La Cigale is a theater at 120, boulevard de Rochechouart near Place Pigalle, in the 18th arrondissement of Paris. The theatre is part of a complex, connected to Le Trabendo and the Boule Noire; the hall can accommodate 954 people. The floor of the orchestra has a scalable platform that can tilt and rise through a system of hydraulics; the Inrockuptibles Festival takes place 20 years at La Cigale. La Cigale hosts the Factory Festival. 1887: La Cigale is built on the site of the former cabaret Boule Noire, demolished to make room for the new theatre. In those days it featured theatrical reviews. 1894: The theatre is remodeled and enlarged by architect Henry Grandpierre, ceiling paintings are added by Adolphe Leon Willette. During this period it features performances by luminaries such as Mistinguett, Maurice Chevalier, Yvonne Printemps, Arletty and Max Linder. 1920: The hall is given over to operettas and avant-garde evenings with Jean Cocteau. A cabaret opens in the basement of the facility in 1924, but only lasts for three years when it is temporarily replaced by a small music hall called La Fourmi.
1940: La Cigale is converted to a movie theater specializing in Kung-fu films, X-rated movies. 1981: The vestibule and auditorium of the theatre is classified a historical monument on December 8, 1981 1987: La Cigale as a theatre is reopened by Rita Mitsouko along with Jacques Renault and Fabrice Coat, two former junk dealers and cofounders of the famous Paris nightclub Les Bains Douches. The auditorium is modernized and a system of hydraulics is added; the interior is redecorated by Philippe Starck. Corinne Mimram is appointed music director. 2007: La Cigale partners with the French telecommunications company, SFR for two years and the name is changed to La Cigale SFR. 2011 In January Jean-Louis Menanteau becomes the new director general. Entertainers who have performed at La Cigale include: Official website
Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats hundreds of thousands of people; the largest sporting venue in the world, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, has a permanent seating capacity for more than 235,000 people and infield seating that raises capacity to an approximate 400,000. Safety is a primary concern in determining the seating capacity of a venue: "Seating capacity, seating layouts and densities are dictated by legal requirements for the safe evacuation of the occupants in the event of fire"; the International Building Code specifies, "In places of assembly, the seats shall be securely fastened to the floor" but provides exceptions if the total number of seats is fewer than 100, if there is a substantial amount of space available between seats or if the seats are at tables.
It delineates the number of available exits for interior balconies and galleries based on the seating capacity, sets forth the number of required wheelchair spaces in a table derived from the seating capacity of the space. The International Fire Code, portions of which have been adopted by many jurisdictions, is directed more towards the use of a facility than the construction, it specifies, "For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the occupant load shall not be less than the number of seats based on one person for each 18 inches of seating length". It requires that every public venue submit a detailed site plan to the local fire code official, including "details of the means of egress, seating capacity, arrangement of the seating...."Once safety considerations have been satisfied, determinations of seating capacity turn on the total size of the venue, its purpose. For sports venues, the "decision on maximum seating capacity is determined by several factors. Chief among these are the primary sports program and the size of the market area".
In motion picture venues, the "limit of seating capacity is determined by the maximal viewing distance for a given size of screen", with image quality for closer viewers declining as the screen is expanded to accommodate more distant viewers. Seating capacity of venues plays a role in what media they are able to provide and how they are able to provide it. In contracting to permit performers to use a theatre or other performing space, the "seating capacity of the performance facility must be disclosed". Seating capacity may influence the kind of contract to be the royalties to be given; the seating capacity must be disclosed to the copyright owner in seeking a license for the copyrighted work to be performed in that venue. Venues that may be leased for private functions such as ballrooms and auditoriums advertise their seating capacity. Seating capacity is an important consideration in the construction and use of sports venues such as stadiums and arenas; when entities such as the National Football League's Super Bowl Committee decide on a venue for a particular event, seating capacity, which reflects the possible number of tickets that can be sold for the event, is an important consideration.
The seating capacity for restaurants is reported as'covers'. Seating capacity differs from total capacity, which describes the total number of people who can fit in a venue or in a vehicle either sitting or standing. Where seating capacity is a legal requirement, however, as it is in movie theatres and on aircraft, the law reflects the fact that the number of people allowed in should not exceed the number who can be seated. Use of the term "public capacity" indicates that a venue is allowed to hold more people than it can seat. Again, the maximum total number of people can refer to either the physical space available or limitations set by law. All-seater stadium List of stadiums by capacity List of football stadiums by capacity List of American football stadiums by capacity List of rugby league stadiums by capacity List of rugby union stadiums by capacity List of tennis stadiums by capacity Seating assignment
Le Trianon (theatre)
Le Trianon is a theatre and concert hall in Paris. It is located at 80, boulevard de Rochechouart, in the 18th arrondissement of Paris, at the foot of the hill of Montmartre; the Trianon-Concert was built as a café concert in 1894 in the garden of the Élysée Montmartre, requisitioned for the purpose.Édouard Jean Niermans, a young architect who designed or rebuilt several theaters around that time and decorated the Trianon-Concert. Opening in 1895, the Trianon-Concert was one of Paris's first music halls. Mistinguett, made her debut at the Trianon-Concert in its first year. Although her voice was thin, she was an accomplished mimic and comedian, became known for her shapely legs and risqué routines, became a star at the Moulin Rouge. In 1897 a new owner of the Élysée Montmartre refurbished the property, making two rooms: one for concerts and recitals, the other for dancing and skating; the architect, again Édouard Niermans, used steelwork salvaged from Gustave Eiffel's Pavillon de France, built for the Exposition universelle.
Artists such as La Goulue, Grille d’Egoût and Valentin le désossé performed on the stage, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec was a regular visitor. The quick-change artist Leopoldo Fregoli performed there. However, on the night of 17–18 February 1900 the hall and some of the other buildings of the Élysée were destroyed by a fire. Only the facade remained. Fregoli, playing there for the past five days, lost all his decorations and costumes. After the fire, the architect Joseph Cassian Bernard, a student of Charles Garnier and the designer of the Pont Alexandre III, undertook construction of a new 1000-seat theater in the Italian style, with two levels of balconies, it was inaugurated on 18 December 1902 as the Trianon-Théâtre. The theater was renamed the Théâtre Victor-Hugo in 1903, a subsidized theater that gave performances of classical works. In 1906 the theater became the Trianon-Comique, it was home to a branch of the Opéra-Comique that specialized in operetta. Picasso drew portraits of many of the habitués.
In 1917 the theater was renamed the Trianon-Lyrique. It became Le Trianon in 1920. In 1936 Le Trianon became a music hall, putting on performances by artists such as Yvette Guilbert, Marie Dubas, Fréhel and Pierre Dac. In 1939 the hall was converted into the Cinéphone Rochechouart, a cinema, using projectors, installed in 1936. Jacques Brel frequented the cinema in the early 1950s. In the post-war years the cinema was a popular venue, putting on family shows that might include a documentary and newsreel, live performances, a movie in color and cinemascope. Costume dramas were followed by swashbuckling adventure films, spaghetti westerns and karate and kung fu films. However, by the mid-1980s audiences were slumping as TV and VCR provided convenient alternatives to the cinema. In 1992 the cinema was forced to close. After returning to live performance, the theater presented plays and classical music concerts but was best known for performances of singers such as Carla Bruni, Bénabar and Higelin, for musical comedies.
The theater staged operas, musicals, show cases, fashion shows, movie previews, variety shows and festivals. It hosted the final phase of auditions of the Nouvelle Star TV show from 2003. Les Wriggles recorded a show on 23 September 2005. Included in the inventory of historical monuments in 1988, "Le Trianon" was closed for a complete restoration in 2009 did by Julien Labrousse architect and new owner of the place, it reopened to the public on 20 November 2010 with a series of concerts by artists that included M. I. A. Goldfrapp, Tricky, Ayọ, Herman Dune, Julien Doré, Rodrigo y Gabriela, Raphael Saadiq and Macy Gray. Le Trianon hosted the French-naturalized Indonesian singer Anggun for her concert in June 2012; the singer Rihanna appeared at Le Trianon on 17 November 2012 during her "777 tour" to promote her new album Unapologetic. And in July 2013, Singer-songwriter and Rapper Ke$ha performed during her European Leg of her 2nd solo headlining tour the Warrior Tour. On 11 December 2013, English superstar Fryars played a show to a aroused audience.
On 17 October 2015, for the first time, the venue held a Death Metal concert starring the band Opeth, celebrating their 25th anniversary for a sold out crowd. American pop girl group Fifth Harmony performed their concert at the venue on 9 November 2015 as the last and final stop on the European leg of their extended Reflection Tour; the Trianon has a grand entrance on the ground floor and contains the ballroom, winter garden, theater and a restaurant on the street, as well as dressing rooms and offices. The theater can hold 647 people seated in 440 people in the two balconies; each of the balconies has wide stairs leading down to the vestibule and ballroom. On the ground floor "Le Petit Trianon" is a coffee shop designed from the origins of the establishment and again in operation since May 2011 after 20 years of closure; the theater is served by the Anvers metro station. Citations Sources
Anvers (Paris Métro)
Anvers is a station on Paris Métro Line 2, on the border of the 9th and the 18th arrondissements in Montmartre. The station was opened on 21 October 1902 as part of the extension of line 2 from Étoile, it was the eastern terminus of the line until its extension to Bagnolet on 31 January 1903. The station is named after the city of Antwerp; the station is located under the Boulevard de Rochechouart, built on the route of the Wall of the Farmers-General in order to enforce the collection of taxation between 1784 and 1791 but demolished in the 19th century. Anvers is only station on line 2 between the Charles de Gaulle—Étoile and the Nation stations, not built on the site of a gate of the wall, which became important intersections and thus, logical places for stations. Instead, Anvers station was placed as close to the foot of the Montmartre funicular as possible; the Barrière de Rochechouart was at the east, near the junction of the Boulevard de Rochechouart and the Rue de Rochechouart. Near are the hill of Montmartre and the Basilica of the Sacré-Cœur Roland, Gérard.
Stations de métro. D’Abbesses à Wagram. Éditions Bonneton
Philharmonie de Paris
The Philharmonie de Paris is a cultural institution in Paris, France which combine spaces all dedicated to music. It is composed of concert halls, exhibition spaces, rehearsal rooms, educational services and bars; the main buildings are all located in the Parc de la Villette at the northeastern edge of Paris in the 19th arrondissement. At the core of this set of spaces is the symphonic concert hall of 2,400 seats designed by Jean Nouvel and opened in January 2015, its construction had been postponed for about twenty years to complete the current musical institution la Cité de la Musique designed by Christian de Portzamparc and opened since 1995. Dedicated to symphonic concerts, the Philharmonie de Paris present other forms of music such as jazz and world music; the project was announced on 6 March 2006, by the Minister of Culture and Communication, Renaud Donnedieu de Vabres, the Mayor of Paris, Bertrand Delanoë, the Director of the Cité de la musique and of the Salle Pleyel, Laurent Bayle, during a press conference on the reopening of the Salle Pleyel, now linked with the Cité de la Musique.
In 2007, Jean Nouvel won the design competition for the auditorium. He brought in Brigitte Métra as his partner, along with Marshall Day Acoustics, Nagata Acoustics and dUCKS Scéno; the cost of construction, expected to be €170 million, was shared by the national government, the Ville de Paris, the Région Île-de-France, but the final cost was around €386 million The hall opened on 14 January 2015, with a performance by the Orchestre de Paris of Faure's Requiem, conducted by Paavo Järvi, played to honor the victims of the Charlie Hebdo shootings which had taken place in the city a week earlier. It is located in the Parc de la Villette in the 19th arrondissement of Paris; this sector of the city was the home of the two brothers who carried out these killings. The opening concert was attended by French President François Hollande, but boycotted by the architect. Designed by Jean Nouvel, the Philharmonie 1 is an organic design with innovative forms rising like a hill within the Parc de la Villette.
Aluminium panels in a basketweave design swirl around the structure and contrast with the rest of its matte exterior. The exterior features the images of 340,000 birds etched into the surface in seven different shapes and four shades ranging from light grey to black to symbolize a grand take-off; the rooftop, 37 metres high, will be open to the public and will give visitors an expansive view of the city blending into the suburbs. The building houses the site's largest concert hall, called the Grande Salle Pierre Boulez; the design of the auditorium follows the model pioneered by the Berlin Philharmonie to intensify the feeling of intimacy between the performers and their audience. Indeed, the auditorium adapted the way the 2400 seats are distributed, between the parterre, behind the stage and on floating balconies around the central stage; the farthest spectator is only 32 metres from the conductor. The hall's enveloping configuration is designed to immerse the spectator in the music, its walls are composed of moving panels designed to redirect the sound in multiple directions.
These panels alternate with sound absorbing surfaces, specially treated to increase reflection and reverberation, the sound resonates throughout the vast acoustic volume. The tiers and parterre seating are retractable, offering an increased capacity of 3,650 people for events such as amplified concerts that require special configurations. A number of spaces for use by musicians are situated around the hall, including dressing rooms but rehearsal rooms. In all, the hall is encircled by five rehearsal rooms for various ensembles and ten chamber music studios. An entire section of the building is occupied by an 1,800-square-metre educational centre. With various rooms designed for collective practice, it will host workshop cycles for many groups; the site boasts an 800-square-metre exhibition space, a conference hall and two restaurants. The Philharmonie de Paris contracted the Austrian organ-maker Rieger Orgelbau to construct a pipe organ, it is made up of over 7,000 pipes with 91 stops and was designed to complement the building's architecture.
The organ debuted with a concert on 28 October 2015, with an improvisation by Thierry Escaich and a performance of Symphony No. 3. Another organ of 53 stops on 3 manuals and pedals had been built in 1991 by the same firm for the nearby Conservatoire de Paris. Official website Philharmonie de Paris at Google Cultural Institute 1:10 acoustic model of the Philharmonie de Paris
The Paris Métro is a rapid transit system in the Paris metropolitan area, France. A symbol of the city, it is known for its density within the city limits, uniform architecture and unique entrances influenced by Art Nouveau, it is underground and 214 kilometres long. It has 302 stations. There are 16 lines, numbered 1 to 14 with two lines, 3bis and 7bis, which are named because they started out as branches of lines 3 and 7. Lines are identified on maps by number and colour, direction of travel is indicated by the terminus, it is the second busiest metro system in Europe, after the Moscow Metro, the tenth-busiest in the world. It carried 1.520 billion passengers in 2015, 4.16 million passengers a day, which amounts to 20% of the overall traffic in Paris. It is one of the densest metro systems in the world, with 245 stations within the 86.9 km2 of the city of Paris. Châtelet – Les Halles, with five Métro lines, three RER commuter rail and platforms up to 800 m apart, is one of the world's largest metro stations.
However, the system has poor disabled accessibility, because most stations were built well before this became a consideration. The first line opened without ceremony on 19 July 1900, during the World's Fair; the system expanded until the First World War and the core was complete by the 1920s. Extensions into suburbs and Line 11 were built in the 1930s; the network reached saturation after World War II with new trains to allow higher traffic, but further improvements have been limited by the design of the network and in particular the short distances between stations. Besides the Métro, central Paris and its urban area are served by the RER, developed beginning in the 1960s, several tramway lines, Transilien suburban trains and two VAL lines, serving Charles De Gaulle and Orly airports. In the late 1990s, the automated line 14 was built to relieve RER line A. Métro is the abbreviated name of the company that operated most of the network: La Compagnie du chemin de fer métropolitain de Paris, shortened to "Le Métropolitain".
It was abbreviated to métro, which became a common word to designate all rapid transit systems in France and in many cities elsewhere. The Métro is operated by the Régie autonome des transports parisiens, a public transport authority that operates part of the RER network, bus services, light rail lines and many bus routes; the name métro was adopted in many languages, making it the most used word for a urban transit system. It is possible that "Compagnie du chemin de fer métropolitain" was copied from the name of London's pioneering underground railway company, the Metropolitan Railway, in business for 40 years prior to the inauguration of Paris's first line. By 1845, Paris and the railway companies were thinking about an urban railway system to link inner districts of the city; the railway companies and the French government wanted to extend main-line railways into a new underground network, whereas the Parisians favoured a new and independent network and feared national takeover of any system it built.
The disagreement lasted from 1856 to 1890. Meanwhile, the population became traffic congestion grew massively; the deadlock gave the city the chance to enforce its vision. Prior to 1845, the urban transport network consisted of a large number of omnibus lines, consolidated by the French government into a regulated system with fixed and unconflicting routes and schedules; the first concrete proposal for an urban rail system in Paris was put forward by civil engineer Florence de Kérizouet. This plan called for a surface cable car system. In 1855, civil engineers Edouard Brame and Eugène Flachat proposed an underground freight urban railroad, due to the high rate of accidents on surface rail lines. On 19 November 1871 the General Council of the Seine commissioned a team of 40 engineers to plan an urban rail network; this team proposed a network with a pattern of routes "resembling a cross enclosed in a circle" with axial routes following large boulevards. On 11 May 1872 the Council endorsed the plan.
After this point, a serious debate occurred over whether the new system should consist of elevated lines or of underground lines. The underground option emerged as the preferred solution because of the high cost of buying land for rights-of-way in central Paris required for elevated lines, estimated at 70,000 francs per metre of line for a 20-metre-wide railroad; the last remaining hurdle was the city's concern about national interference in its urban rail system. The city commissioned renowned engineer Jean-Baptiste Berlier, who designed Paris' postal network of pneumatic tubes, to design and plan its rail system in the early 1890s. Berlier recommended a special track gauge of 1,300 mm to protect the system from national takeover, which inflamed the issue substantially; the issue was settled when the Minister of Public Works begrudgingly recognized the city's right to build a local system on 22 November 1895, by the city's secret designing of the trains and tunnels to be too narrow for main-line trains, while adopting standard gauge as a compromise with the state.
On 20 April 1896, Par
The can-can is a high-energy, physically demanding dance that became a popular music hall dance in the 1840s, continuing in popularity in French cabaret to this day. Danced by both sexes, it is now traditionally associated with a chorus line of female dancers; the main features of the dance are the vigorous manipulation of skirts and petticoats, along with high kicks and cartwheels. The cancan is believed to have evolved from the final figure in the quadrille, a social dance, four couples would dance to; the exact origin of the dance is obscure, but the steps may have been inspired by a popular entertainer of the 1820s, Charles Mazurier, well known for his acrobatics, including the grand écart or jump splits—both popular features of the cancan. The dance was considered scandalous, for a while, there were attempts to suppress it; this may have been because in the 19th century, women wore pantalettes, which had an open crotch, meaning that a high kick could be unintentionally revealing. There is no evidence that cancan dancers wore special closed underwear, although it has been said that the Moulin Rouge management did not permit dancers to perform in "revealing undergarments".
People dancing the cancan were arrested, but there is no record of its being banned, as some accounts claim. Throughout the 1830s, it was groups of men students, who danced the cancan at public dance-halls; as the dance became more popular, professional performers emerged, although it was still danced by individuals, not by a chorus line. A few men became cancan stars in the 1840s to 1861 and an all-male group known as the Quadrille des Clodoches performed in London in 1870. However, women performers were much more known; the early cancan dancers were prostitutes, but by the 1890s, it was possible to earn a living as a full-time dancer and stars such as La Goulue and Jane Avril emerged, who were paid for their appearances at the Moulin Rouge and elsewhere. The most prominent male can-can dancer of the time was Valentin le Désossé a frequent partner of La Goulue; the professional dancers of the Second Empire and the fin de siècle developed the cancan moves that were incorporated by the choreographer Pierre Sandrini in the spectacular "French Cancan", which he devised at the Moulin Rouge in the 1920s and presented at his own Bal Tabarin from 1928.
This was a combination of the individual style of the Parisian dance-halls and the chorus-line style of British and American music halls. In the United States and elsewhere, the can-can achieved popularity in music halls, where it was danced by groups of women in choreographed routines; this style was imported back into France in the 1920s for the benefit of tourists, the French Cancan was born—a choreographed routine lasting ten minutes or more, with the opportunity for individuals to display their "specialities". The main moves are the high kick or battement, the rond de jambe, the port d'armes, the cartwheel and the grand écart, it has become common practice for dancers to yelp while performing the cancan. The cancan was introduced in America on 23 December 1867 by Giuseppina Morlacchi, dancing as a part of The Devil's Auction at the Theatre Comique in Boston, it was billed as "Grand Gallop Can-Can and danced by Mlles. Morlacchi, Diani, Baretta... accompanied with cymbals and triangles by the coryphees and corps de ballet."
The new dance received an enthusiastic reception. By the 1890s the cancan was out of style in New York dance halls, having been replaced by the hoochie coochie; the cancan became popular in Alaska and Yukon, where theatrical performances feature cancan dancers to the present day. The cancan is now considered a part of world dance culture; the main feature observed today is how physically demanding and tiring the dance is to perform, but it still retains a bawdy, suggestive element. When the dance first appeared in the early 19th century, it was considered a scandalous dance, similar to how rock and roll was perceived in the 1950s. In the mid-19th century it was thought to be immoral by respectable society. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries the cancan was viewed as much more erotic because the dancers made use of the extravagant underwear of the period, the contrasting black stockings, they lifted and manipulated their skirts much more, incorporated a move sometimes considered the most cheeky and provocative—bending over and throwing their skirts over their backs, presenting their bottoms to the audience.
The Moulin Rouge dancer La Goulue was well known for this gesture, had a heart embroidered on the seat of her drawers. A cancan dancer would sometimes stand close to a man, bet that she could take off his hat without using her hands; when he took the bet, she would execute a high kick that would take off his hat—and give him a quick look at her pantaloons while she was at it. It was a warning that anyone taking unwanted liberties with a dancer could expect a kick in the face. Early editions of The Oxford Companion to Music defined the cancan as "A boisterous and latterly indecorous dance of the quadrille order, exploited in Paris for the benefit of such British and American tourists as will pay well to be well shocked, its exact nature is unknown to anyone connected with this Companion." Many composers have written music for the cancan. The most famous music is French composer Jacques Offenbach's Galop Infernal in his operetta Orphée aux Enfer