Jean-François-Maurice-Arnauld Dudevant, known as Baron Dudevant but better known by the pseudonym Maurice Sand, was a French writer and entomologist. He studied art under Eugène Delacroix and experimented in various other subjects, including geology and biology, he was the eldest child and only son of George Sand, a French novelist and feminist, her husband, Baron François Casimir Dudevant. In addition to his numerous novels, he is best remembered for his monumental study of commedia dell'arte – Masques et bouffons, 1860. Callirhoé, Paris, M. Lévy frères, 1864 Catalogue raisonné des lépidoptères du Berry & de l'Auvergne, Paris, E. Deyrolle, 1879 George Sand et le Théâtre de Nohant, les Cent une, 1930 La Fille du singe, Paris, P. Ollendorff, 1886 Le Coq aux cheveux d'or, Librairie Internationale, 1867 Le Québec: lettres de voyage, 1862. Paris, Magellan & Cie, 2006 ISBN 978-2-35074-025-6 Le Théâtre des marionnettes, Calmann Lévy, 1890 L'Atelier d'Eugène Delacroix de 1839 à 1848, Fondation George et Maurice Sand, 1963 L'Augusta, Michel Lévy frères, 1872 Mademoiselle Azote.
André Beauvray, Paris, Lévy, 1870 Mademoiselle de Cérignan, Michel-Lévy frères, 1874 Masques et bouffons, texte et dessins, préf. George Sand, 1860 Miss Mary, Michel Lévy frères, 1868 Raoul de la Chastre: aventures de guerre et d'amour, Paris, M. Lévy frères, 1865 Recueil des principaux types créés avec leurs costumes sur le théâtre de Nohant, 1846–1886 Six mille lieues à toute vapeur, Paris, M. Lévy frères, 1873. Paris, Guénégaud, 2000 ISBN 978-2-85023-098-1 Le Monde des Papillons, préface de George Sand, suivi de l'Histoire naturelle des Lépidoptères d'Europe par A. Depuiset, Rothschild, 1867 Works by Maurice Sand at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Maurice Sand at Internet Archive
Lons-le-Saunier is a commune and capital of the Jura department in eastern France. The town is in the heart of the Revermont region, at the foot of the first plateau of the Jura massif; the Jura escarpment extends to the east and south, while to the west lies the plain of Bresse and to the north extensive vineyards. The River Vallière runs through the town, rising in a typical Jura blind valley not far away, at Revigny, it has been conduited since the 1960s since sewage outlets run into it. A small section remains in the open air near the parc des Bains, only a single bridge remains; the town is equally placed between Besançon, Bourg-en-Bresse and Geneva, though the last of these lies on the other side of the Jura massif. It is served by the A39 autoroute, by which Dijon can be reached in about an hour and Lyon in an hour and a half; the town's railway station lies on the line from Strasbourg to Lyon. The wine-growing region to the north of the town is well known, includes the vintages of l'Etoile, Château-Chalon and Arbois.
The Jura escarpment to the south and east is a popular tourist region, with its attractions including the lakes of Chalain and Vouglans, mountain resorts such as Prénovel and Les Rousses. In terms of area, Lons-le-Saunier is the second smallest prefectural town in France, after Bobigny; the 1878 edition of the Globe Encyclopaedia of Universal Information described Lons-le-Saunier: Lons-le-Saunier, the chief town of the department of Jura, France, on the Vallière, 60 miles S. E. of Dijon by rail. It is picturesquely girt by the lower slopes of which are clad with vines. There are copper and iron foundries, a trade in horses, grain, etc.... The celebrated salt-springs yield 20,000 ctr. yearly. Pop. 9427. Lons-le-Saunier is the ancient Ledo Saliiiaritit. Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, composer of La Marseillaise, the French national anthem Étienne Bobillier, mathematician Maurice Joly and lawyer René Rémond and political economist Jeanne Champion, French painter and writer Guy Canivet, judge Jean-Claude Romand, medical imposter Jean-François Stévenin and filmmaker Bernard Clavel, novelist Félix Lambey, rugby player General Claude Lecourbe studied in Lons.
Jean-Paul Laurens was a French painter and sculptor, one of the last major exponents of the French Academic style. Laurens was a pupil of Léon Cogniet and Alexandre Bida. Anti-clerical and republican, his work was on historical and religious themes, through which he sought to convey a message of opposition to monarchical and clerical oppression, his erudition and technical mastery were much admired in his time, but in years his realistic technique, coupled to a theatrical mise-en-scène, came to be regarded by some art-historians as overly didactic. More however, his work has been re-evaluated as an important and original renewal of history painting, a genre of painting, in decline during Laurens' lifetime. Laurens was commissioned to paint numerous public works by the French Third Republic, including the steel vault of the Paris City Hall, the monumental series on the life of Saint Genevieve in the apse of the Panthéon, the decorated ceiling of the Odéon Theater, the hall of distinguished citizens at the Toulouse capitol.
He provided illustrations for Augustin Thierry's Récits des temps mérovingiens. Laurens was respected teacher at the Académie Julian, a professor at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he taught André Dunoyer de Segonzac and George Barbier, he died in Paris, aged 82. Two of his sons, Paul Albert Laurens and Jean-Pierre Laurens, both became painters and teachers at the Académie Julian. Marjorie Bates Emilio Boggio Catharine Carter Critcher Georges Dufrénoy Ludwig Deutsch Sears Gallagher Thomas Cooper Gotch Cecilia Cutescu-Storck Louise Herreshoff Christian Herter of Herter Brothers A. Y. Jackson Gustave Louis Jaulmes Alfred Garth Jones Leon Kroll Arturo Michelena Ella Ferris Pell Cristóbal Rojas Robert Poughéon Paul Sibra René Schützenberger Karl Yens Desjardins, M. H.. Des peintres au pays des falaises 1830–1940. Fécamp: Éditions des falaises. Pp. 108–114. Jean-Paul Laurens 1838–1921, peintre d'histoire, Catalogue d'exposition, Musée d'Orsay. Paris: RMN. 1997
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Père Lachaise Cemetery
Père Lachaise Cemetery is the largest cemetery in Paris, France. With more than 3.5 million visitors annually, it is the most visited necropolis in the world. Père Lachaise is located in the 20th arrondissement and notable for being the first garden cemetery, as well as the first municipal cemetery in Paris, it is the site of three World War I memorials. The cemetery is on Boulevard de Ménilmontant; the Paris Métro station Philippe Auguste on Line 2 is next to the main entrance, while the station named Père Lachaise, on both Line 2 and Line 3, is 500 metres away near a side entrance. Many tourists prefer the Gambetta station on Line 3, as it allows them to enter near the tomb of Oscar Wilde and walk downhill to visit the rest of the cemetery; the cemetery of Père Lachaise opened in 1804. The cemetery takes its name from the confessor to Louis XIV, Père François de la Chaise, who lived in the Jesuit house rebuilt during 1682 on the site of the chapel; the property, situated on the hillside from which the king watched skirmishing between the armies of the Condé and Turenne during the Fronde, was bought by the city during 1804.
Established by Napoleon during this year, the cemetery was laid out by Alexandre-Théodore Brongniart and extended. Napoleon, proclaimed Emperor by the Senate three days earlier, had declared during the Consulate that "Every citizen has the right to be buried regardless of race or religion”; as the city graveyards of Paris filled, several new, large cemeteries, outside the precincts of the capital, replaced them: Montmartre Cemetery in the north, Père Lachaise in the east, Montparnasse Cemetery in the south. Near the middle of the city is Passy Cemetery. At the time of its opening, the cemetery was considered to be situated too far from the city and attracted few funerals. Moreover, many Roman Catholics refused to have their graves in a place that had not been blessed by the Church. During 1804, the Père Lachaise contained only 13 graves; the administrators devised a marketing strategy and during 1804, with great fanfare, organized the transfer of the remains of Jean de La Fontaine and Molière.
The next year there were 44 burials, with 49 during 1806, 62 during 1807 and 833 during 1812. In another great spectacle of 1817, the purported remains of Pierre Abélard and Héloïse d'Argenteuil were transferred to the cemetery with their monument's canopy made from fragments of the abbey of Nogent-sur-Seine; this strategy achieved its desired effect: people began clamoring to be buried among the famous citizens. Records show that the Père Lachaise contained more than 33,000 graves during 1830. Père Lachaise was expanded five times: during 1824, 1829, 1832, 1842 and 1850. Presently there are more than 1 million bodies buried there, many more in the columbarium, which holds the remains of those who had requested cremation; the Communards' Wall, located within the cemetery, was the site where 147 Communards, the last defenders of the workers' district of Belleville, were shot on May 28, 1871. That day was the last of the "Bloody Week". Today, the site is a traditional rallying point for members of the French political Left.
Adolphe Thiers, the French president who directed "Bloody Week," is interred in the cemetery, where his tomb has been subject to vandalism. A funerary chapel was erected during 1823 by Étienne-Hippolyte Godde at the exact place of the ancient Jesuit house; this same Neoclassical architect created the monumental entrance a few years later. A columbarium and a crematorium of a Neo-Byzantine style were designed in 1894 by Jean-Camille Formigé. Père Lachaise is still an operating cemetery and accepting new burials. However, the rules to be buried in a Paris cemetery are rather strict: people may be buried in one of these cemeteries if they die in the French capital city or if they lived there. Being buried in Père Lachaise is more difficult nowadays as there is a waiting list: few plots are available; the grave sites at Père Lachaise range from a simple, unadorned headstone to towering monuments and elaborate mini chapels dedicated to the memory of a well-known person or family. Many of the tombs are about the size and shape of a telephone booth, with just enough space for a mourner to step inside, kneel to say a prayer, leave some flowers.
The cemetery manages to squeeze an increasing number of bodies into a finite and crowded space. One way it does. At Père Lachaise, it is not uncommon to reopen a grave after a body has decomposed and inter another coffin; some family mausoleums or multi-family tombs contain dozens of bodies in several separate but contiguous graves. Shelves are installed to accommodate them. During recent times, the Père Lachaise has adopted a standard practice of issuing 30-year leases on grave sites, so that if a lease is not renewed by a family, the remains can be removed, space made for a new grave, the overall deterioration of the cemetery minimized. Abandoned remains are boxed and moved to Aux Morts ossuary, in Père Lachaise cemetery. Plots can be bought in perpetuity or for 50, 30 or 10 years, the last being the least expensive option. For the case of mausoleums and chapels, coffins are most of the time below ground. Although some sources incorrectly estimate the number of interred as 300,000 in Père Lachaise, according to the official website of