Gerhard Schröder (CDU)
Gerhard Schröder was a West German politician and member of the Christian Democratic Union party. He served as Federal Minister of the Interior from 1953 to 1961, as Foreign Minister from 1961 to 1966, as Minister of Defence from 1966 until 1969. In the 1969 election he was outpolled by Gustav Heinemann; the son of a railway official, Schröder was born in Saarbrücken part of the Prussian Rhine Province. Having passed his Abitur exams, he went on to study law at the University of Königsberg and two semesters abroad at the University of Edinburgh, where he, according to his own accounts, became familiar with a British way of life. In 1932 he finished his studies in Bonn he had committed himself to the university group of the national liberal German People's Party. Schröder passed the first and second Staatsexamen in 1932 and 1936. Having obtained his doctorate in 1934 and worked as a consultant at the Kaiser Wilhelm Society in Berlin. Still as a referendary in Bonn, he had joined the Nazi Party on 1 April 1933 and the SA.
He continued his career as a law firm employee and in 1939 obtained an attorney's certificate and worked as a tax lawyer. He left the NSDAP in May 1941. In the same month and in connection, he married his wife, Brigitte Schröder née Landsberg, needing - she was half-Jewish - with an extraordinary permission by his Armed Forces superiors, he held federal office as Minister of the Interior and as Minister of Foreign Affairs in the cabinets of Chancellor Konrad Adenauer and of Ludwig Erhard. From 1966 to 1969 he served as Minister of Defence under Chancellor Kurt Georg Kiesinger. In 1969 Gerhard Schröder ran for the Office of the Federal President, but he was beaten by Gustav Heinemann, the nominee of the SPD, at the third ballot with 49.4% to 48.8% of the votes of the Federal Assembly. In the years following his active political activity, Schröder maintained a private discussion circle of former politicians and economic officials who philosophized about the global problems of the new era but no longer intervened politically in day-to-day business.
He endorsed the SDI program. His last appearance in the Bundestag was on 17 June 1984, when he held the ceremonial address of the commemoration ceremony of the June 1953 bloody uprising. Schröder died on December 1989 in his house on Sylt. After his death, the German Bundestag honored him on January 12, 1990 with a state act in the plenary hall. Gerhard Schröder was buried in the cemetery of the island church of St. Severin in Sylt. SA Sports Badge Iron Cross, 2nd class Black Wound Badge Eastern Front Medal Cholm Shield - awarded to German soldiers who participated in the defence of the occupied Soviet city of Kholm Grand Decoration of Honour in Gold with Sash for Services to the Republic of Austria Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic Grand Cross of the Order of Isabella the Catholic Martin Menke: Review of Torsten Oppelland, Gerhard Schroeder: Politik zwischen Staat, Partei und Konfession, H-German, H-Net Reviews, March, 2004. Photograph
Colombey-les-Deux-Églises is a commune in the Haute-Marne department in north-eastern France. The municipality Colombey-les-Deux-Églises was created administratively in 1793, it became part of the district of Chaumont and the canton Blaise. In 1801, under the name Colombey, it passed to the canton Juzennecourt. In 1972, it absorbed the communes Argentolles, Blaise, Harricourt and Lavilleneuve-aux-Fresnes. On 1 January 2017, the former commune of Lamothe-en-Blaisy was merged into Colombey-les-Deux-Églises. Colombey achieved fame as the home and burial site of the 20th-century soldier and statesman Charles de Gaulle, who acquired a substantial property on the southwestern edge of the village in 1934. De Gaulle withdrew to Colombey when his political fortunes waned, first on the establishment of the Fourth Republic in 1946, between 1953 and 1958, before he became President again at the height of the Algerian Crisis, his final withdrawal to Colombey came in 1969 and he died there the following year.
"Colombey" became used as a political metaphor for a statesman's temporary withdrawal from political life until his country came calling for him again. De Gaulle is buried in the cemetery in Colombey, in a humble grave with the inscription "Charles de Gaulle 1890-1970". In addition, a 145 ft high Cross of Lorraine was built at the western exit of the village, commemorating his distinguished wartime role as commander of the Free French Forces. A memorial museum was inaugurated in October 2008 by Angela Merkel; this joint Franco-German act marked the fiftieth anniversary of talks in Colombey on 14 September 1958 between Charles de Gaulle and Konrad Adenauer, as part of the process of post-war reconciliation. The River Blaise flows through the commune. Communes of the Haute-Marne department Official website, Colombey-les-Deux-Églises Official website, Mémorial Charles de Gaulle Mémorial Charles de Gaulle and other connected exhibitions
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
The New York Times International Edition
The New York Times International Edition is an English-language newspaper printed at 38 sites throughout the world and sold in more than 160 countries and territories. Founded under the title Paris Herald in 1887 in Paris as the European edition of the New York Herald, it changed owners and was renamed several times: it became the Paris Herald Tribune, global edition of the New York Herald Tribune in 1924 the International Herald Tribune in 1967, with The Washington Post and The New York Times as joint parent newspapers. In 2002, The New York Times Company took control of the International Herald Tribune, subtitled since The Global Edition of the New York Times. On October 15, 2013, the paper was renamed The International New York Times, in October 2016, it was integrated with its parent and renamed The New York Times International Edition. Autumn that year saw the closing of editing and preproduction operations in the Paris newsroom, where the paper, under its various names, had been headquartered since 1887.
The Paris Herald was founded on 4 October 1887, as the European edition of the New York Herald by the parent paper’s owner, James Gordon Bennett, Jr. The company was based in Neuilly-sur-Seine, a suburb of Paris, France. After the death of Bennett in 1918, Frank Andrew Munsey bought the New York Herald and the Paris Herald. Munsey sold the Herald newspapers in 1924 to the New York Tribune, the Paris Herald became the Paris Herald Tribune, while the New York paper became New York Herald Tribune; the newspaper became a mainstay of American expatriate culture in Europe. In Ernest Hemingway’s 1926 novel, The Sun Also Rises, the first thing the novel’s protagonist Jake Barnes does on returning from Spain to France is to buy the New York Herald from a kiosk in Bayonne and read it at a cafe. In Jean-Luc Godard’s 1960 film Breathless, the female lead character Patricia is an American student journalist who sells the New York Herald Tribune on the streets of Paris. Pages from the day’s paper can be seen tacked up through the office windows, a tradition, to continue with the International Herald Tribune.
In 1959 John Hay Whitney, a businessman and United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom, bought the New York Herald Tribune and its European edition. In 1966 the New York Herald Tribune was merged into the short-lived New York World Journal Tribune and ceased publication, but the Whitney family kept the Paris paper going through partnerships. In December 1966 The Washington Post became a joint owner; the New York Times became a joint owner of the Paris Herald Tribune in May 1967, whereupon the newspaper became known as the International Herald Tribune. In 1974, the IHT began transmitting facsimile pages of the paper between nations and opened a printing site near London. In 1977 the paper opened a second site in Zürich; the IHT began transmitting electronic images of newspaper pages from Paris to Hong Kong via satellite in 1980, making the paper available on opposite sides of the planet. This was the first such intercontinental transmission of an English-language daily newspaper and followed the pioneering efforts of the Chinese-language newspaper Sing Tao Daily.
In 1991, The Washington Post and The New York Times became sole and equal shareholders of the IHT. In February 2005 it opened its Asia newsroom in Hong Kong. In April 2001, the Japanese newspaper Asahi Shimbun tied up with the IHT and published an English-language newspaper, the International Herald Tribune/Asahi Shimbun. After The Washington Post sold their stake in the IHT, it continued being published under the name International Herald Tribune/Asahi Shimbun, but it was discontinued on February 2011. On 30 December 2002 The New York Times Company took control of the paper by buying the 50% stake owned by The Washington Post Company; the takeover ended a 35-year partnership between the two US domestic competitors. The Post was forced to sell when the Times threatened to pull out and start a competing paper; as a result, the Post entered into an agreement to publish selected Post articles in The Wall Street Journal’s European edition. After the takeover the IHT was subtitled The Global Edition of the New York Times instead of Published by The New York Times and The Washington Post.
In 2008, the NYT Company announced the merger of the New York Times and IHT websites. In March 2009 the IHT website became the global version of NYTimes.com. In 2013, the New York Times Company announced that the newspaper itself would be renamed The International New York Times to reflect the company’s focus on its core New York Times newspaper and to build its international presence. On 14 October 2013 the International Herald Tribune appeared on newsstands for the last time, it came with a supplemental section, titled Turning the Page, a retrospective on the Herald Tribune’s past articles and place in newspaper history. On October 15, 2013, the International New York Times debuted with a ‘Premier Edition’ flash above the masthead, it came with a supplement titled Turning the Page II, which discussed and predicted developments in many global areas including energy, finance and media. In October 2016, the newspaper was integrated with its parent and renamed The New York Times International Edition.
While the International Edition shares many columnists with The New York Times, it has its own voice in the field of culture. Well-known commentators include Alice Rawsthorn on design and Souren Melikian on art. Besides the daily edition, a weekly 16-page edition is published as The New York Times International Weekly featuring the best of New York Times articles for a week. Designed to complement and extend local reporting, it offers readers globally resonant coverage of ideas and trends, business
The relations between France and Germany, since 1871, according to Ulrich Krotz, has three grand periods:'hereditary enmity','reconciliation' and since 1963 the'special relationship' embodied in a cooperation called Franco-German Friendship. In the context of the European Union, the cooperation between the two countries is immense and intimate. Though France has at times been eurosceptical in outlook under President Charles de Gaulle, Franco-German agreements and cooperations have always been key to furthering the ideals of European integration. In recent times and Germany are among the most enthusiastic proponents of the further integration of the EU, they are sometimes described as "core countries" pushing for moves. A tram straddling the Franco-German border, across the river Rhine from Strasbourg to Kehl, was inaugurated on the 28th of April 2017 symbolising the strength of relation between the two countries. Both France and Germany track their history back to the time of Charlemagne, whose vast empire included most of the area of both modern-day France and Germany – as well as the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Austria and northern Italy.
The death of Charlemagne's son Louis the Pious and the following partition of the Frankish Empire in the 843 Treaty of Verdun marked the end of a single state. While the population in both the Western and Eastern kingdoms had relative homogeneous language groups, Middle Francia was a mere strip of a blurring yet culturally rich language-border-area between the rivers Meuse and Rhine – and soon partitioned again. After the 880 Treaty of Ribemont, the border between the western and eastern kingdoms remained unchanged for some 600 years. Germany went on with a centuries-long attachment with Italy, while France grew into deeper relations with England. Despite a gradual cultural alienation during the High and Late Middle Ages and cultural interrelations remained present through the preeminence of Latin language and Frankish clergy and nobility; the Emperor Charles V, a member of the Austrian House of Habsburg, inherited the Low Countries and the Franche-Comté in 1506. When he inherited Spain in 1516, France was surrounded by Habsburg territories and felt under pressure.
The resulting tension between the two powers caused a number of conflicts such as the War of the Spanish Succession, until the Diplomatic Revolution of 1756 made them allies against Prussia. The Thirty Years' War, devastating large parts of the Holy Roman Empire, fell into this period. Although the war was a conflict between Protestants and Catholics, Catholic France sided with the Protestants against the Austrian-led Catholic Imperial forces; the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 gave France part of Alsace. The 1679 Treaties of Nijmegen consolidated this result by bringing several towns under French control. In 1681, Louis XIV marched into the city of Strasbourg on September 30, proclaimed its annexation. Meanwhile, the expanding Muslim Ottoman Empire became a serious threat to Austria; the Vatican initiated a so-called Holy League against the "hereditary enemy" of Christian Europe. Far from joining or supporting the common effort of Austria and Poland, France under Louis XIV of France invaded the Spanish Netherlands in September 1683, a few days before the Battle of Vienna.
While Austria was occupied with the Great Turkish War, France initiated the War of the Grand Alliance. The attempt to conquer large parts of southern Germany failed when German troops were withdrawn from the Ottoman border and moved to the region. However, following a scorched earth policy that caused a large public outcry at the time, French troops devastated large parts of the Palatinate, burning down and levelling numerous cities and towns in southern Germany. In the 18th century, the rise of Prussia as a new German power caused the Diplomatic Revolution and an alliance between France and Russia, manifested in 1756 in the Treaty of Versailles and the Seven Years' War against Prussia and Great Britain. Although a German national state was on the horizon, the loyalties of the German population were with smaller states; the French war against Prussia was justified through its role as guarantor of the Peace of Westphalia, it was in fact fighting on the side of the majority of German states. Frederick the Great led the defense of Prussia for 7 years, though outnumbered, defeated his French and Austrian invaders.
Prussia and France clashed multiple times, many more times than the other countries. This started years of hatred between the two countries. Frederick the Great was soon respected by all of his enemies, Napoleon himself used him as a model for battle; the civil population still regarded war as a conflict between their authorities, did not so much distinguish between troops according to the side on which they fought but rather according to how they treated the local population. The personal contacts and mutual respect between French and Prussian officers did not stop while they were fighting each other, the war resulted in a great deal of cultural exchange between the French occupiers and German population. German nationalism emerged as a strong force after 1807 as Napoleon conquered much of Germany and brought in the new ideals of the French Revolution; the French mass conscription for the Revolutionary Wars and the beginning formation of nation states in Europe made war a conflict between peoples rather than a conflict between authorities carried out
Maurice Couve de Murville
Jacques-Maurice Couve de Murville was a French diplomat and politician, Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1958 to 1968 and Prime Minister from 1968 to 1969 under the presidency of General de Gaulle. He died in Paris at the age of 92 from natural causes. Couve de Murville joined the corps of finance inspectors in 1930, in 1940 became Director of External Finances of the Vichy régime, in which capacity he sat at the armistice council of Wiesbaden. In March 1943, after the American landing in North Africa, he was one of the few senior officials of Vichy to join the Free French, he left via Spain, where he joined General Henri Giraud. On 7 June 1943, he was named commissioner of finance of the French Committee of National Liberation. A few months he joined General Charles de Gaulle. In February 1945, he became a member of the Provisional Government of the French Republic with the rank of ambassador attached to the Italian government. After the war, he occupied several posts as French Ambassador, in Cairo, at NATO, in Washington and in Bonn.
When General de Gaulle returned to power in 1958, he became Foreign Minister, a post he retained for ten years until the reshuffle that followed the events of May 1968 where he replaced Finance minister Michel Debré, keeping this post only a short time: soon after the elections, he became a transitional Prime Minister, replacing Georges Pompidou. The following year he was succeeded by Jacques Chaban-Delmas. Couve de Murville continued his political career first as a UDR deputy RPR deputy for Paris until 1986 as a senator until 1995. Maurice Couve de Murville, the Roman Catholic Archbishop Emeritus of Birmingham, was his cousin. Une politique étrangère, 1958–1969. ISBN unknown Le Monde en face. ISBN 2-259-02222-7 Governmental functions Prime minister: 1968–1969 Minister of Foreign Affairs: 1958–1968 Minister of Economy and Finance: May–July 1968 Chairman of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the National Assembly 1973-1981. Electoral mandates Member of the National Assembly of France for Paris: June 1968 / 1973–1986 Senator of Paris: 1986–1995 The cabinet from 10 July 1968 – 22 June 1969 Maurice Couve de Murville – Prime Minister Michel Debré – Minister of Foreign Affairs Pierre Messmer – Minister of Armies Raymond Marcellin – Minister of the Interior, Public Health, Population François-Xavier Ortoli – Minister of Economy and Finance André Bettencourt – Minister of Industry Joseph Fontanet – Minister of Labour and Population René Capitant – Minister of Justice Edgar Faure – Minister of National Education Henri Duvillard – Minister of Veterans and War Victims André Malraux – Minister of Cultural Affairs Robert Boulin – Minister of Agriculture Albin Chalandon – Minister of Equipment and Housing Jean Chamant – Minister of Transport Roger Frey – Minister of Relations with Parliament Yves Guéna – Minister of Posts and Telecommunications Maurice Schumann – Minister of Social AffairsOn 28 April 1969 – Jean-Marcel Jeanneney succeeded Capitant as interim Minister of Justice.
A film clip "Longines Chronoscope with Maurice Couve de Murville" is available at the Internet Archive
The Franco-German Brigade is a special military brigade of the Eurocorps, founded in 1989, jointly consisting of units from both the French Army and the German Army. The Brigade was formed in 1987 following a summit between President Mitterrand of France and Chancellor Kohl of Germany; the Brigade became operational on October 2, 1989, under the command of General Jean-Pierre Sengeisen. The FGB is stationed at Müllheim, Donaueschingen, Illkirch-Graffenstaden and Immendingen as part of the Eurocorps. In February 2009 it was announced that a German battalion of the force was to be moved to Illkirch near Strasbourg, the first time a German unit had been stationed in France since the German occupation of World War II. On 31 October 2013, France announced that in 2014 it would shut down the 110th Infantry Regiment based in Donaueschingen and thus withdraw around 1000 men from Germany; this would leave the brigade with 4000 men, but would put an end to each country having a major presence in the other, France would be left with ~500 troops in Germany and vice versa.
Since 2016, French units are part of 1st Division and German units are part of 10th Panzer Division. The Franco-German brigade can be described as a mechanised formation; the logistical support unit and the brigade's HQ have mixed complements drawn from both countries. Staff, in Müllheim 3e Régiment de Hussards, in Metz 1st Reconnaissance Company 2nd Reconnaissance Company 3rd Reconnaissance Company 4th Light Reconnaissance and Anti-Armour Company 5th Supply and Support Company 6th Combat Service Support Company 1er Régiment d'Infanterie - Infantry Regiment in Sarrebourg 1st Infantry Company 2nd Infantry Company 3rd Infantry Company 4th Reconnaissance and Combat Support Company 5th Supply and Support Company 6th Combat Service Support Company Jägerbataillon 291, in Illkirch-Graffenstaden 1st HQ & Supply Company 2nd Light Infantry Company 3rd Light Infantry Company 4th Reconnaissance Company Jägerbataillon 292, in Donaueschingen 1st HQ & Supply Company 2nd Light Infantry Company 3rd Light Infantry Company 4th Light Infantry Company 5th Heavy Infantry Company 6th Combat Service Support Company Artilleriebataillon 295, in Stetten am kalten Markt 1st HQ & Supply Battery 2nd Self-Propelled Howitzer Artillery Battery with PzH 2000 3rd Self-Propelled Howitzer Artillery Battery with PzH 2000 4th Rocket Artillery Battery with MLRS 5th Target Acquisition Battery with radars, UAV and weather platoon.
6th basic training company Panzerpionierkompanie 550, in Immendingen Logistic Battalion, in Müllheim 1st HQ & Supply Company 2nd Supply Company 3rd Maintenance Company 4th Transport Company Combat Service Support Company Staff Company Franco-German Brigade 1st Parachute Chasseur Regiment Combined Joint Expeditionary Force Eurocorps Franco-British Defence and Security Cooperation Treaty and Downing Street Declaration French Foreign Legion List of French paratrooper units NATO See article in International Defence Review, November 1994 Official website