The point guard called the one or point, is one of the five positions in a regulation basketball game. A point guard has the most specialized role of any position. Point guards are expected to run the team's offense by controlling the ball and making sure that it gets to the right player at the right time. Above all, the point guard must understand and accept their coach's game plan. While the point guard must understand and accept the coach's gameplan, they must be able to adapt to what the defense is allowing, they must control the pace of the game. A point guard, like other player positions in basketball, specializes in certain skills. A point guard's primary job is to facilitate scoring opportunities for his/her team, or sometimes for themselves. Lee Rose has described a point guard as a coach on the floor, who can handle and distribute the ball to teammates; this involves setting up plays on the court, getting the ball to the teammate in the best position to score, controlling the tempo of the game.
A point guard should know when and how to instigate a fast break and when and how to initiate the more deliberate sets. Point guards are expected to be vocal floor leaders. A point guard needs always to have in mind the times on the shot clock and the game clock, the score, the numbers of remaining timeouts for both teams, etc. Among the taller players who have enjoyed success at the position is Ben Simmons, who at 6’ 10” won the 2018 National Basketball Association Rookie of the Year Award. Behind him is Magic Johnson, who at 6’ 9” won the National Basketball Association Most Valuable Player Award three times in his career. Other point guards who have been named NBA MVP include Russell Westbrook, Bob Cousy, Oscar Robertson, Allen Iverson, Derrick Rose and two-time winners Steve Nash and Stephen Curry. In the NBA, point guards are about 6' 4" or shorter, average about 6' 2" whereas in the WNBA, point guards are 5' 9" or shorter. Having above-average size is considered advantageous, although size is secondary to situational awareness, speed and ball handling skills.
Shorter players tend to be better dribblers since they are closer to the floor, thus have better control of the ball while dribbling. After an opponent scores, it is the point guard who brings the ball down court to begin an offensive play. Passing skills, ball handling, court vision are crucial. Speed is important. Point guards are valued more for their assist totals than for their scoring. Another major evaluation factor is assist-to-turnover ratio, which reflects the decision-making skills of the player. Still, a first-rate point guard should have a reasonably effective jump shot; the point guard is positioned on the perimeter of the play, so as to have the best view of the action. This is a necessity because of the point guard's many leadership obligations. Many times, the point guard is referred to by announcers as a "coach on the floor" or a "floor general". In the past, this was true, as several point guards such as Lenny Wilkens served their teams as player-coaches; this is not so common anymore, as most coaches are now specialized in coaching and are non-players.
Some point guards are still given a great deal of leeway in the offense. Point guards who are not given this much freedom, are still extensions of their coach on the floor and must display good leadership skills. Along with leadership and a general basketball acumen, ball-handling is a skill of great importance to a point guard. Speaking, the point guard is the player in possession of the ball for the most time during a game and is responsible for maintaining possession of the ball for his team in the face of any pressure from the opponents. Point guards must be able to maintain possession of the ball in crowded spaces and in traffic and be able to advance the ball quickly. A point guard that has enough ball-handling skill and quickness to be able to drive to the basket in a half-court set is very valuable and considered by some to be a must for a successful offense. After ball-handling and scoring are the most important areas of the game for a point guard; as the primary decision-maker for a team, a point guard's passing ability determines how well a point guard is able to put his decision into play.
It is one thing to be able to recognize the player, in a tactically advantageous position, but it is another thing to be able to deliver the ball to that player. For this reason, a point guard is but not always, more skilled and focused on passing than shooting. However, a good jump shot and the ability to score off a drive to the basket are still valuable skills. A point guard will use his ability to score in order to augment his effectiveness as a decision maker and play maker. In addition to the traditional role of the point guard, modern teams have found new ways to utilize the position. Notably, several modern point guards have used a successful style of post play, a tactic practiced by much larger centers and forwards. Working off of the fact that the opposing point guard is in all probability an undersized player with limited strength, several modern point guards have developed games close to the basket that include being able to utilize the drop step, spin move, fade away jump shot. In recent years, the sport's shift from a fundamental style of play to a more athletic, scoring-oriented game resulted in the proliferation of so-called combo guards at the po
Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France. The municipality of Bordeaux proper has a population of 252,040. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Bordeaux is the centre of the Bordeaux Métropole. With 1,195,335 in the metropolitan area, it is the sixth-largest in France, after Paris, Lyon and Lille, it is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called "Bordelais" or "Bordelaises"; the term "Bordelais" may refer to the city and its surrounding region. Being at the center of a major wine-growing and wine-producing region, Bordeaux remains a prominent powerhouse and exercises significant influence on the world wine industry although no wine production is conducted within the city limits, it is home to the world's main wine fair and the wine economy in the metro area takes in 14.5 billion euros each year. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century.
The historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble" of the 18th century. After Paris, Bordeaux has the highest number of preserved historical buildings of any city in France. In historical times, around 567 BC it was the settlement of a Celtic tribe, the Bituriges Vivisci, who named the town Burdigala of Aquitanian origin; the name Bourde is still the name of a river south of the city. In 107 BC, the Battle of Burdigala was fought by the Romans who were defending the Allobroges, a Gallic tribe allied to Rome, the Tigurini led by Divico; the Romans were defeated and their commander, the consul Lucius Cassius Longinus, was killed in the action. The city fell under Roman rule around its importance lying in the commerce of tin and lead, it became capital of Roman Aquitaine, flourishing during the Severan dynasty. In 276 it was sacked by the Vandals. Further ravage was brought by the same Vandals in 409, the Visigoths in 414, the Franks in 498, beginning a period of obscurity for the city.
In the late 6th century, the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks, but royal Frankish power was never strong. The city started to play a regional role as a major urban center on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish Duchy of Vasconia. Around 585, Gallactorius is fighting the Basque people; the city was plundered by the troops of Abd er Rahman in 732 after they stormed the fortified city and overwhelmed the Aquitanian garrison. Duke Eudes mustered a force ready to engage the Umayyads outside Bordeaux taking them on in the Battle of the River Garonne somewhere near the river Dordogne; the battle had a high death toll. Although Eudes was defeated here, he saved part of his troops and kept his grip on Aquitaine after the Battle of Poitiers. In 735, the Aquitanian duke Hunald led a rebellion after his father Eudes's death, at which Charles responded by sending an expedition that captured and plundered Bordeaux again, but did not retain it for long.
The following year, the Frankish commander descended again to Aquitaine, but clashed in battle with the Aquitanians and left to take on hostile Burgundian authorities and magnates. In 745, Aquitaine faced yet another expedition by Charles's sons Pepin and Carloman, against Hunald, the Aquitanian princeps strong in Bordeaux. Hunald was defeated, his son Waifer replaced him, confirmed Bordeaux as the capital city. During the last stage of the war against Aquitaine, it was one of Waifer's last important strongholds to fall to King Pepin the Short's troops. Next to Bordeaux, Charlemagne built the fortress of Fronsac on a hill across the border with the Basques, where Basque commanders came over to vow loyalty to him. In 778, Seguin was appointed count of Bordeaux undermining the power of the Duke Lupo, leading to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass that year. In 814, Seguin was made Duke of Vasconia, but he was deposed in 816 for failing to suppress or sympathise with a Basque rebellion. Under the Carolingians, sometimes the Counts of Bordeaux held the title concomitantly with that of Duke of Vasconia.
They were meant to keep the Basques in check and defend the mouth of the Garonne from the Vikings when the latter appeared c. 844 in the region of Bordeaux. In Autumn 845, count Seguin II marched on the Vikings, who were assaulting Bordeaux and Saintes, but he was captured and executed. No bishops were mentioned during part of the 9th in Bordeaux. From the 12th to the 15th century, Bordeaux regained importance following the marriage of Duchess Eléonore of Aquitaine with the French-speaking Count Henri Plantagenet, born in Le Mans, who became, within months of their wedding, King Henry II of England; the city flourished due to the wine trade, the cathedral of St. André was built, it was the capital of an independent state under Edward, the Black Prince, but in the end, after the Battle of Castillon, it was annexed by France which extended its territory. The Château Trompette and the Fort du Hâ, built by Charles VII of France, were the symbols of the new domination, which however deprived the city of its wealth by halting the wine commerce with England.
In 1462, Bordeaux obtained a parliament, but regained importance only in the 16th century when it became the centre of the distribution of sugar and slaves from the West Indies along with the traditional wine. Bordeaux adhered to the Fronde
A sports club or sporting club, sometimes athletics club or sports society or sports association, is a group of people formed for the purpose of playing sports. Sports clubs range from organisations whose members play together and may play other similar clubs on occasion, watched by family and friends, to large commercial organisations with professional players which have teams which compete against those of other clubs and attract sometimes large crowds of paying spectators. Clubs may be dedicated to several; the term athletics club is sometimes used for a general sports club, rather than one dedicated to athletics proper. Larger sports clubs are characterized by having professional and amateur departments in various sports such as bike polo, basketball, cricket, handball, rink hockey, water polo, rugby and field athletics, baseball, tennis, rowing and others, including less traditional sports such as airsoft, orienteering, paintball or roller derby; the teams and athletes belonging to a sports club may compete in several different leagues and tournaments wearing the same club colors and using the same club name, sharing the same club fan base and facilities.
Many professional sports clubs have an associate system where the affiliated supporters pay an annuity fee. In those cases, supporters become eligible to attend the club's home matches and exhibitions across the entire season, have the right to practice every kind of sport at the club's facilities. Registered associate member fees, attendance receipts, sponsoring contracts, team merchandising, TV rights, athlete/player transfer fees, are the primary sources of sports club financing. In addition, there are sports clubs, or its teams, which are publicly traded and listed on a stock exchange - several professional European football clubs belonging to a larger multistports club are examples of this; some sports teams are owned and financed by a single non-sports company, for example the several sports teams owned by Red Bull GmbH and collectively known as Red Bulls. Other examples of this are the several sports teams owned by Bayer AG and Philips corporations through the TSV Bayer 04 Leverkusen and PSV Eindhoven that were works teams, the teams owned by the Samsung Group, the teams owned by the Anschutz Entertainment Group.
They may compete in several different sports and leagues, being headquartered in some cases across several countries. In many regions of the world like Europe, North Africa, Middle East, Indian subcontinent or Latin America, sports clubs with several sports departments or branches, including competitive professional teams, are popular and have developed into some of the most powerful and representative sports institutions in those places. In general, student sports can be described as composed by multisports clubs, each one representing its educational institution and competing in several sport disciplines. In the United States major institutions like The New York Athletic Club and Los Angeles Athletic Club serve as athletic clubs that participate in multiple sports. Examples abound of sports clubs that are in effect one sports team; each team from the NFL, CFL, NBA, MLB, NHL or MLS North American sports leagues, can be called sports clubs, but in practice, they focus on a single sport. There are some exceptions when multiple such teams are under one ownership structure, in which case the club may be referred to as a "sports and entertainment" company.
On the other hand, American varsity teams are organized into a structure forming a true multi-sport club belonging to an educational institution, but varsity collegiate athletics are never referred to as clubs. In the United Kingdom all major sports organizations are dedicated to a single sport, with a few minor multisport clubs such as Catford Wanderers. In addition, like in several other countries, many universities and colleges develop a wide range of student sport activities including at a professional or semi-professional level. Fulham F. C. once ran a professional rugby league team and rowing club, which other football clubs have emulated since. Many football clubs originate from cricket teams. Today, most major cities have separate clubs for each sport. Many clubs internationally describe themselves as football clubs. British football clubs field only football teams, their counterparts in several other countr
Élan Béarnais Pau-Lacq-Orthez known as Élan Béarnais, known as Élan Béarnais Pau-Orthez, is a French professional basketball club, based in Pau. They compete in the top-tier French league, the LNB Pro A, they are one of the most successful clubs in French basketball history, as they have won nine French League championships and have had European-wide successes as well. The Élan Béarnais was founded in 1931 in the town of Orthez in Pyrénées-Atlantiques in the southwest of France. Prior to that, the basketball club was just a section of the Orthez sports club, founded in 1908, it was not a "club" in the modern sense, but rather a sponsorship created by clerics to enable the local youth to play sports. The club first reached the top level of French professional basketball in 1973, they were relegated back to the second division, but returned to the top flight in 1976. The club made their European debut one year in 1977, by qualifying for the FIBA Korać Cup, their ascent continued by winning the FIBA Korać Cup in 1984, defeating Crvena zvezda in the final in Paris.
This was the first of many pieces of silverware that would be added to the club's trophy cabinet over the next two decades. More success followed as the Élan Béarnais were crowned champions of France for the first time, winning back-to-back titles in 1986 and 1987; this earned them entry into the FIBA European Champions' Cup. Despite their status as newcomers, they were anything but intimidated, completing their maiden campaign of 1986-87 with a shock 3rd-place finish and a perfect record at home, it was a magical run, as they defeated European giants or traditional clubs of European basketball like Žalgiris, Maccabi Elite Tel Aviv, Real Madrid and that season's champions, Tracer Milano, on their home court, La Moutète. The Élan Béarnais would remain a fixture in European competition every season thereafter, until 2008, setting a European longevity record of 31 years in the process; as this humble club from a village of 12,000 people at the foot of the Pyrénées blossomed into a power of European basketball, a move to a bigger city became necessary.
The club changed its name in 1989, becoming the Élan Béarnais Pau-Orthez, moved to the city of Pau, after the inauguration of the Palais des Sports in 1991. This move was made possible by the visionary efforts of two men: Pierre Seillant, the beloved longtime president of the club, André Labarrère, then-mayor of Pau. Thanks to them, the Palais was built, the Élan were able to remain in their home region of Béarn. With the relocation complete, the club carried on cementing their status as the dominant force of French basketball, winning seven more league championships over the next thirteen years; the club's total of nine championships ranks them third behind ASVEL and Limoges for the most of any team in the history of French professional basketball. The last one came in 2004, the second of back-to-back titles, was the culmination of a golden-age for the club; the previous season, 2003, was arguably the most spectacular in the history of Pau-Orthez, when the breathtaking abilities of two homegrown, young talents named Boris Diaw and Mickaël Piétrus spearheaded the Élan Béarnais to a sweep of all three French trophies.
Diaw's campaign won him the League MVP award for French players, following the season both he and Pietrus were drafted in the first round of the 2003 NBA Draft. Due to exodus of talent, a lack of coaching stability, financial problems, the success of the club waned from 2004 on, until rock-bottom was reached and the unthinkable happened: in 2009, the Élan Béarnais were relegated to the LNB Pro B after finishing in last place, it was their first stint in the second division since 1976. This disappointment was used as an opportunity to re-structure and re-strengthen the club, but although they earned immediate promotion back to the Pro A in 2010, their struggles continued, they were relegated for a second time in 2012. However, the Élan once again wasted no time in climbing directly back to the top-flight, in the 2013-14 season they narrowly missed out on qualifying for the playoffs for the first time since 2006. With club-legend Didier Gadou entrenched as the General Manager, former title-winning head-coach Claude Bergeaud back at the helm on the sideline, the future is bright once-again for this proud club.
They remain in a tussle for a playoff berth halfway through the 2014-15 season. In 2008, the club underwent a minor name-change for the second time in their history, becoming the Élan Béarnais Pau-Lacq-Orthez; the city of Lacq's inclusion in the name and entrance onto the director's board strengthened the club's Béarn identity. For their part, located just north-west of Pau, now provides funding to the club. Pau-Orthez play their home games at the Palais des Sports de Pau, which has a seating capacity of 7,707 people; the Élan Béarnais' biggest rival is Limoges CSP, another legendary French club, they have been trading blows with one another for national supremacy on the hardwood, both figuratively and since the early 1980s. In the 22 seasons between 1983 and 2004, the two clubs combined for 18 championships, multiple games between the two teams resulted in fights amongst the players, including one that ended in a brawl between Élan supporters and Limoges players at their old Orthez venue, La Moutète.
ASVEL is a fierce rival of the Élan Béarnais, games against both of these teams are referred to as the "Clasico's" of French basketball, receiving tremendous hype from the media and fans
In basketball, a double is the accumulation of a double-digit number total in one of five statistical categories—points, assists and blocked shots—in a game. Multiple players score double-digit points in any given basketball game. A double-double is the accumulation of a double-digit number total in two of the statistical five categories in a game; the most common double-double combination is points-rebounds, followed by points-assists. Since the 1983–84 season, Tim Duncan leads the National Basketball Association in the points-rebounds combination with 841, John Stockton leads the points-assists combination with 714, Russell Westbrook leads the rebounds-assists combinations with 134. A triple-double is the accumulation of a double-digit number total in three of the five categories in a game; the most common way to achieve a triple-double is through points and assists. Oscar Robertson leads the all-time NBA list with 181 career triple-doubles and is, along with Russell Westbrook, one of only two players to average a triple-double for a season.
Westbrook holds the record for most triple-doubles in a season with 42 and is the only player to average a triple-double for three consecutive seasons. A quadruple-double is the accumulation of a double-digit number total in four of the five categories in a game; this has occurred four times in the NBA. A quintuple-double is the accumulation of a double-digit number total in all five categories in a game. Two quintuple-doubles have been recorded at the high school level, by Tamika Catchings and Aimee Oertner, but none have occurred in a college or professional game. A similar accomplishment is the five-by-five, the accumulation of at least five points, five rebounds, five assists, five steals, five blocks in a game. In the NBA, only Hakeem Olajuwon and Andrei Kirilenko have accumulated multiple five-by-fives since the 1984–85 season. A double-double is defined as a performance in which a player accumulates a double-digit number total in two of five statistical categories—points, assists and blocked shots—in a game.
The most common double-double combination rebounds, followed by points and assists. Double-doubles are common in the NBA. During the 2008–09 season, 69 players who were eligible for leadership in the main statistical categories recorded at least 10 double-doubles during the season. Special double-doubles are rare. One such double-double is called double-double-double, it occurs. Another such double-double is called a triple-double-double; the only player in NBA history to record a 40-40 is Wilt Chamberlain, who achieved the feat eight times in his career. Of the five instances, four were recorded in his rookie season, the fifth was achieved the following year where he recorded 78 points and 43 rebounds in a game; the following is a list of regular season double-double leaders since the 1983–84 season: Longest continuous streak of double-doubles: According to the Elias Sports Bureau, Wilt Chamberlain holds the record with 227 consecutive double-doubles from 1964 to 1967. Chamberlain holds the second- and third-longest continuous streaks of double-doubles with 220 and 133.
This record is before the ABA–NBA merger in 1976. The longest streak of double-doubles since the merger was 53 games, achieved by Kevin Love of the Minnesota Timberwolves. A triple-double is defined as a performance in which a player accumulates a double-digit number total in three of five statistical categories—points, assists and blocked shots—in a game; the most common way for a player to achieve a triple-double is with points and assists, though on occasion players may record 10 or more steals or blocked shots in a game. The origin of the term "triple-double" is unclear; some sources claim that it was coined by former Los Angeles Lakers public relations director Bruce Jolesch in the 1980s in order to showcase Magic Johnson's versatility, while others claim that it was coined by Philadelphia 76ers media relations director Harvey Pollack in 1980. The triple-double became an recorded statistic during the 1979–80 season. There has been occasional controversy surrounding triple-doubles made when a player achieves the feat with a late rebound.
Players with nine rebounds in a game have sometimes been accused of deliberately missing a shot late in the game in order to recover the rebound. To deter this, NBA rules allow rebounds to be nullified if the shot is determined not to be a legitimate scoring attempt. From the 1990–91 to the 2010–11 season, the NBA averaged 34.5 triple-doubles per season 1 in every 36 games. From the 2011–12 to the 2016–17 season, the NBA saw a dramatic increase in the number of triple-doubles, with an average of 57.33 triple-doubles per season 1 in every 22 games. Russell Westbrook was responsible for 74 of the triple-doubles during that span, or 21.5% of the 344 total triple-doubles. Since the 1983–84 season, 28 triple-doubles have been recorded by players coming off the bench; the following is a list of regular season triple-double leaders: First triple-double in league history: Andy Phillip logged the league's first triple-double on December 14, 1950 versus the. He had 10 rebounds and 10 assists. Averaging a triple-double in a single season: Oscar Robertson and Russ
Élan Sportif Chalonnais known as Élan Chalon, is a French professional basketball club, based in Chalon-sur-Saône, France. The team's main colors are red and white, their mascot is a moose, they play their national domestic league games in the LNB Pro A league and internationally in the Basketball Champions League. The team's home arena is called Le Colisée. Founded in 1955, the club has traditionally be playing in the Pro A. In 2012, the club captured its first domestic championship by winning the Pro A Final over Le Mans. In 2017, Élan won its second domestic title; the club has been a regular in European competitions, as the team has been runners-up in three different FIBA competitions. The club was founded in 1955, after the merger of Association Sportive Chalonnaise and Élan de Saint-Jean des Vignes; the club merged with the football club Bourgneuf Val d'Or Mercurey of Bourgneuf Mercurey in 1970. The club reached full professional status in 1994. In the 2011–12 season, Chalon won the LNB Pro A title which meant they had won their first French championship.
Élan Chalon won the Final of the league 95–76 over Le Mans Sarthe Basket. Billy Ouattara and Clint Capela 24 points and 22 points, led the team to the win in the Final. In the 2012–13 season, Élan played its first Euroleague season in history: the club was eliminated after the regular seasons in which the club recorded 3 wins and 7 loses. In the 2016, Chalon reached the Final Four of the FIBA Europe Cup; the club hosted the Final Four at Le Colisée and ended on the third place after beating Russian side Enisey in the third-place game. The following 2016–17 season was another successful one for the club. Élan reached one further stage of the FIBA Europe Cup Final this time, by reaching the Final. In the double-legged Final, Chalon lost to other French side Nanterre 92. In the Pro, A the club captured its second national title after defeating SIG Strasbourg 3–2 in the Finals. Total titles: 5 French LeagueWinners: 2011–12, 2016–17French CupWinners: 2011, 2012Leaders CupWinners: 2012 Runners-up: 2011, 2016French Super CupRunners-up: 2011, 2012, 2017 FIBA Saporta CupRunners-up: 2000–01FIBA EuroChallengeRunners-up: 2011–12FIBA Europe CupRunners-up: 2016–17 3rd place: 2015–16 Philippe Hervé Gregor Beugnot Jean-Denys Choulet Official website Eurobasket.com Team Page
Amateur sports are sports in which participants engage or without remuneration. The distinction is made between amateur sporting participants and professional sporting participants, who are paid for the time they spend competing and training. In the majority of sports which feature professional players, the professionals will participate at a higher standard of play than amateur competitors, as they can train full-time without the stress of having another job; the majority of worldwide sporting participants are amateurs. Sporting amateurism was a zealously guarded ideal in the 19th century among the upper classes, but faced steady erosion throughout the 20th century with the continuing growth of pro sports and monetisation of amateur and collegiate sports, is now held as an ideal by fewer and fewer organisations governing sports as they maintain the word "amateur" in their titles. Modern organized sports developed in the 19th century, with the United Kingdom and the United States taking the lead.
Sporting culture was strong in private schools and universities, the upper and middle class men who attended those institutions played as amateurs. Opportunities for working classes to participate in sport were restricted by their long six-day work weeks and Sunday Sabbatarianism. In the UK, the Factory Act of 1844 gave working men half a day off, making the opportunity to take part in sport more available. Working class sportsmen found it hard to play top level sport due to the need to turn up to work. On occasion, cash prizes in individual competitions, could make up the difference; as professional teams developed, some clubs were willing to make "broken time" payments to players, i.e. to pay top sportsmen to take time off work, as attendances increased, paying men to concentrate on their sport full-time became feasible. Proponents of the amateur ideal deplored the influence of the effect it has on sports, it was claimed that it is in the interest of the professional to receive the highest amount of pay possible per unit of performance, not to perform to the highest standard possible where this does not bring additional benefit.
The middle and upper class men who dominated the sporting establishment not only had a theoretical preference for amateurism, they had a self-interest in blocking the professionalization of sport, which threatened to make it feasible for the working classes to compete against themselves with success. Working class sportsmen didn't see. Hence there were competing interests between those who wished sport to be open to all and those who feared that professionalism would destroy the'Corinthian spirit'; this conflict played out over the course of more than one hundred years. Some sports dealt with it easily, such as golf, which decided in the late 19th century to tolerate competition between amateurs and professionals, while others were traumatized by the dilemma, took generations to come to terms with professionalism to a result of causing a breakdown in the sport. Corinthian has come to describe one of the most virtuous of amateur athletes—those for whom fairness and honor in competition is valued above victory or gain.
The Corinthian Yacht Club was established in Essex in 1872 with "encouragement of Amateur Yacht sailing" as its "primary object." To that end, club rules ensured that crews consisted of amateurs, while "no professional or paid hand is allowed to touch the tiller or in any way assist in steering." Although the RCYC website derives the name Corinthian from the Isthmian Games of ancient Corinth, the Oxford English Dictionary derives the noun Corinthian from "the proverbial wealth and licentiousness of ancient Corinth", with senses developing from "a wealthy man" through "a licentious man" and "a man of fashion about town" to "a wealthy amateur of sport who rides his own horses, steers his own yacht, etc". Dixon Kemp wrote in A Manual of Yacht and Boat Sailing published in 1900, "The term Corinthian half a century ago was applied to the aristocratic patrons of sports, some of which, such as pugilism, are not now the fashion."The "Corinthian ideal" of the gentleman amateur developed alongside muscular Christianity in late Victorian Britain, has been analysed as a historical social phenomenon since the 20th century.
The Corinthian Football Club founded in 1882 was the paragon of this. In the United States, "Corinthian" came to be applied in particular to amateur yachtsman, remains current as such and in the name of many yacht clubs. By the early 21st century the Olympic Games and all the major team sports accepted professional competitors. However, there are still some sports which maintain a distinction between amateur and professional status with separate competitive leagues; the most prominent of these are boxing. In particular, only amateur boxers could compete at the Olympics up to 2016. Problems can arise for amateur sportsmen when sponsors offer to help with an amateur's playing expenses in the hope of striking lucrative endorsement deals with them in case they become professionals at a date; this practice, dubbed "shamateurism", was present as early as in the 19th century. As financial and political stakes in high-level were becoming higher, shamateurism became all the more widespread, reaching its peak in the 1970s and 1980s, when the International Olympic Committee started moving towards acc