The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
Montauban is a commune in the Tarn-et-Garonne department in the Occitanie region in southern France. It lies 50 kilometres north of Toulouse. Montauban is the most populated town in Tarn-et-Garonne, the sixth most populated of Occitanie behind Toulouse, Montpellier, Nîmes, Perpignan and Béziers. In 2013, there were 57,921 inhabitants, called "Montalbanais"; the town has been classified "Ville d’art et d’histoire" since 2015. The town, built of a reddish brick, stands on the right bank of the Tarn at its confluence with the Tescou. Montauban is the second oldest of the bastides of southern France, its foundation dates from 1144 when Count Alphonse Jourdain of Toulouse, granted it a liberal charter. The inhabitants were drawn chiefly from Montauriol, a village which had grown up around the neighbouring monastery of St Théodard. In the 13th century the town suffered much from the ravages of the Albigensian war and from the Inquisition, but by 1317 it had recovered sufficiently to be chosen by John XXII as the head of a diocese of which the basilica of St Théodard became the cathedral.
In 1360, under the Treaty of Brétigny, it was ceded to the English. In 1560 the bishops and magistrates embraced Protestantism, expelled the monks, demolished the cathedral. Ten years it became one of the four Huguenot strongholds under the Peace of Saint-Germain, formed a small independent republic, it was the headquarters of the Huguenot rebellion of 1621, withstood an 86-day siege by Louis XIII. It did not submit to royal authority until after the fall of La Rochelle in 1629, when its fortifications were destroyed by Cardinal Richelieu; the Protestants again suffered persecution after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685. In the 17th century, the King of France revoked "l’Édit de Nantes". Montauban was considered as an intellectual city; because Montauban was a Protestant town, it started to resist and hold its position against the royal power and it refused to give allegiance to the Catholic King. To scare off the King’s opponents and speed up the end of the siege, 400 cannonballs were fired, but Montauban resisted and the royal army was vanquished.
Saint Jacques church is still marked by the cannonballs, every year in September, the city celebrates "les 400 coups", which has become a common phrase in French. During World War II, Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa was hidden in a secret vault behind a wine cellar at Montauban. Montauban's climate is subtropical. Temperatures are hot in summer; the town experienced severe droughts in 2003, 2006, 2012 and 2015. On August 31, 2015, the Tarn-et-Garonne area was struck by a wave of violent storms; these storms, accompanied by strong winds, created a tornado, which caused considerable damage in a large part of the department. Montauban was affected, with winds measured between 130 and 150 kilometers per hour in the city center, its fortifications have been replaced by boulevards beyond which extend numerous suburbs, while on the left bank of the Tarn is the suburb of Villebourbon, connected to the town by a remarkable bridge of the early 14th century. This bridge is known as Pont Vieux. King Philip the Fair of France launched the building of the bridge in 1303 while on a tour to Toulouse.
The project took 30 years to complete, the bridge was inaugurated in 1335. The main architects were Étienne de Ferrières and Mathieu de Verdun, it is a pink brick structure over 205 metres in length, but while its fortified towers have disappeared, it is otherwise in a good state of preservation. The bridge was designed to resist the violent floods of the Tarn, indeed it withstood the two terrible millennial floods of 1441 and 1930; the bridge is a straight level bridge, quite unusual for Medieval Europe, where lack of technological skills meant that most bridges were of the humpback type. The Musée Ingres, on the site of a castle of the Counts of Toulouse and once the residence of the bishops of Montauban, stands at the east end of the bridge, it belongs chiefly to the 17th century, but some portions are much older, notably an underground chamber known as the Hall of the Black Prince. It comprises most of the work of Jean Ingres, the celebrated painter, whose birth in Montauban is commemorated by an elaborate monument.
It is the largest museum of Ingres paintings in the world. The museum contains some sculptures by famous sculptor Antoine Bourdelle, another native of Montauban, as well as collections of antiquities and 18th and 19th ceramics; the Place Nationale is a square of the 17th century, entered at each corner by gateways giving access to a large open space surrounded by pink brick houses supported by double rows of arcades. The préfecture is located in the palace built by the intendant of Montauban, is a large elegant 18th century mansion, built of pink bricks and white stone, with a steep roof of blue gray slates, in a style combining northern and southern French styles of architecture; the chief churches of Montauban are the cathedral, remarkable only for the possession of the "Vow of Louis XIII", one of the masterpieces of Ingres, the church of St Jacques, dedicated to Saint James of Compostela, the façade of, surmounted by a handsome octagonal tower, the base of, in Romanesque st
Chambéry is a city in the department of Savoie, located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in eastern France. It is the capital of the department and has been the historical capital of the Savoy region since the 13th century, when Amadeus V, Count of Savoy, made the city his seat of power. Together with other Alpine towns Chambéry engages in the Alpine Town of the Year Association for the implementation of the Alpine Convention to achieve sustainable development in the Alpine Arc. Chambéry was awarded Alpine Town of the Year 2006. Chambéry was founded at a crossroads of ancient routes through the Dauphiné, Burgundy and Italy, in a wide valley between the Bauges and the Chartreuse Mountains on the Leysse River; the metropolitan area has more than 125,000 residents, extending from the vineyard slopes of the fr:Combe de Savoie to the shores of the Lac du Bourget, the largest natural lake in France. The city is a major railway hub, at the midpoint of the Franco-Italian Turin–Lyon high-speed railway.
Chambéry is situated in southeast France, 523 kilometres from Paris, 326 kilometres from Marseille, 214 km from Turin, 100 kilometres from Lyon and 85 kilometres from Geneva. It is found in a large valley, surrounded by the Massif des Bauges to the east, Mont Granier and the Chaîne de Belledonne to the south, the Chaîne de l'Épine to the west and the Lac du Bourget to the north; the towns surrounding Chambéry are Barberaz, Cognin, Jacob-Bellecombette, La Motte-Servolex, La Ravoire, Saint-Alban-Leysse and Sonnaz. The history of Chambéry is linked to the House of Savoy and was the Savoyard capital from 1295 to 1563. During this time, Savoy encompassed a region that stretched from Bourg-en-Bresse in the west, across the Alps to Turin, north to Geneva, south to Nice. To insulate Savoy from provocations by France, Duke Emmanuel Philibert moved his capital to Turin in 1563, Chambéry declined. France annexed the regions that constituted the Duchy of Savoy west of the Alps in 1792; the need for urban revitalization was met by the establishment of the Société Académique de Savoie in 1820, devoted to material and ethical progress, now housed in an apartment of the ducal Château.
Chambéry and lands of the former Duchy, as well as The County of Nice, were ceded to France by Piedmont in 1860, under the reign of Napoleon III. The town known as Lemencum first changed its name in the Middle Ages during the period that the Duc de Savoie erected his castle, it was called Camefriacum in 1016, Camberiaco in 1029, Cambariacum in 1036, Cambariaco in 1044. In the next century, Cambariaco changed to Chamberium becoming Chamberi in 1603; the actual name comes from the Gaulois term camboritos. The Latin name cambarius, meaning beer brewer, may explain the name. Another hypothesis is that the Gallo-Roman name Camberiacum suggests the idea of currency changing or trade, or a room where the toll taxes are collected. Chambéry is right on the boundary between the humid subtropical and oceanic climates under the Köppen system. In spite of this it is influenced by its interior position within France, resulting in quite hot summers, winters with frequent temperatures below freezing at night.
The first counts of Savoy settled into an existing fortress in 1285 and expanded it in the early-14th century to serve as a residence, seat of power and administration, as stronghold for the House of Savoy. However, it became obsolete as a serious fortification genuinely capable of resisting a siege. Due to constant French hostilities on the château, Duke Emmanuel Philibert decided to move his capital to Turin; the château remained purely an administrative centre until Christine Marie of France, Duchess of Savoy, returned to hold court in 1640. It was the site of the 1684 marriage between Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia and Anne Marie d'Orléans, niece of Louis XIV. Victor Amadeus II, having abdicated, lived here with his second wife Anna Canalis di Cumiana before they were imprisoned at the Castle of Rivoli for trying to reclaim the throne. In 1786, Victor Amadeus III enlarged it. Under Napoleon Bonaparte, the Aile du Midi was rebuilt and redecorated to house the imperial prefecture of the department of Mont-Blanc.
Elaborate modification to the structure were made again after Savoy was annexed by France in 1860. Today, the political administration of the department of Savoie is located in the castle, it is open for tours and concerts; the Fontaine des Éléphants is the most famous landmark in Chambéry. It was built in 1838 to honour Benoît de Boigne's feats; the monumental fountain has strikingly realistic sculptures of the head and forelimbs of four lifesize elephants truncated into the base of a tall column in the shape of the savoyan cross, topped by a statue of de Boigne. At first, the landmark was mocked by the local residents who were annoyed by it, but it now is accepted as one of the city's symbols. Since the early controversy, the statue kept its nickname of les quatre sans culs. A total restoration was done betwe
Pierre Loti was a French naval officer and novelist, known for his exotic novels and short stories. Born to a Protestant family, Loti's education began in his birthplace, Charente-Maritime. At age 17 he studied at Le Borda, he rose in his profession, attaining the rank of captain in 1906. In January 1910 he went on the reserve list, he was in the habit of claiming that he never read books, saying to the Académie française on the day of his introduction, "Loti ne sait pas lire", but testimony from friends proves otherwise, as does his library, much of, preserved in his house in Rochefort. In 1876 fellow naval officers persuaded him to turn into a novel passages in his diary dealing with some curious experiences at Constantinople; the result was the anonymously published Aziyadé, part romance, part autobiography, like the work of his admirer, Marcel Proust, after him. Loti proceeded to the South Seas as part of his naval training, living in Papeete, Tahiti for two months in 1872, where he "went native".
Several years he published the Polynesian idyll titled Rarahu, reprinted as Le Mariage de Loti, the first book to introduce him to the wider public. His narrator explains that the name Loti was bestowed on him by the natives, after his mispronunciation of "roti"; the book inspired the 1883 opera Lakmé by Léo Delibes. Loti Bain, a shallow pool at the base of the Fautaua Falls, is named for Loti; this was followed by Le Roman d'un spahi, a record of the melancholy adventures of a soldier in Senegal. In 1882, Loti issued a collection of four shorter pieces, three stories and a travel piece, under the general title of Fleurs d'ennui. In 1883 Loti achieved a wider public spotlight. First, he published the critically acclaimed Mon Frère Yves, a novel describing the life of a French naval officer, a Breton sailor, described by Edmund Gosse as "one of his most characteristic productions". Second, while serving in Tonkin as a naval officer aboard the ironclad Atalante, Loti published three articles in the newspaper Le Figaro in September and October 1883 about atrocities that occurred during the Battle of Thuận An, an attack by the French on the Vietnamese coastal defenses of Hue.
He was threatened with suspension from the service for this indiscretion, thus gaining wider public notoriety. In 1884 his friend Émile Pouvillon dedicated his novel L'Innocent to Loti. In 1886 Loti published a novel of life among the Breton fisherfolk, called Pêcheur d'Islande, which Edmund Gosse characterized as "the most popular and finest of all his writings." It shows Loti adapting some of the Impressionist techniques of contemporary painters Monet, to prose, is a classic of French literature. In 1887 he brought out a volume "of extraordinary merit, which has not received the attention it deserves", Propos d'exil, a series of short studies of exotic places, in his characteristic semi-autobiographic style. Madame Chrysanthème, a novel of Japanese manners, a precursor to Madama Butterfly and Miss Saigon was published the same year. In 1890 Loti published Au Maroc, the record of a journey to Fez in company with a French embassy, Le Roman d'un enfant, a somewhat fictionalized recollection of Loti's childhood that would influence Marcel Proust.
A collection of "strangely confidential and sentimental reminiscences", called Le Livre de la pitié et de la mort was published in 1891. Loti was aboard ship at the port of Algiers when news reached him of his election, on 21 May 1891, to the Académie française. In 1892 he published Fantôme d'orient, a short novel derived from a subsequent trip to Constantinople, less a continuation of Aziyadé than a commentary on it, he described a visit to the Holy Land in three volumes, The Desert and Galilee, wrote a novel, Ramuntcho, a story of contraband runners in the Basque province, one of his best writings. In 1898 he collected his essays as Figures et Choses qui passaient. In 1899 and 1900 Loti visited British India, with the view of describing. During the autumn of 1900 he went to China as part of the international expedition sent to combat the Boxer Rebellion, he described. Loti's publications include: La Troisième jeunesse de Mme Prune, which resulted from a return visit to Japan and once again hovers between narrative and travelog.
Les Désenchantées, which concerned women of the Turkish harem, was based like many of Loti's books, on fact. It has, become clear that Loti was in fact the victim of a hoax by three prosperous Turkish women. In 1912 Loti mounted a production of The Daughter of Heaven, written several years earlier in collaboration with Judith Gautier for Sarah Bernhardt, at the C