Louis XVIII of France
Louis XVIII, known as "the Desired", was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days. He spent twenty-three years in exile, from 1791 to 1814, during the French Revolution and the First French Empire, again in 1815, during the period of the Hundred Days, upon the return of Napoleon I from Elba; until his accession to the throne of France, he held the title of Count of Provence as brother of King Louis XVI. On 21 September 1792, the National Convention abolished the monarchy and deposed Louis XVI, executed by guillotine; when his young nephew Louis XVII died in prison in June 1795, the Count of Provence succeeded as king Louis XVIII. Following the French Revolution and during the Napoleonic era, Louis XVIII lived in exile in Prussia and Russia; when the Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814, Louis XVIII was placed in what he, the French royalists, considered his rightful position. However, Napoleon restored his French Empire.
Louis XVIII fled, a Seventh Coalition declared war on the French Empire, defeated Napoleon again, again restored Louis XVIII to the French throne. Louis XVIII ruled as king for less than a decade; the government of the Bourbon Restoration was a constitutional monarchy, unlike the Ancien Régime, absolutist. As a constitutional monarch, Louis XVIII's royal prerogative was reduced by the Charter of 1814, France's new constitution. Louis had no children, so upon his death the crown passed to his brother, Charles X. Louis XVIII was the last French monarch to die while still reigning, as Charles X abdicated and both Louis Philippe I and Napoleon III were deposed. Louis Stanislas Xavier, styled Count of Provence from birth, was born on 17 November 1755 in the Palace of Versailles, a younger son of Louis, Dauphin of France, his wife Maria Josepha of Saxony, he was the grandson of the reigning King Louis XV. As a son of the Dauphin, he was a Fils de France, he was christened Louis Stanislas Xavier six months after his birth, in accordance with Bourbon family tradition, being nameless before his baptism.
By this act, he became a Knight of the Order of the Holy Spirit. The name of Louis was bestowed. At the time of his birth, Louis Stanislas was fourth in line to the throne of France, behind his father and his two elder brothers: Louis Joseph Xavier, Duke of Burgundy, Louis Auguste, Duke of Berry; the former died in 1761, leaving Louis Auguste as heir to their father until the Dauphin's own premature death in 1765. The two deaths elevated Louis Stanislas to second in the line of succession, while his brother Louis Auguste acquired the title of Dauphin. Louis Stanislas found comfort in his governess, Madame de Marsan, Governess of the Children of France, as he was her favourite among his siblings. Louis Stanislas was taken away from his governess when he turned seven, the age at which the education of boys of royal blood and of the nobility was turned over to men. Antoine de Quélen de Stuer de Caussade, Duke of La Vauguyon, a friend of his father, was named as his governor. Louis Stanislas was an intelligent boy.
His education was of the same quality and consistency as that of his older brother, Louis Auguste, despite the fact that Louis Auguste was heir and Louis Stanislas was not. Louis Stanislas's education was quite religious in nature. La Vauguyon drilled into young Louis Stanislas and his brothers the way he thought princes should "know how to withdraw themselves, to like to work," and "to know how to reason correctly". In April 1771, when he was 15, Louis Stanislas's education was formally concluded, his own independent household was established, which astounded contemporaries with its extravagance: in 1773, the number of his servants reached 390. In the same month his household was founded, Louis was granted several titles by his grandfather, Louis XV: Duke of Anjou, Count of Maine, Count of Perche, Count of Senoches. During this period of his life he was known by the title Count of Provence. On 17 December 1773, he was inaugurated as a Grand Master of the Order of St. Lazarus. On 14 May 1771, Louis Stanislas married Princess Maria Giuseppina of Savoy.
Marie Joséphine was a daughter of Victor Amadeus, Duke of Savoy, his wife Maria Antonia Ferdinanda of Spain. A luxurious ball followed the wedding on 20 May. Louis Stanislas found his wife repulsive; the marriage remained unconsummated for years. Biographers disagree about the reason; the most common theories propose Louis Stanislas' alleged impotence or his unwillingness to sleep with his wife due to her poor personal hygiene. She never plucked her eyebrows, or used any perfumes. At the time of his marriage, Louis Stanislas was waddled instead of walked, he never continued to eat enormous amounts of food. Despite the fact that Louis Stanislas was not infatuated with his wife, he boasted that the two enjoyed vigorous conjugal relations – but such declarations were held in low esteem by courtiers at Versaill
The French Revolution of 1830 known as the July Revolution, Second French Revolution or Trois Glorieuses in French, led to the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch, the ascent of his cousin Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, who himself, after 18 precarious years on the throne, would be overthrown in 1848. It marked the shift from one constitutional monarchy, under the restored House of Bourbon, to another, the July Monarchy. Supporters of the Bourbon would be called Legitimists, supporters of Louis Philippe Orléanists. Upon Napoleon's abdication in 1815, continental Europe, France in particular, was in a state of disarray; the Congress of Vienna met to redraw the continent's political map. Many European countries attended the Congress, but decision-making was controlled by four major powers: the United Kingdom, represented by its Foreign Secretary Viscount Castlereagh. France's foreign minister, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand attended the Congress. Although considered an enemy state, Talleyrand was allowed to attend the Congress because he claimed that he had only cooperated with Napoleon under duress.
He suggested that France be restored to her "legitimate" borders and governments—a plan that, with some changes, was accepted by the major powers. France was returned to its 1791 borders; the House of Bourbon, deposed by the Revolution, was restored to the throne in the person of Louis XVIII. The Congress, forced Louis to grant a constitution, La Charte constitutionnelle. On 16 September 1824, after a lingering illness of several months, the 68-year-old Louis XVIII died childless. Therefore, his younger brother, aged 66, inherited the throne of France. On 27 September Charles X made his state entry into Paris to popular acclaim. During the ceremony, while presenting the King the keys to the city, the comte de Chabrol, Prefect of the Seine, declared: "Proud to possess its new king, Paris can aspire to become the queen of cities by its magnificence, as its people aspire to be foremost in its fidelity, its devotion, its love."Eight months the mood of the capital had worsened in its opinion of the new king.
The causes of this dramatic shift in public opinion were many, but the main two were: The imposition of the death penalty for anyone profaning the Eucharist. The provisions for financial indemnities for properties confiscated by the 1789 Revolution and the First Empire of Napoleon—these indemnities to be paid to anyone, whether noble or non-noble, declared "enemies of the revolution."Critics of the first accused the king and his new ministry of pandering to the Catholic Church, by so doing violating guarantees of equality of religious belief as specified in La Charte. The second matter, that of financial indemnities, was far more opportunistic than the first; this was because, since the restoration of the monarchy, there had been demands from all groups to settle matters of property ownership: to reduce, if not eliminate, the uncertainties in the real estate market both in Paris and in the rest of France. But opponents, many of whom were frustrated Bonapartists, began a whispering campaign that Charles X was only proposing this in order to shame those who had not emigrated.
Both measures, they claimed, were nothing more than clever subterfuge meant to bring about the destruction of La Charte. Up to this time, thanks to the popularity of the constitution and the Chamber of Deputies with the people of Paris, the king's relationship with the élite—both of the Bourbon supporters and Bourbon opposition—had remained solid. This, was about to change. On 12 April, propelled by both genuine conviction and the spirit of independence, the Chamber of Deputies roundly rejected the government's proposal to change the inheritance laws; the popular newspaper Le Constitutionnel pronounced this refusal "a victory over the forces of counter-revolutionaries and reactionism."The popularity of both the Chamber of Peers and the Chamber of Deputies skyrocketed, the popularity of the king and his ministry dropped. This became unmistakable when on 16 April 1827, while reviewing the Garde Royale in the Champ de Mars, the king was greeted with icy silence, many of the spectators refusing to remove their hats.
Charles X "later told Orléans that,'although most people present were not too hostile, some looked at times with terrible expressions'."Because of what it perceived to be growing and vitriolic criticism of both the government and the Church, the government of Charles X introduced into the Chamber of Deputies a proposal for a law tightening censorship in regard to the newspapers. The Chamber, for its part, objected so violently that the humiliated government had no choice but to withdraw its proposals. On 17 March 1830, the majority in the Chamber of Deputies passed a motion of no confidence, the Address of the 221, against the king and Polignac's ministry; the following day, Charles dissolved parliament, alarmed the Bourbon opposition by delaying elections for two months. During this time, the liberals championed the "221" as popular heroes, whilst the government struggled to gain support across the country as prefects were shuffled around the departments of France; the elections that followed returned an overwhelming majority.
This came after another
Siege of Kolberg (1807)
The Siege of Kolberg (} took place from March to 2 July 1807 during the War of the Fourth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars. An army of the First French Empire and several foreign auxiliaries of France besieged the Prussian fortified town of Kolberg, the only remaining Prussian-held fortress in the Prussian province of Pomerania; the siege was lifted upon the announcement of the peace of Tilsit. After Prussia lost the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt in late 1806, French troops marched north into Prussian Pomerania. Fortified Stettin surrendered without battle, the province became occupied by the French forces. Kolberg resisted, the implementation of a French siege was delayed until March 1807 by the freikorps of Ferdinand von Schill operating around the fortress and capturing the assigned French commander of the siege, Victor-Perrin. During these months, the military commander of Kolberg and the representative of the local populace, prepared the fortress's defensive structures; the French forces commanded by Teuliè, composed of troops from Italy, succeeded in encircling Kolberg by mid-March.
Napoleon put the siege force under the command of Loison, Frederick William III entrusted Gneisenau with the defense. In early April, the siege forces were for a short time commanded by Mortier, who had marched a large force from besieged Swedish Stralsund to Kolberg but was ordered to return when Stralsund's defenders gained ground. Other reinforcements came from states of the Confederation of the Rhine, the Kingdom of Holland, France. With the western surroundings of Kolberg flooded by the defenders, fighting concentrated on the eastern forefield of the fortress, where Wolfsberg sconce had been constructed on Lucadou's behalf. Aiding the defense from the nearby Baltic Sea were a British and a Swedish vessel. By late June, Napoleon massively reinforced; the siege force also concentrated on taking the port north of the town. On 2 July, fighting ceased when Prussia had agreed on an unfavourable peace after her ally Russia suffered a decisive defeat at Friedland. Of the twenty Prussian fortresses, Kolberg was one of the few remaining in Prussian hands until the war's end.
The battle became a myth in Prussia and was used by Nazi propaganda efforts. While prior to World War II the city commemorated the defendants, it started to honor the commander of the Polish troops after 1945, when the city became part of a Polish state. Within two weeks after the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt, Napoleon's Grande Armée had pursued the defeated Royal Prussian Army to Pasewalk in Prussian Pomerania; the provincial capital Stettin, one of twenty Prussian fortresses, capitulated on 29 October making Kolberg, which at that time had about 5,000 inhabitants, the province's only fortress remaining in Prussian hands. Pierre Thouvenout was appointed French governor of Pomerania and sent his envoy Mestram to accept Kolberg's expected capitulation and take control of it. On 8 November 1806, Mestram met with the Prussian commander of Kolberg Louis Maurice de Lucadou before its walls. Lucadou's refusal to hand over the fortress came as a surprise to the French generals and the Prussian administration in Stettin, who had pledged allegiance to the French.
Lucadou ordered the Persante river west of Kolberg to be dammed up to flood the area around the fortress, arranged the construction of Wolfsberg sconce east of the town. Coordination of these measures with Joachim Nettelbeck, representative of the Kolberg citizens, was however impaired by the latter's personal grievances against Lucadou. Among the Prussian soldiers who had retreated to Kolberg after Jena and Auerstedt was secondelieutenant Ferdinand von Schill, who after his recovery from a severe head injury in the house of Kolberg senator Westphal was ordered to patrol the areas west of the fortress with a small cavalry unit. Supplied with information about French movements by local peasants, he succeeded in capturing a number of French officers and soldiers, gathering food and financial supplies in neighboring towns and villages, recruiting volunteers to his unit from inside and outside Kolberg. Schill's victory in the skirmish of Gülzow, though insignificant from a military point of view, was noted as the first Prussian success against the French army - while Prussian king Frederick William III praised Schill as the "kind of man now valued by the fatherland", Napoleon referred to him as a "miserable kind of brigand".
As a consequence of these successes and Schill's increasing fame, Prussian king Frederick William III ordered him to establish a freikorps on 12 January 1807, which in the following months defended the fortress against French attacks allowing its defenders to complete their preparations for the expected siege with Swedish and British support via the Baltic. Time for preparation was needed since Kolberg lacked sufficient defensive structures and armament to withstand a siege; the defensive works of the fortress had been neglected, only the port and Kirchhof sconce had been prepared for defense when Prussia feared war with Russia and Sweden in 1805 and 1806, but they had been disarmed in September. By early December 1806, the Kolberg garrison numbered 1,576 men, but increased during the next months due to the arrival of Prussian troops and new recruits from nearby areas. Armament sh
Battle of Waterloo
The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815 near Waterloo in Belgium, part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands at the time. A French army under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated by two of the armies of the Seventh Coalition: a British-led allied army under the command of the Duke of Wellington, a Prussian army under the command of Field Marshal Blücher; the battle marked the end of the Napoleonic Wars. Upon Napoleon's return to power in March 1815, many states that had opposed him formed the Seventh Coalition and began to mobilise armies. Wellington and Blücher's armies were cantoned close to the northeastern border of France. Napoleon chose to attack them separately in the hope of destroying them before they could join in a coordinated invasion of France with other members of the coalition. On 16 June, he attacked the bulk of the Prussian army at the Battle of Ligny with his main force, while a portion of the French army attacked an Anglo-allied army at the Battle of Quatre Bras.
Despite holding his ground at Quatre Bras, the defeat of the Prussians forced Wellington to withdraw north to Waterloo on the 17th. Napoleon sent a third of his forces to pursue the Prussians, who had withdrawn parallel to Wellington in good order; this resulted in the simultaneous Battle of Wavre with the Prussian rear-guard. Upon learning that the Prussian army was able to support him, Wellington decided to offer battle on the Mont-Saint-Jean escarpment across the Brussels road. Here he withstood repeated attacks by the French throughout the afternoon of the 18th, aided by the progressively arriving Prussians. In the evening, Napoleon committed his last reserves, the senior battalions of the French Imperial Guard infantry; the desperate final attack of the Guard was narrowly beaten back. With the Prussians breaking through on the French right flank, Wellington's Anglo-allied army counter-attacked in the centre, the French army was routed. Waterloo was Napoleon's last. According to Wellington, the battle was "the nearest-run thing you saw in your life."
Napoleon abdicated four days and coalition forces entered Paris on 7 July. The defeat at Waterloo ended Napoleon's rule as Emperor of the French and marked the end of his Hundred Days return from exile; this ended the First French Empire and set a chronological milestone between serial European wars and decades of relative peace. The battlefield is located in the municipalities of Braine-l'Alleud and Lasne, about 15 kilometres south of Brussels, about 2 kilometres from the town of Waterloo; the site of the battlefield today is dominated by the monument of the Lion's Mound, constructed from earth taken from the battlefield itself. On 13 March 1815, six days before Napoleon reached Paris, the powers at the Congress of Vienna declared him an outlaw. Four days the United Kingdom, Russia and Prussia mobilised armies to defeat Napoleon. Critically outnumbered, Napoleon knew that once his attempts at dissuading one or more members of the Seventh Coalition from invading France had failed, his only chance of remaining in power was to attack before the coalition mobilised.
Had Napoleon succeeded in destroying the existing coalition forces south of Brussels before they were reinforced, he might have been able to drive the British back to the sea and knock the Prussians out of the war. Crucially, this would have bought him time to recruit and train more men before turning his armies against the Austrians and Russians. An additional consideration for Napoleon was that a French victory might cause French-speaking sympathisers in Belgium to launch a friendly revolution. Coalition troops in Belgium were second-line, as many units were of dubious quality and loyalty, most of the British veterans of the Peninsular War had been sent to North America to fight in the War of 1812; the initial dispositions of British commander Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, were intended to counter the threat of Napoleon enveloping the Coalition armies by moving through Mons to the south-west of Brussels. This would have pushed Wellington closer to the Prussian forces, led by Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, but may have cut Wellington's communications with his base at Ostend.
In order to delay Wellington's deployment, Napoleon spread false intelligence which suggested that Wellington's supply chain from the channel ports would be cut. By June, Napoleon had raised a total army strength of about 300,000 men; the force at his disposal at Waterloo was less than one third that size, but the rank and file were nearly all loyal and experienced soldiers. Napoleon divided his army into a left wing commanded by Marshal Ney, a right wing commanded by Marshal Grouchy and a reserve under his command. Crossing the frontier near Charleroi before dawn on 15 June, the French overran Coalition outposts, securing Napoleon's "central position" between Wellington's and Blücher's armies, he hoped this would prevent them from combining, he would be able to destroy first the Prussian's army Wellington's. Only late on the night of 15 June was Wellington certain that the Charleroi attack was the main French thrust. In the early hours of 16 June, at the Duchess of Richmond's ball in Brussels, he received a dispatch from the Prince of Orange and was shocked by the speed of Napoleon's advance.
He hastily ordered his army to concentrate on Quatre Bras, where the Prince of Orange, with the brigade of Prince Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar, was holding a tenuous position against the soldiers of Ney's left wing. Ney's orders were to secure the crossroads of Quatre Br
Siege of Stralsund (1807)
The Siege of Stralsund lasted from 30 January to 24 August 1807 and saw troops from the First French Empire twice attempt to capture the port city from Lieutenant General Hans Henric von Essen's 15,000-man Swedish garrison. On the first try, Marshal Édouard Adolphe Casimir Joseph Mortier blockaded the city for two months before he was called elsewhere. In his absence, the Swedes drove back the inferior blockading force. After Mortier returned and pushed Essen's troops back in turn, the two sides concluded an armistice; the truce was repudiated by King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden, whereupon Marshal Guillaume Marie Anne Brune led 40,000 French, Spanish and Dutch soldiers against the fortress. Fearfully outnumbered, the Swedes abandoned the Baltic Sea port of Stralsund to the Franco-Allies in this action during the War of the Fourth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars; as a consequence, Sweden lost the nearby island of Rügen. Sweden was established in Stralsund since the Battle of Stralsund, in the rest of the Duchy of Pomerania since the Treaty of Stettin.
By the Peace of Westphalia and the Treaty of Stettin, the duchy was partitioned into a Swedish part, including Stralsund, a Brandenburg-Prussian part. After minor losses in the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Swedish Pomerania was reduced to the area north of the Peene river with Greifswald, Stralsund and Rügen in the Treaty of Stockholm in 1720; when Napoleon Bonaparte started to expand eastwards in the Napoleonic Wars, the Swedish Empire maintained a neutral stance. In 1805, Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden entered the War of the Third Coalition on the anti-French side to strip Napoleon's ally Denmark of Norway, his Norwegian ambitions were thwarted by several diplomatic setbacks. Stralsund, a port in Swedish Pomerania, was defended by the Swedish governor Hans von Essen. On 28 January, French forces commanded by Marshal Mortier crossed the Peene River in an attempt to impose a blockade on Stralsund. To the east, General of Division Charles Louis Dieudonné Grandjean's division crossed the Peene at Anklam, driving back the Swedish outposts.
To the west, General of Division Pierre Louis Dupas' division crossed the stream unopposed near Demmin. On the 29th, Mortier's two divisions appeared before the port and on 30 January began the blockade. For the next two months, the two sides fought a number of skirmishes as the French strengthened their lines of investment. Without control of the island of Rügen, the French were unable to interrupt Stralsund's sea communications and were harassed by Swedish gunboats. During the blockade, one French cavalry and three infantry regiments were taken from Mortier to fight against the Russians in Poland and replaced by troops from the Kingdom of Holland. On 29 March, Mortier received orders to leave Grandjean's division to maintain the blockade and march to assist in the Siege of Kolberg in Brandenburg-Prussian Pomerania. After Mortier left, Essen drove. Grandjean fell back to Anklam where he was attacked again on 3 April and forced to retreat southeast to the fortress of Stettin on the Oder, arriving there on the 7th.
Mortier retraced his steps and by 13 April had assembled 12,000 to 13,000 men at Stettin, about the same number as Essen. In wet weather, Mortier began pressing Essen back to Anklam. On 16 April, Mortier defeated the Swedes in the Battle of Belling; the next day, Essen retreated to the north bank of the Peene. Beginning on 18 April, the French and Swedish forces arranged the truce of Schlatkow. Anxious to employ Mortier's men against the Russians and Prussians, Napoleon had authorized the marshal to make a truce with the Swedes. For their part, the Swedes were upset that England had given them little support. By the 29th, the terms were worked out; the Swedes were to stay on the north side of the Peene. They handed over the islands of Usedom and Wolin at the mouth of the Oder and promised not to help the Prussians at the sieges of Kolberg or Danzig. King Gustav IV Adolf landed in Stralsund on 12 May, denounced the truce on 3 July. By this time, the Treaties of Tilsit had just deprived Sweden of all her allies but Great Britain.
Autocrat Gustav IV Adolf however viewed Napoleon as the "monster of the apocalypse" and was unwilling to compromise on his anti-French policies. On 24 July, French Marshal Guillaume Brune attacked the Swedish positions on the Peene river and reoccupied the investing lines around Stralsund. Reinforced by troops from the failed Siege of Kolberg, Brune massed a total of 40,000 men, his French troops included General of Division Jean Boudet's 7-battalion French infantry division of 7,773 infantry and 200 artillerymen and General of Division Gabriel Jean Joseph Molitor's 8-battalion French infantry division of 8,712 infantry and 205 gunners. The Dutch contingent had General of Division Jean-Baptiste Dumonceau's 11-battalion infantry division of 9,924 foot soldiers and 570 gunners, General of Division Henri Gatien Bertrand's 6-battalion infantry division of 3,932 infantry and 159 artillerymen, General of Division Carteret's 5-squadron cavalry brigade of 1,112 troopers. Brune's Spanish allies included General Pedro Caro, 3rd Marquis of la Romana's 14 infantry battalions and 12 cavalry squadrons.
This corps totalled 9,763 infantry, 2,340 cavalry, 324 gunners, 104 sappers. General of Division Domenico Pino led a Kingdom of Italy division consisting of eight battalions, eight squadrons, two foot artillery batteries, one horse artillery battery; the Grand Duchy of Baden contributed six battalions, one squadron, one foot artillery battery. The small German states were represented by the Grand Duchy of Würzburg, two battalions, Duchy of Berg, two battalions, Duchy of Nassau, three bat
Battle of Jena–Auerstedt
The twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt were fought on 14 October 1806 on the plateau west of the river Saale in today's Germany, between the forces of Napoleon I of France and Frederick William III of Prussia. The decisive defeat suffered by the Prussian Army subjugated the Kingdom of Prussia to the French Empire until the Sixth Coalition was formed in 1812. Several figures integral to the reformation of the Prussian Army participated at Jena–Auerstedt, including Gebhard von Blücher, Carl von Clausewitz, August Neidhardt von Gneisenau, Gerhard von Scharnhorst, Hermann von Boyen. Both armies were split into separate parts; the Prussian Army was in a poor state. Brunswick was 71 years old; the Prussian army was still using tactics and training from the time of Frederick the Great. Its greatest weakness was its staff organization. Most of the divisions did not communicate well with each other; the Prussians had three forces: 60,500 under Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick 38,000 under Friedrich Ludwig, Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen 15,000 under Ernst von Rüchel.
The Grand Armée loved their generals. The army was experienced and was well led, with a good mix of older, more experienced Marshals, younger, upcoming Marshals. Napoleon's main force at Jena consisted of about 96,000 men in total: Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult's IV Corps Jean Lannes' V Corps Michel Ney's VI Corps Pierre Augereau's VII Corps The cavalry of Joachim MuratFurther north, in the vicinity of Auerstedt, the French forces were Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte's I Corps and Louis Nicolas Davout's III Corps; the battles began. Only 48,000 strong, the Emperor took advantage of his planned and flexible dispositions to build up a superior force of 96,000 men; the Prussians were slow to grasp the situation, slower still to react. Before Ruchel's 15,000 men could arrive from Weimar, Hohenlohe's force of 38,000 was routed, with 10,000 killed or wounded and 15,000 captured, it was a fierce battle, with 5,000 French losses, Napoleon mistakenly believed that he had faced the main body of the Prussian army.
Further north at Auerstedt, both Davout and Bernadotte received orders to come to Napoleon's aid. Davout attempted to comply via Eckartsberga. Davout's route south, was blocked by the Prussian main force of 60,500 men, including the Prussian King, the Duke of Brunswick and Field Marshals von Möllendorf and von Kalckreuth. A savage battle ensued. Although outnumbered two to one, Davout's superbly trained and disciplined III Corps endured repeated attacks before taking the offensive and putting the Prussians to flight. Though in sight of the battle, Bernadotte took no steps to come to Davout's aid, for which he was censured by Napoleon; the Prussian army was divided into three armies drawn from across Prussia. Prussia's main weakness in 1806 was its senior command structure, which included command positions being held by multiple officers. One such example is the position of Chief of Staff, held by three different officers: General Phull, Colonel Gerhard von Scharnhorst and Colonel Rudolf Massenbach.
This confusing system led to delays and complexities that resulted in over a month's delay before the final order of battle was prepared. Another obstacle facing the Prussians was the creation of a unified plan of battle. Five main plans emerged for discussion. Thus, the Prussian plans became mere reactions to Napoleon's movements. Although Prussia had begun its mobilization a month before France, Napoleon had kept a high state of readiness after the Russian refusal to accept defeat following the War of the Third Coalition. Napoleon conceived a plan to force Prussia into a decisive battle, like Austerlitz, pre-empt the Prussian offensive. Napoleon had a major portion of his Grande Armée in position in present-day Baden-Württemberg in southwest Germany, thus decided on a northeast advance into Saxony and on to Berlin; the battle commenced on the morning of 14 October 1806, on the grassy fields near Jena. The first movements of the French Army were attacks on either flank of the Prussian lines; this gave the supporting armies time to get into position.
These skirmishes had little decisive success save for a breakthrough by the French General Saint-Hilaire who attacked and isolated the Prussian left flank. At this time, Marshal Michel Ney had completed his maneuvers and had taken up position as ordered by Napoleon. However, once in position Ney decided to attack the Prussian line despite having no orders to do so; this proved to be an disastrous move. Ney's initial assault was a success, but he found himself overextended and under heavy fire from Prussian artillery. Recognizing this distressed salient, the Prussian general ordered a counterattack and enveloped Ney's forces. Napoleon recognized the situation Ney was in and ordered Marshal Jean Lannes to shift from the center of attack to help Ney; this action would leave the French center weak. However, Napoleon deployed the Imperial Guard to hold the French center; this adaptability was one of Napoleon's greatest strengths. He kept the Imperial Guard under his direct command, could order them to take positions depending on the situation that the battle presented him.
This rescue worked and Ney's units were able to retreat from the battle. Although the French were in a troubling situation at this moment, the Prussian commanders did not ta
Giuseppe Marco Fieschi
Giuseppe Marco Fieschi was a Corsican man and the chief conspirator in an attempted assassination of King Louis-Philippe of France in July 1835. Eighteen people were killed by the attack on the King and his entourage, but the King only received a minor wound and Fieschi was captured, he and two other conspirators were subsequently executed. Fieschi was born on 13 December 1790 in a commune on the island of Corsica, his parents were Marie Lucie, of Pomonti. He had two brothers and Anthony. Thomas was killed in the Battle of Wagram. Anthony was mute from birth. Giuseppe spent his adolescence as a shepherd. In 1808 he joined a Corsican regiment and was sent to Naples to Russia to fight in the Napoleonic Wars. In 1812 he held the rank of sergeant, he was returned to Corsica. In September 1815, he was one of around 1000 followers who joined former King of Naples Joachim Murat in an attempt to regain his kingdom, this ended a month with Murat's capture and execution by forces of Ferdinand IV of Naples. According to Harsin, Fieschi escaped execution and was deported to France, where he was sentenced in 1816 to 10 years in jail for the theft of a steer.
There he met Laurence Petit. Upon his release in 1826 he moved to Petit's hometown. Shortly after the July Revolution Fieschi moved to Paris, calling himself a political prisoner. There, he maintained a lifelong affair with his stepdaughter Nina which led to the break-up of his relationship with her mother, Laurence, he obtained a small post in Paris by means of forged papers. In 1831, Fieschi met his later-to-be co-conspirator a neighbour. Morey was a 61-year-old saddler, involved in Republican politics, he had been arrested but released in 1816, after falling under suspicion of plotting the assassination of the Bourbons. He was tried, acquitted of the murder of an Austrian soldier. In 1830, he took part in the July Revolution; the two contrived the plan for an "infernal machine", a Volley gun with 25 gun-barrels which could be fired simultaneously. Morey took the plan to chief of the Society of the Rights of Man Section Rome. After a meeting they decided to build the weapon, splitting the cost of 500 francs between Pepin and Morey, with the penniless Fieschi building it and being paid for it.
After much drama the volley gun was completed and ready to be used. The gun was built in the place it was intended to be used – a four-room apartment on the third floor of n° 50 Boulevard du Temple; this was on the expected route the King and his entourage would take during the annual review of the Paris National Guard. The annual review, which commemorated the 1830 July revolution, took place on 28 July 1835. At around noon, Louis-Philippe was passing along the Boulevard du Temple, which connected Place de la République to the Bastille, he was accompanied by three of his sons, the Duke of Orleans, the Duke of Nemours, the Prince de Joinville, a large number of staff and senior officers. Fieschi was waiting for them, 24 barrels of his gun were each loaded with eight bullets and 15-20 buckshot; when the royal party passed in the street below, he fired the gun. Not all the barrels fired. Eighteen people were killed at the scene, or died from their wounds, including Lieutenant Colonel Rieussec together with eight other officers of the 8th Legion, Marshal Mortier, Colonel Raffet, General Girard, Captain Villate, General La Chasse de Vérigny and Alexandre Labrouste, father of notable architect Henri Labrouste..
A further 22 people were injured, with at least four requiring limbs to be amputated. The King was one of the injured, but the wound was minor – a bullet or buckshot only grazed his forehead, although the horse he was riding was wounded, died several days later; the King reviewed the National Guard as planned. Four of the gun's 25 barrels burst when fired, four others did not fire, a further one was not loaded as it lacked a touch hole; this meant the number of deaths and injuries was lower than might have been the case had all components functioned. The gun barrels that exploded caused considerable damage to the room. Fieschi received severe head and hand wounds and he was captured. Two of his fingers had to be amputated. After his capture, Fieschi gave a false name, and it was only after some days that his true identity was discovered when he was recognized by the Inspector General of Prisons, Olivier Dufresne, while he was being held in the Conciergerie. Fieschi's trial became Fieschi enjoyed his stardom.
During the trial, he named his accomplices, displayed much bravado, expected or pretended to expect ultimate pardon. He was represented by the Corsican lawyer François-Marie Patorni, Parisian lawyers Gustave Louis Chaix d'Est-Ange and Jean-Baptiste-Nicolas Parquin, he was condemned to death, was guillotined on 19 February 1836 together with Pierre Morey and Theodore Pépin. Pepin died first Morey. Fieschi was the last, used his last moments for a speech. Fieschi's head was given to a doctor at Bicêtre Hospital for study purposes. Before his death Pepin made several confessions about revolutionary groups which led to subsequent arrests and trials. Another accomplice was sentenced to twenty years imprisonment and one was acquitted. No fewer than se