Veterinary education is the tertiary education of veterinarians. To become a veterinarian, one must first complete a veterinary degree. In the United States and Canada all veterinary medical degrees are second entry degrees, require several years of previous study at the university level. Many veterinary schools outside North America use the title "Faculty of Veterinary Science" instead of "College of Veterinary Medicine" or "School of Veterinary Medicine", some veterinary schools in China and South Korea Veterinary schools are distinct from departments of animal science offering a pre-veterinary curriculum, teaching the biomedical sciences, providing graduate veterinary education in disciplines such as microbiology and molecular biology. Aspiring veterinarians can earn several types of degrees, differing by country and involving undergraduate or graduate education. In the United States, schools award the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine degree; this degree is awarded in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Iran, Nigeria, Philippines, South Korea, Thailand and Trinidad.
Other countries offer a degree equivalent to the North American DVM. In the United Kingdom and countries which have adopted the undergraduate system of higher education, a bachelor's degree is equivalent to a DVM. In the US, a four-year DVM degree such as Bachelor of Veterinary Science, Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine or Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery follows a four-year undergraduate degree. In Ireland, the Veterinary Medicine Programme at the University College Dublin awards the Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine. At the University of Edinburgh, the degree is BVM&S (Bachelors of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, the University of Glasgow, the degree awarded is the Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine & Surgery; some veterinary schools offer a degree enabling the recipient to practice veterinary medicine in their home country but does not permit the individual to take a licensing examination abroad. Although Ethiopia awards a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine degree, it is not recognized in the US or Western Europe.
About 50 percent of veterinarians own their own business. Nearly every country requires an individual with a veterinary degree to be licensed before practicing. Most countries require a non-national with a veterinary degree to pass a separate licensure exam for foreign graduates before practicing. In the US, the Educational Commission for Foreign Veterinary Graduates administers a four-step examination recognized by all American state and territorial veterinary licensing boards, the US federal government, the District of Columbia; the European Parliament issued a September 30, 2005 directive providing EU-wide standards for veterinary medical education and the recognition of veterinary degrees from member states. Licensure requirements are diverse. In South Africa, the Veterinary and Para-Veterinary Professions Act, Act 19 of 1982 provides for automatic licensure if an individual has graduated from one of several universities in South Africa, New Zealand, or the United Kingdom or has passed the licensure examination administered by the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons.
All others must register with the South African Veterinary Council. India has a similar system, in which degrees awarded by certain schools are "deemed" to qualify an individual to practice veterinary medicine, but has forgone an exam in favor of state tribunals which investigate credentials and control a registry of licensed practitioners. All developed countries and most newly industrialized and developing countries accredit veterinary schools; those in the US are accredited by the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education The EU is developing an accreditation standard, with accreditation provided by the European Association of Establishments for Veterinary Education as of 2008. Accreditation systems vary in developing nations. In Mexico El Consejo Nacional de Educación de la Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia accredits veterinary medical colleges, although few schools are accredited; the accreditation system is poor in other developing nations. With no accreditation system, the country's veterinary education is poor.
Admissions practices and difficulty vary among veterinary schools and by country. Admission is competitive, due to the small number of places available. Most AVMA-accredited institutions in Australia, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States share an online application system, known as the Veterinary Medical College Application Service. Many VMCAS colleges have additional, individualized application requirements, admissions standards are high. Admissions standards in Europe, South America and Africa vary with many veterinary schools limiting admission to students fr
École pour l'informatique et les techniques avancées
The École Pour l'Informatique et les Techniques Avancées, more known as EPITA is a private French Grande École specialized in the field of computer science and software engineering created in 1984 by Patrice Dumoucel. It is a private engineering school, member since 1994 of IONIS Education Group, accredited by the Commission des titres d'ingénieur to deliver the French Diplôme d'Ingénieur, based at Le Kremlin-Bicêtre south of Paris. In June 2013, EPITA becomes member of the Union of Independent Grandes Écoles, which includes 30 grandes écoles; the school is part of IONIS Education Group. The first two years of studies are preparatory years. During these two years, students study mathematics and electronics as well as algorithmics and computer science; the third year is the first year of engineering studies, where students learn the fundamentals in information technology and software engineering. This year is famous for its first month, during which students will be asked to make several projects, which lead them to code more than 15 hours per day.
Third year students are known to say that "sleeping is cheating" and remember this year as their most painstaking year at EPITA. During the fourth and fifth years students have to choose one of the eight majors: SRS, Systèmes, Réseaux et Sécurité MTI, Multimédia et Technologies de l'Information SCIA, Sciences Cognitives et Informatique Avancée GISTRE, Génie Informatique des Systèmes Temps Réel et Embarqués SIGL, Systèmes d’Information et Génie Logiciel TCOM, Télécommunications CSI, Calcul Scientifique et Image GITM, Global IT Management Official website The Multimedia and Information Technology major The Information Systems and Software Engineering major The Systems and Security major The Research and Development laboratory The Systems and Security laboratory The Innovation laboratory
École nationale supérieure de chimie de Lille
The École nationale supérieure de chimie de Lille was founded in 1894 as the Institut de chimie de Lille. It is part of the Community of Institutions Lille Nord de France, it is located on the technology campus of the University of Lille. It delivers engineering and research curricula in the following chemistry area: Sustainable Chemistry and processes for next generation chemistry, Formulation Chemistry, Materials science/metallurgy. Master's degrees are joint program curricula with University of Lille faculties and/or École centrale de Lille. Master's degree in Chemistry and Engineering Formulation - joint degree with University of Lille Master's degree in Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry Master's degree in Catalysis and Processes - joint program with École centrale de Lille. Master's degree in Advanced Materials - joint degree with University of Lille Master's degree in Engineering of the polymer systems - joint degree with University of Lille Master's degree in Chemistry, environment - joint degree with University of Lille Research is associated with the Institut des molécules et de la matière condensée de Lille of the Université Lille Nord de France and is supported through the following laboratories: Unité de catalyse et de chimie du solide de Lille, jointly operated with University of Lille and École centrale de Lille.
École nationale supérieure de chimie de Lille
École normale supérieure de Rennes
The École normale supérieure de Rennes called ENS Rennes is a French scientific Grande École, belonging to the network of Écoles normales supérieures. Its mission subsequently consists in preparing students "aimed at becoming researchers in fundamental or applied sciences, Professors in universities and classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles, as well as in secondary teaching, more at serving administrations of the State and local authorities, or their public establishments or enterprises." Established by a decree of the 17 October 2013 of the Prime Minister, the ENS Rennes is placed under the direct authority of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research, is a founder of the Université Européenne de Bretagne. Before 2013, it was a branch of the École normale supérieure Paris-Saclay, but the great geographical distance between Cachan and Rennes led to a bigger autonomy; the school is divided in five departments, admitting every year 80 to 100 Normaliens, students under the status of paid civil servants.
These are selected through selective entrance examinations, after at least two years of classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles. There are auditors, called "magistériens"; these two groups of students receive the same formation, during a typical four-year cursus. The ENS Rennes is efficient in leading its students to research, as albeit a wide range of possible career paths, more than 80% of a promotion pass the agrégation, more than 70% continue their formation by a PhD. ENS Ulm ENS Lyon ENS Paris-Saclay Classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles official website of the École normale supérieure de Rennes
The Grandes Écoles of France are higher education establishments that are outside the main framework of the French public university system. The Grandes Écoles are selective and prestigious institutions. Most Grandes Écoles select students for admission as graduates of bachelor degree programs, while others select students at the third year of undergraduate-level study, based chiefly on the student's national ranking in competitive written and oral exams. Candidates for the national exams have completed two years of dedicated preparatory classes for admission. Grandes écoles differ from public universities in France, which have a legal obligation to accept in the first year of undergraduate studies all candidates of the region who hold a corresponding baccalauréat.. Grande écoles do not have large student bodies: most give admission to few hundred students each year. Arts et Métiers ParisTech has the largest student population, with 6,000 students. Studying in some grandes écoles after passing the competitive exams is considered part of public service.
Students pay low or no fees, are paid monthly stipends by some institutions. They are committed to ten years of public service; the business schools charge higher fees. Economically disadvantaged students in grandes écoles may have access to grants and subsidies, just as they would at a public university; the phrase'Grande École' originated in 1794 after the French Revolution, when the National Convention created the École normale supérieure, the mathematician Gaspard Monge and Lazare Carnot created the École centrale des travaux publics and the abbot Henri Grégoire created the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers. The model was the military academy at Mézières, of which Monge was an alumnus; the system of competitive entry was a means to open up higher education to more candidates based on merit. Some schools included in the category have roots in the 17th and 18th century and are older than the phrase'Grande École', dated 1794, their forerunners were schools aimed at graduating civil servants, such as technical officers, mine supervisors and road engineers, shipbuilding engineers.
Five military engineering academies and graduate schools of artillery were established in the 17th century in France, such as the école de l'artillerie de Douai and the école du génie de Mézières, wherein mathematics and sciences were a major part of the curriculum taught by first-rank scientists such as Pierre-Simon Laplace, Charles Étienne Louis Camus, Étienne Bézout, Sylvestre-François Lacroix, Siméon Denis Poisson, Gaspard Monge. In 1802 Napoleon created the École Spéciale Militaire de Saint Cyr, considered a Grande École, although it trains only army officers. During the 19th century, a number of higher education Grandes écoles were established to support industry and commerce, such as École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Étienne in 1816, Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Paris, L'institut des sciences et industries du vivant et de l'environnement in 1826, École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures in 1829. Between 1832 and 1870, the Central School of Arts and Manufactures produced 3,000 engineers, served as a model for most of the industrialized countries.
Until 1864, a quarter of its students came from abroad. Conversely, the quality of French technicians astonished southeastern Europe, the Near East, Belgium; the system of grandes écoles expanded, enriched in 1826 by the Ecole des Eaux et Forêts at Nancy, the Ecole des Arts Industriels at Lille in 1854, the Ecole Centrale Lyonnaise in 1857, the National Institute of Agronomy, reconstituted in 1876 after a fruitless attempt between 1848 and 1855. The training of the lower grades of staff, who might today be called ‘production engineers’, was assured to an greater extent by the development of Ecoles d’Arts et métiers, of which the first was established at Châlons-sur-Marne in 1806 and the second at Angers in 1811, with a third at Aix-en-Provence in 1841; each had room for 300 pupils. There is no doubt that in the 1860s France had the best system of higher technical and scientific education in Europe. During the latter part of the 19th century and in the 20th century, more Grandes écoles were established for education in businesses as well as newer fields of science and technology, including Rouen Business School in 1871, Sciences Po Paris in 1872, École nationale supérieure des télécommunications, Hautes Études Commerciales, Ecole Supérieure des Sciences Economiques et Commerciales École supérieure d'électricité and Supaero.
Since France has had a unique dual higher education system, with small and middle-sized specialized graduate schools operating alongside the traditional university system. Some fields of study are nearly exclusive to one part of this dual system, such as medicine in universités only, o
École des ponts ParisTech
École des Ponts ParisTech is a university-level institution of higher education and research in the field of science and technology. Founded in 1747 by Daniel-Charles Trudaine, it is one of the oldest and one of the most prestigious French Grandes Écoles, its primary mission has been to train engineering officials and civil engineers but the school now offers a wide-ranging education including computer science, applied mathematics, civil engineering, finance, innovation, urban studies and transport engineering. École des Ponts is today international: 43% of its students obtain a double degree abroad, 30% of an ingénieur cohort is foreign. It is headquartered in Marne-la-Vallée, is a founding member of ParisTech and of the Paris School of Economics; the school is under the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Energy of France. Following the creation of the Corps of Bridges and Roads in 1716, the King's Council decided in 1747 to found a specific training course for the state's engineers, as École royale des ponts et chaussées.
In 1775, the school took its current name as École nationale des ponts et chaussées, by Daniel-Charles Trudaine, in a moment when the state decided to set up a progressive and efficient control of the building of roads and canals, in the training of civil engineers. The school's first director, from 1747 until 1794, was Jean-Rodolphe Perronet, civil service administrator and a contributor to the Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert. Without lecturer, fifty students taught themselves geometry, algebra and hydraulics. Visits of building sites, cooperations with scientists and engineers and participation to the drawing of the map of the kingdom used to complete their training, four to twelve years long. During the First French Empire run by Napoleon I from 1804 to 1814, a number of members of the Corps of Bridges and Roads took part in the reconstruction of the French road network that had not been maintained during the Revolution, in large infrastructural developments, notably hydraulic projects.
Under the orders of the emperor, French scientist Gaspard Riche de Prony, second director of the school from 1798 to 1839, adapts the education provided by the school in order to improve the training of future civil engineers, whose purpose is to rebuild the major infrastructures of the country: roads, but administrative buildings and fortifications. Prony is now considered as a influential figure of the school. During the twenty years that followed the First Empire, the experience of the faculty and the alumni involved in the reconstruction influenced its training methods and internal organisation. In 1831, the school opens its first laboratory, which aims at concentrating the talents and experiences of the country's best civil engineers; the school gradually becomes a place of reflection and debates for urban planning. As a new step in the evolution of the school, the decree of 1851 insists on the organisation of the courses, the writing of an annual schedule, the quality of the faculty, the control of the students’ works.
For the first time in its history, the school opens its doors to a larger public. At this time, in France, the remarkable development of transports, roads and canals is influenced by engineers from the school, who modernised the country by creating the large traffic networks, admired in several European countries. After the Second World War, the school focused on developing the link between economics and engineering; as civil engineering was requiring higher financial investments, the state needed engineers to be able to understand the economic situation of post-war Europe. From on, the program of the school had three different aspects: scientific and technic and economic; the number of admitted students increased in order to provide both the Corps of Bridges and Roads and the private sector trained young engineers. At the time, technical progress and considerable development of sciences and techniques used in building and the protection of the environment imposed a change of strategy in the training programme.
More specialisations were progressively created and the overall programme was adapted to national issues. École des Ponts ParisTech offers high-level programmes in an extensive range of fields, with traditional competences in mathematics, computer science, civil engineering, economics, environment, town & regional planning and innovation. École des Ponts ParisTech is among the schools called "généralistes", which means that students receive a broad, management-oriented and non-specialised education. The school offers specialized/research masters and PhDs, it has opened a design school, with programmes in innovation and startup creation. This undergraduate-graduate engineering programme is the original and main programme offered by the school, it is quite different from typical university or college studies and specific to the French system of Grandes Écoles. The Ingénieur degree of École des Ponts – the Diplôme d'Ingénieur – is equivalent to a Master of Science. Admissions for engineering students is done
The École Navale is the French naval academy, in charge of the education of the officers of the French Navy. They are educated at the academy for responsibilities onboard surface ships and submarines, in French Naval Aviation, with the fusiliers marins and commandos, on the general staff; the École Navale and its research institute are in Lanvéoc-Poulmic, south of the roadstead of Brest. The academy was founded by order of King Louis-Philippe; the academy was based on ships, anchored in the harbour of Brest, such as the Borda, hence the nickname of "Bordache" given to the students. In 1914, the École Navale was transferred ashore in Brest; the school was destroyed by Allied bombing raids during World War II, was moved to nearby Lanvéoc-Poulmic, on the opposite side of the bay of Brest. The academy remained in this location after the war, was inaugurated by Charles de Gaulle in 1965; the École Navale, created in 1830, was located onboard vessels harboured in Brest all of which were nicknamed Borda.
The first vessel to house the École Navale was named Orion. This ship had an inappropriate name for a naval academy, so it was renamed Borda. In 1863, the academy was transferred to the Valmy in 1890, to the Intrépide, in 1913, to the Duguay-Trouin, a school vessel for those applying to the Navy between 1900 and 1912. With the exceptions of the Orion and the Duguay-Trouin, each of these vessels was still christened as Borda; the new pupils are boarded from one day before the others. Crammed like sheep in a gunboat, they were bouncy and happy while launching a goodbye to their families; as soon as arrived, they were sorted, undressed in order to give them the white blouse and linen trousers. Their hair was shorn. Two days the parents were authorised onboard for the opening mass for the new cadets. Flags were placed around the altar, a single seat was reserved for the "Pope", the nickname of the captain commanding the academy; the parents took place on bench, the pupils entered, the senior ones first, tiding themselves on the sides, the new cadets in their new suit under the quip of the others who were screaming "Caillou!
Caillou!" to recognize the new cadets. This was followed by the first formal dinner of the new students. A traditional ceremony onboard the Borda was the presentation and delivery of the sword to the son by his "baille" father, for the first day of outing. In the spring, when the first outing in dinghy occurred, another consecration took place, this of baptism of the new cadets by the senior cadets of the academy, as the latter throw water buckets upon the former; the École Navale is traditionally called "La Baille". Its jargon comes principally from maritime slang. Like every "Grande Ecole", the jargon is wide-used among its student body. For example, the commander in second is the "widow"; the elephants, or the "pékins", are the civilians. The "chafustard" is the mechanic; the songs of the board are crude, but of high musical and literary standard. Nowadays, the student body uses some expressions coming from other military academies and from military high schools; the standard reference book about the jargon at "La Baille" was written by Commander Roger Coindeau, illustrated by Luc-Marie Bayle.
All this will not impede the future Navy officers to work hard. It is the first step. Comes the climbing of the second hune, little by little, everyone gets accustomed not to have dizziness, but to run on the footboard stretched beneath each yardarm, to unfurl the sail. All this is commanded by a whistle. If the job of topsman had become unuseful with the modern war boats, it was still taught to the student-officers, in order for them to be able to bring back a catch in time of war with its sails, because it was part of the old traditions of the French Navy; the two years of school were well filled up with everything that a Navy officer had to learn: rowing, the machines, armed drill and weapons instruction, combat training aboard or onshore, signal flags, vessel maintenance, superior mathematics, hydrography, English language, a lot more. At the 3rd year of studies, the 2nd classmen left the Borda for their training cruises to various parts of the world. In the beginning of the 20th century, a project to move the Ecole Naval, to the ground, had made its way.
The chosen place was in the district of Recouvrance. The project failed due to a lack of money; however the school settled in 1915 in buildings built in Laninon situated in Recouvrance, as the First World War was raging. Work for the campus began November 14, 1929 and was presided by Georges Leygues, minister of the Navy, the school was inaugurated on 30 May 1936 by Albert Lebrun, President of the Republic. Regardless of the grounding of the school, the final year of formation and training at sea has been preserved in the form of traditional cruisi