, resulted in Hurley threatening to destroy Davies' career and accusing the Foreign Service Officer of being a Communist. Davies departed China for good on January 9, 1945. Davies and several others, including Eric Sevareid and a Chinese general, were flying from Assam in India to Chongqing in 1943 when the plane developed engine trouble and the occupants were forced to bail out over the Burmese jungle, in an area inhabited by the Naga headhunters. Davies led all the passengers to safety and, in 1948, was awarded the Medal of Freedom. After the war, he served as first secretary in charge of the political section at the United States embassy in Moscow.
Davies was one of the China Hands who specialized in the Far East in the State Department. He predicted that Mao Zedong's Communists would win the Chinese Civil War, after they did so in 1949, he advocated US relations with Communist China to forestall a Soviet takeover; these views ran counter to prevailing government policy and provoked the "China lobby". Supporters of Chiang Kai-shek were looking for those who had helped "lose" China and Senator Joseph McCarthy was looking for any Communists in government. Davies was attacked as both. Nine investigations of Davies' loyalty between 1948 and 1954 did not produce evidence of disloyalty or Communist sympathies, his opposition to Communism was a matter of record. In 1954, under political pressure from McCarthy and Senator Patrick McCarran, Secretary of State John Foster Dulles asked Davies to resign, he refused, on November 5, 1954, Dulles fired him, claiming he had "demonstrated a lack of judgment and reliability." After the end of his diplomatic career, Davies returned to Peru and, with his wife, operated a furniture business.
Their company, won the International Design Award twice. The Davies family returned to the United States in 1964. After a protracted battle, Davies was exonerated and regained his government clearance in 1969; the family moved to Málaga, Spain in 1972, to France and England, back to the US. Davies died December 23, 1999, in Asheville, North Carolina, at the age of 91. "The China Hands: American Foreign Service Officers and What Befell Them," E. J. Kahn, Jr. NY Viking Press, 1975. ISBN 9780140043013 "China Hand: An Autobiography," John Paton Davies, Jr. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012. ISBN 978-0-8122-4401-4 Foreign and Other Affairs W. W. Norton & Co. Dragon by the Tail: American, British and Russian Encounters With China and One Another. W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-05455-1. Several obituaries January 1997 interview with John P. Davies "An Honest Diplomat" - tribute to John P. Davies University of Wisconsin–Madison newsletter article The ‘Breaking of an Honorab
Nicholas Andrew Martin Rodger FBA is a historian of the Royal Navy and senior research fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. The son of Lieutenant Commander Ian Alexander Rodger, Royal Navy, of Arundel and Sara Mary, née Perceval, Rodger was educated at Ampleforth College and University College, where he earned his D. Phil. degree in 1974 with a thesis titled "Naval policy and cruiser design, 1865–1890". He served for seventeen years at the Public Record Office as an assistant keeper of public records, 1974–1991. After resigning from the public service, he began a Naval History of Britain with the support of the National Maritime Museum, the Navy Records Society and the Society for Nautical Research; the museum gave him the title of Anderson Senior Research Fellow, 1992–1998. In 1999, he moved to the University of Exeter as senior lecturer, the following year was appointed professor of naval history. In 2007, he was elected a senior research fellow of All Souls Oxford, he served as honorary secretary of the Navy Records Society from 1976 to 1990.
He is a member and fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London and a fellow of the Royal Historical Society. He was elected as a Fellow of the British Academy in 2003. In 2015 he made a fellow of the Society for Nautical Research, he is engaged in writing a comprehensive treatise of British naval history. The first two volumes, Safeguard of the Sea and Command of the Ocean, have been critically acclaimed, he has been awarded the Julian Corbett Prize in Naval History. His book The Admiralty was chosen by the US Naval Institute as one of the best books of the 1980s, he received the Duke of Westminster's Medal for Military Literature in 2005 and was the winner of the 2005 British Academy Book Prize. In 2011, he was named the first Hattendorf Prize Laureate. Include: The Admiralty Articles of War: the Statutes which Governed Our Fighting Navies, 1661, 1749, 1886 The Naval Miscellany, vol 5 Navy Records Society The Wooden World: an Anatomy of the Georgian Navy Naval Records for Genealogists The Armada in the Public Records Navies and Armies: the Anglo-Dutch relationship in War and Peace 1688-1988 edited by G. J. A. Raven and N. A. M. Rodger.
J. B. Hattendorf, R. J. B. Knight, A. W. H. Pearsall, N. A. M. Rodger, G. Till, Capt. A. B. Sainsbury, Navy Records Society Naval Power in the Twentieth Century The Safeguard of the Sea: a Naval History of Britain, Volume 1, 660–1649 The Command of the Ocean: a Naval History of Britain, Volume 2, 1649–1815 A Guide to the Naval Records in the National Archives of the UK, ed. by Randolph Cock and N. A. M. Rodger Essays in Naval History, from Medieval to Modern Strategy and the Sea: Essays in Honour of John B. Hattendorf, ed. by N. A. M. Rodger, J. Ross Dancy, Benjamin Darnell, Evan Wilson Fellows – Rodger, Nicholas Fellows - Society for Nautical Research