Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu referred to as Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, political philosopher. He is famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers, implemented in many constitutions throughout the world, he is known for doing more than any other author to secure the place of the word "despotism" in the political lexicon. His anonymously published The Spirit of the Laws in 1748, received well in both Great Britain and the American colonies, influenced the Founding Fathers in drafting the United States Constitution. Montesquieu was born at the Château de la Brède in southwest France, 25 kilometres south of Bordeaux, his father, Jacques de Secondat, was a soldier with a long noble ancestry. His mother, Marie Françoise de Pesnel, who died when Charles was seven, was an heiress who brought the title of Barony of La Brède to the Secondat family. After the death of his mother he was sent to the Catholic College of Juilly, a prominent school for the children of French nobility, where he remained from 1700 to 1711.
His father died in 1713 and he became a ward of his uncle, the Baron de Montesquieu. He became a counselor of the Bordeaux Parliament in 1714; the next year, he married the Protestant Jeanne de Lartigue, who bore him three children. The Baron died in 1716, leaving him his fortune as well as his title, the office of président à mortier in the Bordeaux Parliament. Montesquieu's early life occurred at a time of significant governmental change. England had declared itself a constitutional monarchy in the wake of its Glorious Revolution, had joined with Scotland in the Union of 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. In France, the long-reigning Louis XIV died in 1715 and was succeeded by the five-year-old Louis XV; these national transformations had a great impact on Montesquieu. Montesquieu withdrew from the practice of law to devote himself to writing, he achieved literary success with the publication of his 1721 Persian Letters, a satire representing society as seen through the eyes of two imaginary Persian visitors to Paris and Europe, cleverly criticizing the absurdities of contemporary French society.
He next published Considerations on the Causes of the Greatness of the Romans and their Decline, considered by some scholars, among his three best known books, as a transition from The Persian Letters to his master work. The Spirit of the Laws was published anonymously in 1748; the book rose to influence political thought profoundly in Europe and America. In France, the book met with an unfriendly reception from both supporters and opponents of the regime; the Catholic Church banned The Spirit – along with many of Montesquieu's other works – in 1751 and included it on the Index of Prohibited Books. It received the highest praise from the rest of Europe Britain. Montesquieu was highly regarded in the British colonies in North America as a champion of liberty. According to one political scientist, he was the most quoted authority on government and politics in colonial pre-revolutionary British America, cited more by the American founders than any source except for the Bible. Following the American Revolution, Montesquieu's work remained a powerful influence on many of the American founders, most notably James Madison of Virginia, the "Father of the Constitution".
Montesquieu's philosophy that "government should be set up so that no man need be afraid of another" reminded Madison and others that a free and stable foundation for their new national government required a defined and balanced separation of powers. Besides composing additional works on society and politics, Montesquieu traveled for a number of years through Europe including Austria and Hungary, spending a year in Italy and 18 months in England, where he became a freemason, admitted to the Horn Tavern Lodge in Westminster, before resettling in France, he was troubled by poor eyesight, was blind by the time he died from a high fever in 1755. He was buried in the Église Paris. Montesquieu's philosophy of history minimized the role of individual events, he expounded the view in Considérations sur les causes de la grandeur des Romains et de leur décadence that each historical event was driven by a principal movement: It is not chance that rules the world. Ask the Romans, who had a continuous sequence of successes when they were guided by a certain plan, an uninterrupted sequence of reverses when they followed another.
There are general causes and physical, which act in every monarchy, elevating it, maintaining it, or hurling it to the ground. All accidents are controlled by these causes, and if the chance of one battle—that is, a particular cause—has brought a state to ruin, some general cause made it necessary for that state to perish from a single battle. In a word, the main trend draws with it all particular accidents. In discussing the transition from the Republic to the Empire, he suggested that if Caesar and Pompey had not worked to usurp the government of the Republic, other men would have risen in their place; the cause was not the ambition of man. Montesquieu is credited as being among the progenitors, which include Herodotus and Tacitus, of anthropology, as being among the first to extend comparative methods of classification to the political forms in human societies. Indeed, the French political anthropologist Georges Balandier considered Montesquieu to be "the initiator of a scientific enterprise that for a time performed the role of cultural and social anthrop
The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France. A central landmark of the city, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the city's 1st arrondissement. 38,000 objects from prehistory to the 21st century are exhibited over an area of 72,735 square metres. In 2018, the Louvre was the world's most visited art museum; the museum is housed in the Louvre Palace built as the Louvre castle in the late 12th to 13th century under Philip II. Remnants of the fortress are visible in the basement of the museum. Due to the urban expansion of the city, the fortress lost its defensive function and, in 1546, was converted by Francis I into the main residence of the French Kings; the building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace. In 1682, Louis XIV chose the Palace of Versailles for his household, leaving the Louvre as a place to display the royal collection, from 1692, a collection of ancient Greek and Roman sculpture. In 1692, the building was occupied by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres and the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, which in 1699 held the first of a series of salons.
The Académie remained at the Louvre for 100 years. During the French Revolution, the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum to display the nation's masterpieces; the museum opened on 10 August 1793 with an exhibition of 537 paintings, the majority of the works being royal and confiscated church property. Because of structural problems with the building, the museum was closed in 1796 until 1801; the collection was increased under Napoleon and the museum was renamed Musée Napoléon, but after Napoleon's abdication many works seized by his armies were returned to their original owners. The collection was further increased during the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, during the Second French Empire the museum gained 20,000 pieces. Holdings have grown through donations and bequests since the Third Republic; the collection is divided among eight curatorial departments: Egyptian Antiquities. The Louvre Palace, which houses the museum, was begun as a fortress by Philip II in the 12th century to protect the city from English soldiers which were in Normandy.
Remnants of this castle are still visible in the crypt. Whether this was the first building on that spot is not known. According to the authoritative Grand Larousse encyclopédique, the name derives from an association with wolf hunting den. In the 7th century, St. Fare, an abbess in Meaux, left part of her "Villa called Luvra situated in the region of Paris" to a monastery.. The Louvre Palace was altered throughout the Middle Ages. In the 14th century, Charles V converted the building into a residence and in 1546, Francis I renovated the site in French Renaissance style. Francis acquired what would become the nucleus of the Louvre's holdings, his acquisitions including Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa. After Louis XIV chose Versailles as his residence in 1682, constructions slowed. Four generations of Boulle were granted Royal patronage and resided in the Louvre in the following order: Pierre Boulle, Jean Boulle, Andre-Charles Boulle and his four sons, after him. André-Charles Boulle is the most famous French cabinetmaker and the preeminent artist in the field of marquetry known as "Inlay".
Boulle was "the most remarkable of all French cabinetmakers". He was commended to Louis XIV of France, the "Sun King", by Jean-Baptiste Colbert as being "the most skilled craftsman in his profession". Before the fire of 1720 destroyed them, André-Charles Boulle held priceless works of art in the Louvre, including forty-eight drawings by Raphael'. By the mid-18th century there were an increasing number of proposals to create a public gallery, with the art critic La Font de Saint-Yenne publishing, in 1747, a call for a display of the royal collection. On 14 October 1750, Louis XV agreed and sanctioned a display of 96 pieces from the royal collection, mounted in the Galerie royale de peinture of the Luxembourg Palace. A hall was opened by Le Normant de Tournehem and the Marquis de Marigny for public viewing of the Tableaux du Roy on Wednesdays and Saturdays, contained Andrea del Sarto's Charity and works by Raphael. Under Louis XVI, the royal museum idea became policy; the comte d'Angiviller broadened the collection and in 1776 proposed conversion of the Grande Galerie of the Louvre – which contained maps – into the "French Museum".
Many proposals were offered for the Louvre's renovation into a museum. Hence the museum remained incomplete until the French Revolution. During the French Revolution the Louvre was transformed into a public museum. In May 1791, the Assembly declared that the Louvre would be "a place for bringing together monuments of all the sciences and arts". On 10 August 1792, Louis XVI was imprisoned and the royal collection i
The Ancien Régime was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the French Revolution. The Ancien Régime was ruled by Bourbon dynasties; the term is used to refer to the similar feudal systems of the time elsewhere in Europe. The administrative and social structures of the Ancien Régime were the result of years of state-building, legislative acts, internal conflicts, civil wars, but they remained and the Valois Dynasty's attempts at re-establishing control over the scattered political centres of the country were hindered by the Huguenot Wars. Much of the reigns of Henry IV and Louis XIII and the early years of Louis XIV were focused on administrative centralization. Despite, the notion of "absolute monarchy" and the efforts by the kings to create a centralized state, the Kingdom of France retained its irregularities: authority overlapped and nobles struggled to retain autonomy.
The need for centralization in this period was directly linked to the question of royal finances and the ability to wage war. The internal conflicts and dynastic crises of the 16th and 17th centuries and the territorial expansion of France in the 17th century demanded great sums which needed to be raised through taxes, such as the land tax and the tax on salt and by contributions of men and service from the nobility. One key to this centralization was the replacing of personal patronage systems organized around the king and other nobles by institutional systems around the state; the creation of intendants—representatives of royal power in the provinces—did much to undermine local control by regional nobles. The same was true of the greater reliance shown by the royal court on the noblesse de robe as judges and royal counselors; the creation of regional parlements had the same goal of facilitating the introduction of royal power into newly assimilated territories, but as the parlements gained in self-assurance, they began to be sources of disunity.
The term in French means "old regime" or "former regime". However, most English language books use the French term Ancien Régime; the term first appeared in print in English in 1794, was pejorative in nature. It conjured up a society so encrusted with anachronisms that only a shock of great violence could free the living organism within. Institutionally torpid, economically immobile, culturally atrophied and stratified, this'old regime' was incapable of self-modernization."More ancien régime refers to any political and social system having the principal features of the French Ancien Régime. Europe's other anciens régimes had diverse fates; the Nine Years' War was a major conflict between France and a European-wide coalition of Austria and the Holy Roman Empire, the Dutch Republic, Spain and Savoy. It was fought on the European continent and the surrounding seas, in Ireland, North America, India, it was the first global war. Louis XIV had emerged from the Franco-Dutch War in 1678 as the most powerful monarch in Europe, an absolute ruler who had won numerous military victories.
Using a combination of aggression and quasilegal means, Louis XIV set about extending his gains to stabilize and strengthen France's frontiers, culminating in the brief War of the Reunions. The resulting Truce of Ratisbon guaranteed France's new borders for 20 years, but Louis XIV's subsequent actions – notably his revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 – led to the deterioration of his military and political dominance. Louis XIV's decision to cross the Rhine in September 1688 was designed to extend his influence and pressure the Holy Roman Empire into accepting his territorial and dynastic claims, but when Leopold I and the German princes resolved to resist, when the States General and William III brought the Dutch and the English into the war against France, the French King at last faced a powerful coalition aimed at curtailing his ambitions; the main fighting took place around France's borders, in the Spanish Netherlands, the Rhineland, Duchy of Savoy, Catalonia. The fighting favoured Louis XIV's armies, but by 1696, his country was in the grip of an economic crisis.
The Maritime Powers were financially exhausted, when Savoy defected from the alliance, all parties were keen for a negotiated settlement. By the terms of the Treaty of Ryswick, Louis XIV retained the whole of Alsace, but he was forced to return Lorraine to its ruler and give up any gains on the right bank of the Rhine. Louis XIV accepted William III as the rightful King of England, while the Dutch acquired their barrier fortress system in the Spanish Netherlands to help secure their own borders. However, with the ailing and childless Charles II of Spain approaching his end, a new conflict over the inheritance of the Spanish Empire would soon embroil Louis XIV and the Grand Alliance in a final war – the War of the Spanish Succession. Spain had a number of major assets, apart from its homeland itself, it controlled important territory in the New World. S
Marie-Anne Collot was a French sculptor. She was the student and daughter-in-law of Etienne Falconet and is most well known as a portraitist, close to the philosophic and artistic circles of Diderot and Catherine the Great. Marie-Anne Collot was born in Paris and started to work as a model at the age of 15 in the workshop of Jean-Baptiste II Lemoyne, he had a determining influence on her career as a portraitist. She entered Etienne Falconet's workshop, a close friend of Diderot, she became Falconet's faithful friend. Her younger brother became an apprentice at the publisher's André Le Breton, one of the four publishers of Diderot and D'Alembert's Encyclopédie, her first works consisted of terracotta busts of Falconet's friends including Diderot, the actor Préville in the role of Sganarelle in “Le médecin malgré lui” by Molière, Prince Dimitri Alexeievich Galitzine, Russian ambassador. Many other works are now lost. From on everyone recognised her talent and lively spirit. In October 1766 Marie-Anne Collot accompanied Falconet to St. Petersburg, when he was invited by Catherine the Great with a view to creating an equestrian statue of Peter the Great.
She sculpted the portraits of members of the Russian Court. They marvelled at the talent of this young woman sculptor, they could remember none other, she was only 18 years old. In December of the same year she presented her work to the Imperial Academy of Arts, of which she was elected a member on 20 January 1767, she received a comfortable pension. Collot sculpted a bust representing Falconet at Catherine the Great's request; this is now in the Museum of Fine Art in France. She requested a bust of Diderot in 1772; when Falconet saw its quality it is said. The bust is in the State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg. Followed busts of Henry IV of France, Sully and one of D'Alembert. Several of the Empress herself, the Grand Duke Paul I and his wife the Grand Duchess Natalia, as well as marble medallions of historical characters and people associated with the Russian court, she made a superb bust of their daughter Mary. It was said. Falconet left it to his protégée, so gifted for sculpting portraits, the difficult task of making the head of Peter the Great for the equestrian statue called “The Bronze Horseman” in St. Petersburg.
He submitted a project which satisfied everybody. In 1777 Marie-Anne Collot married the painter Pierre-Etienne Falconet in St. Petersburg, he was the son of Etienne Falconet. A daughter was born of the union a year later; the marriage was however short-lived. Madame Falconet returned to France in 1778 with her baby. In 1782 Collot went to Holland at the invitation of Princess Galitzine. While there, she sculpted the marble busts of William, Prince of Orange, of his wife, Princess Wilhelmina of Prussia. Collot gave up sculpting concentrating from on her daughter's education and helping her father-in-law who had fallen gravely ill, she continued to do so until his death in 1791. The French Revolution upset the world of artists and philosophers. With her master, her husband and her friends having died, in 1791 Madame Falconet bought a country estate at Marimont, near the village of Bourdonnay in Moselle, France, she led a peaceful life. She died in Nancy, is buried at Bourdonnay. In the State Hermitage Museum, St. PetersburgBust of Falconet Bust of Diderot Bust of Voltaire Bust of Henry IV Bust of Sully Bust of Catherine the Great Bust of Peter the Great and several busts of Catherine the Great In the Russian Museum, St. Petersburg Portrait of Peter the Great Medallion of the Count Grigory Grigoryevich Orlov In the Marble Palace, St. Petersburg Bust of the Grand Duke Paul Bust of the Grand Duchess Natalia In the State Museum at Tsarskoye Selo, south of St. Petersburg Bust of a young Russian girl In the Louvre Museum, ParisPortrait assumed to be of Peter the Great Portrait assumed to be of Étienne Noël Damilaville Portrait assumed to be of Mary Cathcart, the daughter of the British ambassador to Russia In the Musée des Beaux-Arts, France Portrait of Etienne-Maurice Falconet Portrait of his son Pierre-Etienne Falconet In private collections Portrait of Melchior Grimm Portrait of Dimitri Alexeïevitch Galitzine Marble medallion of Lady Cathcart Christiane Dellac, Marie-Anne Collot: Une sculptrice française à la cour de Catherine II, 1748-1821, L'Harmattan.
This book includes a bibliography and a list of works of art,as well as a portrait of the artist on the cover, Charles Cournault, Marie-Anne Collot Charles Cournault, Catalogue du Musée de la ville de Nancy Louis Réau, Etienne-Maurice Falconet 1716-1791, Delmotte, 1922, t. II, chap. IV, p. 429-448 M. L. Becker, Marie-Anne Collot, L'art de la terre-cuite au féminin, L'Objet d'Art, n° 325, juin 1998. A convincing clarification of the portraits called “of Grimm and Damilaville”, a portrait of Collot painted by her husband Pierre-Etienne, M. L. Becker, Marie Collot à Pétersbourg, La culture française et les archives russes, Centre International d'études du XVIIIe siècle, Ferney-Voltaire, 2004. In the appendix a provisional catalogue of the works of art, mentioning those whose location is unknown,Numerous photos, M. L. Becker, Le buste de Diderot,de Collot à Houdon, L'Objet d'Art, n° 412, avril 2006 M. Sterckx,'Col
Jean le Rond d'Alembert
Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert was a French mathematician, physicist and music theorist. Until 1759 he was co-editor with Denis Diderot of the Encyclopédie. D'Alembert's formula for obtaining solutions to the wave equation is named after him; the wave equation is sometimes referred to as d'Alembert's equation. Born in Paris, d'Alembert was the natural son of the writer Claudine Guérin de Tencin and the chevalier Louis-Camus Destouches, an artillery officer. Destouches was abroad at the time of d'Alembert's birth. Days after birth his mother left him on the steps of the Saint-Jean-le-Rond de Paris church. According to custom, he was named after the patron saint of the church. D'Alembert was placed in an orphanage for foundling children, but his father found him and placed him with the wife of a glazier, Madame Rousseau, with whom he lived for nearly 50 years, she gave him little encouragement. When he told her of some discovery he had made or something he had written she replied, You will never be anything but a philosopher - and what is that but an ass who plagues himself all his life, that he may be talked about after he is dead.
Destouches secretly paid for the education of Jean le Rond, but did not want his paternity recognised. D'Alembert first attended a private school; the chevalier Destouches left d'Alembert an annuity of 1200 livres on his death in 1726. Under the influence of the Destouches family, at the age of 12 d'Alembert entered the Jansenist Collège des Quatre-Nations. Here he studied philosophy and the arts, graduating as baccalauréat en arts in 1735. In his life, d'Alembert scorned the Cartesian principles he had been taught by the Jansenists: "physical promotion, innate ideas and the vortices"; the Jansenists steered d'Alembert toward an ecclesiastical career, attempting to deter him from pursuits such as poetry and mathematics. Theology was, however, "rather unsubstantial fodder" for d'Alembert, he entered law school for two years, was nominated avocat in 1738. He was interested in medicine and mathematics. Jean was first registered under the name "Daremberg", but changed it to "d'Alembert"; the name "d'Alembert" was proposed by Frederick the Great of Prussia for a suspected moon of Venus.
In July 1739 he made his first contribution to the field of mathematics, pointing out the errors he had detected in Analyse démontrée in a communication addressed to the Académie des Sciences. At the time L'analyse démontrée was a standard work, which d'Alembert himself had used to study the foundations of mathematics. D'Alembert was a Latin scholar of some note and worked in the latter part of his life on a superb translation of Tacitus, for which he received wide praise including that of Denis Diderot. In 1740, he submitted his second scientific work from the field of fluid mechanics Mémoire sur la réfraction des corps solides, recognised by Clairaut. In this work d'Alembert theoretically explained refraction. In 1741, after several failed attempts, d'Alembert was elected into the Académie des Sciences, he was elected to the Berlin Academy in 1746 and a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1748. In 1743, he published his most famous work, Traité de dynamique, in which he developed his own laws of motion.
When the Encyclopédie was organised in the late 1740s, d'Alembert was engaged as co-editor with Diderot, served until a series of crises temporarily interrupted the publication in 1757. He authored over a thousand articles including the famous Preliminary Discourse. D'Alembert "abandoned the foundation of Materialism" when he "doubted whether there exists outside us anything corresponding to what we suppose we see." In this way, d'Alembert agreed with the Idealist Berkeley and anticipated the transcendental idealism of Kant. In 1752, he wrote about what is now called D'Alembert's paradox: that the drag on a body immersed in an inviscid, incompressible fluid is zero. In 1754, d'Alembert was elected a member of the Académie des sciences, of which he became Permanent Secretary on 9 April 1772. In 1757, an article by d'Alembert in the seventh volume of the Encyclopedia suggested that the Geneva clergymen had moved from Calvinism to pure Socinianism, basing this on information provided by Voltaire.
The Pastors of Geneva were indignant, appointed a committee to answer these charges. Under pressure from Jacob Vernes, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and others, d'Alembert made the excuse that he considered anyone who did not accept the Church of Rome to be a Socinianist, and, all he meant, he abstained from further work on the encyclopaedia following his response to the critique, he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1781. D'Alembert's first exposure to music theory was in 1749 when he was called upon to review a Mémoire submitted to the Académie by Jean-Philippe Rameau; this article, written in conjunction with Diderot, would form the basis of Rameau's 1750 treatise Démonstration du principe de l'harmonie. D'Alembert wrote a glowing review praising the author's deductive character as an ideal scientific model, he saw in Rameau's music theories support for his own scientific ideas, a systematic method with a deductive synthetic structure. Two years in 1752, d'Alembert attempted a comprehensive survey of Rameau's works in his Eléments de musique théorique et pratique suivant les principes de M. Rameau.
Emphasizing Rameau's main claim that music was a mathematical science that had a single principle from which could be deduced all the elements and rules of musi
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012