McGill University is a public research university in Montreal, Canada. It was established in 1821 by royal charter, granted by King George IV; the university bears the name of James McGill, a Montreal merchant from Scotland whose bequest in 1813 formed the university's precursor, McGill College. McGill's main campus is at Mount Royal in downtown Montreal, with the second campus situated in Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue on the Montreal Island, 30 kilometres west of the main campus; the university is one of two universities outside the United States who are members of the Association of American Universities and it is the only Canadian member of the Global University Leaders Forum within the World Economic Forum. McGill offers degrees and diplomas in over 300 fields of study, with the highest average admission requirements of any Canadian university. Most students are enrolled in the five largest faculties, namely Arts, Medicine and Management. McGill counts among its alumni 12 Nobel laureates and 145 Rhodes Scholars, both the most of any university in Canada, as well as five astronauts, the incumbent prime minister and two former prime ministers of Canada, the incumbent Governor General of Canada, 14 justices of the Canadian Supreme Court, at least eight foreign leaders, 28 foreign ambassadors, over eight dozen members of the Canadian Parliament, United States Congress, British Parliament, other national legislatures, several billionaires, nine Academy Award winners, 11 Grammy Award winners, four Pulitzer Prize winners, two Presidential Medal of Freedom recipients, at least 16 Emmy Award winners, 28 Olympic medalists, all of varying nationalities.
McGill alumni were instrumental in inventing or organizing football and ice hockey. McGill University or its alumni founded several major universities and colleges, including the Universities of British Columbia and Alberta, the Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Dawson College; the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning was created in 1801 under an Act of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada, An Act for the establishment of Free Schools and the Advancement of Learning in this Province. In 1816 the RIAL was authorized to operate two new Royal Grammar Schools, in Quebec City and in Montreal; this was a turning point for public education in Lower Canada as the schools were created by legislation, the District Public Schools Act of 1807, which showed the government's willingness to support the costs of education and the salary of a schoolmaster. This was an important first step in the creation of nondenominational schools; when James McGill died in 1813 his bequest was administered by the RIAL.
Of the original two Royal Grammar Schools, in 1846 one closed and the other merged with the High School of Montreal. By the mid-19th century the RIAL had lost control of the other eighty-two grammar schools it had administered. However, in 1853 it took over the High School of Montreal from the school's board of directors and continued to operate it until 1870. Thereafter, its sole remaining purpose was to administer the McGill bequest on behalf of the private college; the RIAL continues to exist today. Since the revised Royal Charter of 1852, The Trustees of the RIAL comprise the Board of Governors of McGill University. James McGill, born in Glasgow, Scotland on 6 October 1744, was a successful merchant in Quebec, having matriculated into the University of Glasgow in 1756. Soon afterwards, McGill left for North America to explore the business opportunities there. Between 1811 and 1813, he drew up a will leaving his "Burnside estate", a 19-hectare tract of rural land and 10,000 pounds to the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning.
On McGill's death in December 1813, the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning, established in 1801 by an Act of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada, added the establishing of a University pursuant to the conditions of McGill's will to its original function of administering elementary education in Lower Canada. As a condition of the bequest, the land and funds had to be used for the establishment of a "University or College, for the purposes of Education and the Advancement of Learning in the said Province." The will specified a private, constituent college bearing his name would have to be established within 10 years of his death. On March 31, 1821, after protracted legal battles with the Desrivières family, McGill College received a royal charter from King George IV; the Charter provided the College should be deemed and taken as a University, with the power of conferring degrees. Although McGill College received its Royal Charter in 1821, it was inactive until 1829 when the Montreal Medical Institution, founded in 1823, became the college's first academic unit and Canada's first medical school.
The Faculty of Medicine granted its first degree, a Doctorate of Medicine and Surgery, in 1833. The Faculty of Medicine remained the school's only functioning faculty until 1843, when the Faculty of Arts commenced teaching in the newly constructed Arts Building and East Wing; the university historically has strong links with the Canadian Grenadier Guards, a military regiment in which James McGill served as Lieutenant-Colonel. This title is m
EFMD Quality Improvement System
The EFMD Quality Improvement System is a school accreditation system. It specializes in higher education institutions of management and business administration, run by the European Foundation for Management Development. EQUIS has accredited 172 institutions in 41 countries around the world. EQUIS' directors as of 2018 are David Asch. In the past 20 years of existence the organization has accredited 172 institutions in 41 countries; the accreditation is awarded to business schools based on general quality. The process takes into account the business school's level of internationalization, not a strict requirement for accreditation by the other two major international accreditation bodies: AACSB and AMBA. So far, all accredited EQUIS business schools applying for AACSB accreditation have succeeded, which has not been the case the other way. EQUIS accreditation can be granted for five years. Association of MBAs Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business List of EQUIS accredited institutions Triple accreditation EQUIS on EFMD official website
Arts et Métiers ParisTech
Arts et Métiers ParisTech is a French engineering and research graduate school. It is a general engineering school recognized for leading French higher education in the fields of mechanics and industrialization. Founded in 1780, it is among the oldest French institutions and is one of the most prestigious engineering schools in France; the school has trained 85,000 engineers since its foundation by François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt. It is a "Public Scientific and Professional Institution" under the authority of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research and has the special status of Grand établissement; the École nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers, which adopted the brand name "Arts et Mėtiers ParisTech" in 2007, was a founding member of ParisTech, héSam and France AEROTECH. Arts et Métiers ParisTech consists of eight Teaching and Research Centres and three institutes spread across the country, its students are called Gadz'Arts. The school was founded in Liancourt, Oise, by Duke of Rochefoucauld-Liancourt in 1780.
After 1800, the institution became known as the École d'Arts et Métiers. Under Napoleon's reign, it was known as the "Ecole impériale des Arts et Métiers", he intended to use the school to train "Non-commissioned officers of Industry". The empire decided to move the school to a bigger city, Compiègne, in 1799; when Napoléon Bonaparte visited the castle where the school was located, he thought that it was inappropriate for such an industrial school to occupy the place. He decided to relocate the school to Châlons-en-Champagne in 1806, where two former monasteries were made available to offer much more space. Many students and alumni enlisted in the armed forces during the World War I, it is estimated that of the 6500 gadzarts who joined the army, 1100 died the first year of the conflict. Many campuses were damaged by the war that of Châlons-sur-Marne, in the middle of the Battle of the Marne; the Lille campus was occupied by the Germans and used as a military hospital. The other campuses were closed from 1916–17 and the new Parisian campus was undamaged.
Between the wars, the rapid industrialization of Europe favoured the Gadzarts. The arms race pushed industry to hire more engineers and the gadzarts matched their needs perfectly; the other important factor was the creation of new ranks in the hierarchical working organization. The middle management and upper management positions were perfect for the gadzarts engineers who filled these positions in most industries. During World War II, the school tried to keep a certain level of activity; the only campuses to experience some difficulties were Lille and Châlons-sur-Marne: in 1939 no new students were admitted. The Cluny campus was the target of a roundup in 1943 and a large part of students and staff were deported; the death of Jacques Bonsergent left a mark on the conflict, he became a symbol of resistance to the oppressor. The second school of this kind was founded in 1804 at Beaupréau and transferred to Angers in 1815. Three decades a third school was built in Aix-en-Provence in 1843, in former barracks and monasteries.
At the dawn of the 20th century, the development of the school expanded to three new campuses. In 1891, the ancient abbey of Cluny was chosen to host the activities of the 4th school. To go hand in hand with the industrial revolution, the members of parliament decided to create a 5th campus in Lille, a city, growing; the facilities of Lille were the first ones to be built expressly for the school. The campus of Paris, a long-standing project, was built between 1906 and 1912, it became the biggest campus of the Arts et World War II delayed the school's opening. By the end of the war, the campus had over 500 students. In the middle of the "Trentes Glorieuses", the 7th campus was created near Bordeaux, in the science park of Talence; the modern buildings were operational in 1963. The latest campus established was Metz; the campus was built in the science park, close to the transportation hubs. The school wanted this campus to become an international one, being close to Belgium and Germany, its construction was motivated by partnerships with German and American universities.
Between 1990 and 2000, the 3 institutes of research were created: Chambéry in 1994, Chalons-sur-Saône in 1997 and Bastia in 2000. The school has 2 satellite campuses in Bouc-bel-Air and Laval that are under the authority of the main campuses of Aix-en-provence and Angers; these satellites are linked to the research laboratories of the school. In 1817, the school's military status was removed by royal order and the official goal of the school was set to train qualified technicians. However, in practice, the organisation remained military and the students continued to wear the uniform; this tradition continues today. In 1826, a second royal order confirmed this new status and the military organisation was removed; the students were granted the right to wear the uniform as a civil one. After a third attempt, the students gained the right to form an association of the Arts et Métiers alumni in 1847; the regional campuses were transformed into engineer training institutions in 1907. In 1963, the curriculum was modified in order to recruit new students from the Classes préparatoires.
In 1964, the first woman was enrolled at the Arts et Métiers. The school became a grande école in 1976 and received the EPSCP status in 1990. In 2007, the school created the PRES ParisTech and adopted the brand name "Arts et Métiers
École centrale de Lille
Located in the campus of Science and Technology of the University of Lille in Villeneuve-d'Ascq. It is one of the Centrale Graduate Schools, its different curricula lead to the following French & European degrees: Ingénieur Centralien de Lille Masters Recherche & Doctorat Mastères Spécialisés Massive open online course in project management. Academic activities and industrial applied research are performed in French and English languages. Students from a dozen of nationalities participate to the different curricula at École Centrale de Lille. Most of the 1300 graduate engineer students at École Centrale de Lille live in dedicated residential buildings nearby research labs and metro public transports on a science and technology campus, shared with 20,000 students from the University of Lille. École Centrale de Lille was founded as École des arts industriels et des mines de Lille in 1854, the same year when Louis Pasteur became the dean of Faculté des sciences de Lille and pioneered applied research with industry cooperations, with support of scientists such as Charles Frédéric Kuhlmann.
Between 1854 and 1871, students attending the two-year curriculum grew to 90 per annum. Baccalaureate was a prerequisite to admission to the engineering school. In 1872 lectures and research activities in the engineering school were reorganised into a three-year curriculum and developed within its Institut industriel du Nord, with a focus on civil engineering, mechanical engineering and manufacturing engineering. Electrical engineering full courses were added in 1892, automobile design has been taught from 1899 onwards. More than 200 students graduated in year 1914. Aerodynamics studies started in 1930. A stress on automatic control and computers was initiated in 1957. Came courses and research in computer science, supply chain management, materials science, micro-electronics and telecommunications. Since early 20th century, student admission has been based on a competitive exam after attending a classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles or similar undergraduate studies. École Centrale de Lille was located in Lille central district from 1854 to 1875.
Larger buildings with dedicated laboratories were inaugurated in 1875 nearby the Faculté des sciences de Lille. It moved in 1968 in the modern campus of Lille University of Science and Technology, in the south-east suburb of Lille. Admission to the Centralien engineering Programme implemented at École Centrale de Lille is possible after two/three year scientific undergraduate studies and requires success to either: an admission exam for the Bachelor of Science degree: CASTing - Concours d'Admission sur Titre Ingénieur a French nationwide selective exam with numerus clausus: concours Centrale-Supelec a selective application as per TIME double degrees procedures applicable in Europe a selective application as per TIME Overseas double degree procedures applicable for selected Universities and Institutes of Technology in Brasil, Chile, Indonesia, Korea a selective application as per IMCC procedure for one-semester or one-year accredited post-graduate study period in France and USA a specific application process for other international students presented by their originating University.
The Centralien Programme lasts three years and results in a master's degree, augmented with international experience. Thus undergraduate studies + the Centralien Programme account for more than a cumulated 300 ECTS credit in the European education system. However, graduate students enrolled in the TIME double degree procedure are required to spend two-years at École Centrale de Lille and spend two years in the TIME-partner institute for a total of four years resulting in a double master's degree. Not to mention that 18% students attending courses at École Centrale de Lille are international students, all students enrolled in the Centralien Programme have an international exposure with opportunities to perform industry training and internship in enterprises worldwide, study abroad for 1 year in selected partner institutes providing Master courses, or be part of the 2+2 year TIME double degree programme. In addition to the Centralien Programme, École Centrale de Lille provides a range of master's degree cursus in science and engineering that are opened to applicants who have completed their undergraduate studies in other institutes.
Admission to Masters' second-year research cursus is possible for applicants who have performed their Master's first year in another institute and wish to focus on a research topic associated to Centrale Lille research labs. Admission to one of the 6 Masters from École Centrale de Lille is possible upon an application assessment process based on academic criteria. Note that Masters/Research workload is 60 ECTS credits and may be the starting point for doctorate studies; these 6 Masters and a larger number of Masters from other Centrale Graduate Schools and from partner institutes are possible as electives for a double degree alongside the Centralien Programme. Admission to one of the 6 Specialized Masters for Master-level specialization and continuing education in specific engineering
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Cholet is a commune of western France in the Maine-et-Loire department. It was the capital of military Vendée. In 1906 the population was 16,554, 54,632 in 2006. Cholet stands on an eminence on the right bank of the Moine, which used to be crossed by a bridge from the fifteenth century, it is about 50 km southeast of Nantes. The town owes the rise of its prosperity to the settlement of weavers there by Édouard Colbert, count of Maulévrier, a brother of the great Jean-Baptiste Colbert, it became an estate of Gabriel François, Count de Rougé and Marquess of Cholet, who developed the city and its economy. The main commercial mall being built this year is named after him: The "Arcades Rougé". During the early years of the French revolutionary wars, the town found itself at the heart of the counter-revolutionary struggle in the Vendée, culminating in October 1793 with the Battle of Cholet, won by the republicans and followed by a period of brutal government repression. Cholet was the departure of Stage 5 in the 2008 Tour de France.
It is scheduled to host a Team Time Trial stage in the 2018 Tour de France. According to the Jan 10th 1885 edition of Corbett's Herald, a temporary theatre had collapsed on an audience of 1000, causing 150 fatalities. A public garden occupies the site of the old castle. Megalithic monuments are numerous in the neighborhood. A textile museum exists to conserve the traditional machines used to create the famous handkerchiefs made in this town, as well as the techniques used to make them and the oral and local history associated with the industry. There are granite quarries in the vicinity of the town; the chief industry is the manufacture of linen and linen handkerchiefs, carried on in the neighboring communes on a large scale. Woolen and cotton fabrics are produced, bleaching and the manufacture of preserved foods are carried on. Cholet is the most important center in France for the sale of fat cattle and pigs, for which Paris is the chief market. Cholet Aérodrome serves Cholet; the Gare de Cholet railway station offers regional services towards Angers.
SO Cholet is based in the commune. Cholet Basket is based in the commune. Stage 3 of the 2018 Tour de France started and finished in Cholet Cholet is twinned with: Oldenburg, Germany since 1985 Dorohoi, Romania Solihull, United Kingdom Dénia, Spain Sao, Burkina Faso – cooperation Araya, Lebanon Pierre-De Saurel Regional County Municipality – twinning of the communauté d'agglomération Gilbert Prouteau (1917-2012, poet and film director. François Morellet, painter and light artist Antoine Rigaudeau, basketball player Communes of the Maine-et-Loire department INSEE commune file This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Cholet". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6. Cambridge University Press. P. 267. Official website
Angers is a city in western France, about 300 km southwest of Paris. It is chef-lieu of the Maine-et-Loire department and was the capital of the province of Anjou until the French Revolution; the inhabitants of both the city and the province are called Angevins. Not including the metropolitan area, Angers is the third most populous commune in northwestern France after Nantes and Rennes and the 17th in France. For centuries, Angers was an important stronghold in northwestern France, it was the cradle of the Plantagenet dynasty and became one of the intellectual centers of Europe during the reign of René of Anjou. Angers developed at the confluence of three rivers, the Mayenne, the Sarthe, the Loir, all coming from the north and flowing south to the Loire, their confluence, just north of Angers, creates the Maine, a short but wide river that flows into the Loire several kilometres south. The Angers metropolitan area is a major economic centre in western France active in industry and tourism. Angers proper covers 42.70 square kilometers and has a population of 147,305 inhabitants, while around 394,700 live in its metropolitan area.
The Angers Loire Métropole is made up of 30 communes covering 540 square kilometers with 287,000 inhabitants. Angers enjoys a rich cultural life, made possible by its museums; the old medieval center is still dominated by the massive château of the Plantagenêts, home of the Apocalypse Tapestry, the biggest medieval tapestry ensemble in the world. Angers is both at the edge of the Val de Loire, a World Heritage Site, the Loire-Anjou-Touraine regional natural park; the city is first mentioned by Ptolemy around AD 150 in his Geography. It was known as Juliomagus, a name by which it appears in the Tabula Peutingeriana; the name is a compound of the Latin name Julius and the Celtic magos, "market". Similar town dedications were common in Roman Gaul, toponyms kept a Gallic element; when the location needed to be distinguished from other Juliomagi, it was known as Juliomagus Andecavorum, in reference to the principal Gallic tribe in and around the city. Around AD 400, the city came to be referred to as the civitas Andecavorum.
This was a common change in Gaul seen in the names of Paris, Tours and Évreux around this time. During the Middle Ages, the late Latin name developed into the modern one, it is successively mentioned as Andecava civitas, Andegavis and Angeus. The form Angiers appeared during the 12th century and was corrupted to "Angers"; the Latin Andecavum gave Anjou its name. This double formation is quite common in France and is seen in Poitiers & Poitou and Bourges & Berry. Angers was traditionally known as the "Black City" because many roofs were built of slate, due to the quarry in neighbouring Trélazé; these have become less common since the development of the city in the 19th century. The city has been known as: "The Athens of the West", a name borne since the 19th century from the development of its university "The City of Flowers", a name from the Second Empire "Green City", in reference to its numerous parks and important horticultural industry "Angers the White", from its modern tufa façades and with ironic reference to its former name The coat of arms of Angers bears the French royal fleur de lys of the dukes of Anjou.
An acrostic from the Middle Ages calls it Antique clef de France, which means "Ancient key to France": Antique clef de France, Neteté de souffrance, Garant contre ennemis, Etappe d'assurance, Recours de secourance, Securité d'amis. Under Napoleon I's rule, Angers was one of the "Bonnes villes" and was therefore allowed to ask for a new coat of arms; the bees, symbol of the First French Empire replaced the royal fleurs de lys. In 1949, Angers received the 1939–1945 War Cross and since the decoration is sometimes placed between the two fleurs de lys. Angers had several mottos through its history: During Antiquity: Assiuis conciliis. Angers in located at the geographical center of the Maine-et-Loire department, on the road which connects Paris to the Atlantic ocean; the city is situated just south of the confluence of the Loir and Sarthe which form together the river Maine. The Maine crosses heads south towards the Loire; the confluence of the three rivers and the proximity of the Loire make up a natural crossroads which favoured the foundation of the antique Juliomagus.
Angers is located 124 km from Rennes, 132 km from Poitiers and 297 km from Paris. It is 118 km far from Pornic, the closest sea resort, situated on the Atlantic ocean. Elevation varies 12 to 64 meters above sea level. Angers is a hilly town marked by a rocky promontory dominating the lower valley of Anjou; this was the site of the ancient city and still houses the town's castle and medieval quarters. At the north and south, where the river Maine arrives in and leaves Angers, the landscape is formed by islands and floodplains which a