A diplomat is a person appointed by a state to conduct diplomacy with one or more other states or international organizations. The main functions of diplomats are: representation and protection of the interests and nationals of the sending state. Seasoned diplomats of international repute are used in international organizations as well as multinational companies for their experience in management and negotiating skills. Diplomats are diplomatic corps of various nations of the world. Diplomats are the oldest form of any of the foreign policy institutions of the state, predating by centuries foreign ministers and ministerial offices, they have diplomatic immunity. The regular use of permanent diplomatic representation began between the states of fifteenth century Italy; however the terms ‘diplomacy’ and ‘diplomat’ appeared in the French Revolution. Diplomat is derived from the Greek διπλωμάτης, the holder of a diploma, referring to diplomats' documents of accreditation from their sovereign. Diplomats themselves and historians refer to the foreign ministry by its address: the Ballhausplatz, the Quai d’Orsay, the Wilhelmstraße.
For imperial Russia to 1917 it was the Choristers’ Bridge. The Italian ministry was called "the Consulta." Though any person can be appointed by the state's national government to conduct said state's relations with other states or international organisations, a number of states maintain an institutionalised group of career diplomats—that is, public servants with a steady professional connection to the country's foreign ministry. The term career diplomat is used worldwide in opposition to political appointees. While posted to an embassy or delegation in a foreign country or accredited to an international organisation, both career diplomats and political appointees enjoy the same diplomatic immunities. Ceremonial heads of state act as diplomats on behalf of their nation following instructions from their head of Government. Whether being a career diplomat or a political appointee, every diplomat, while posted abroad, will be classified in one of the ranks of diplomats as regulated by international law.
Diplomats can be contrasted with consuls and attachés, who represent their state in a number of administrative ways, but who don't have the diplomat's political functions. Diplomats in posts collect and report information that could affect national interests with advice about how the home-country government should respond. Once any policy response has been decided in the home country's capital, posts bear major responsibility for implementing it. Diplomats have the job of conveying, in the most persuasive way possible, the views of the home government to the governments to which they are accredited and, in doing so, of trying to convince those governments to act in ways that suit home-country interests. In this way, diplomats are part of the beginning and the end of each loop in the continuous process through which foreign policy develops. In general, it has become harder for diplomats to act autonomously. Diplomats have to seize secure communication systems and mobile telephones can be tracked down and instruct the most reclusive head of mission.
The same technology in reverse gives diplomats the capacity for more immediate input about the policy-making processes in the home capital. Secure email has transformed the contact between the ministry, it is less to leak, enables more personal contact than the formal cablegram, with its wide distribution and impersonal style. The home country will send instructions to a diplomatic post on what foreign policy goals to pursue, but decisions on tactics – who needs to be influenced, what will best persuade them, who are potential allies and adversaries, how it can be done - are for the diplomats overseas to make. In this operation, the intelligence, cultural understanding, energy of individual diplomats become critical. If competent, they will have developed relationships grounded in trust and mutual understanding with influential members of the country in which they are accredited, they will have worked hard to understand the motives, thought patterns and culture of the other side. The diplomat should be an excellent negotiator but, above all, a catalyst for peace and understanding between peoples.
The diplomat's principal role is to foster peaceful relations between states. This role takes on heightened importance. Negotiation must continue – but within altered contexts. Most career diplomats have university degrees in international relations, political science, economics, or law. Diplomats have been considered members of an exclusive and prestigious profession; the public image of diplomats has been described as "a caricature of pinstriped men gliding their way around a never-ending global cocktail party". J. W. Burton has noted that "despite the absence of any specific professional training, diplomacy has a high professional status, due to a degree of secrecy and mystery that its practitioners self-consciously promote." The state supports the high status and self-esteem of its diplomats in order to
Not to be confused with his cousin, Cardinal Antoine Bohier Du Prat. Antoine Duprat was a French Cardinal and politician, chancellor of France. Duprat was born in Issoire in Auvergne. Educated for the law, he won a high position in his profession and in 1507 became first president of the Parlement of Paris. In 1515 Francis I of France made him chancellor of prime minister. In 1517, after his wife's death, he took holy orders and rose in the Catholic Church hierarchy: first as bishop of several dioceses held by him in plurality. Duprat's influence extended much beyond the departments of justice and finance placed under his direct control. French historian Gabriel Hanotaux, in the introduction to his Recueil des instructions, calls Duprat one of the most notable men of ancient France, second only to Richelieu in the decisive influence he exercised on the destinies of his country; this influence was exerted to strengthen royal absolute power. Duprat left no writings, but took a leading part in the compilation of the "Coutumes d'Auvergne".
Duprat's influence was manifested, together with his orthodoxy, in those measures which affected the relations of France with the Church, the signing of the Concordat of Bologna, the checking of nascent Protestantism. The Concordat, which Duprat himself negotiated with Pope Leo X at Bologna, did away with the principles of the "Pragmatic Sanction". Duprat's uncompromising attitude towards Protestantism was dictated both by his political sense, as well as his Catholic orthodoxy; the Protestant sympathies of Marguerite d'Angouleme, the Duchesse d'Etampes, the Minister du Bellay failed to move him. The Sorbonne and the Parlement were instructed to exclude the writings of the innovators. Despite being archbishop of Sens for several years, the first time he entered the cathedral there was for his own funeral; this shows how he abstained from some of his responsibilities, thus leading us to acknowledge clerical ignorance and absenteeism of the time. Catholic Encyclopedia article Biography This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed..
"Duprat". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
A parlement, in the Ancien Régime of France, was a provincial appellate court. In 1789, France had 13 parlements, the most important of, the Parlement of Paris. While the English word parliament derives from this French term, parlements were not legislative bodies, they consisted of about 1,100 judges nationwide. They were the court of final appeal of the judicial system, wielded much power over a wide range of subject matter taxation. Laws and edicts issued by the Crown were not official in their respective jurisdictions until the parlements gave their assent by publishing them; the members were aristocrats called nobles of the gown who had bought or inherited their offices, were independent of the King. From 1770 to 1774 the Lord Chancellor, tried to abolish the Parlement of Paris in order to strengthen the Crown; the parlements spearheaded the aristocracy's resistance to the absolutism and centralization of the Crown, but they worked for the benefit of their own class, the French nobility. Alfred Cobban argues that the parlements were the chief obstacles to any reform before the Revolution, as well as the most formidable enemies of the French Crown.
He concludes that the Parlement of Paris, though no more in fact than a small, selfish and venal oligarchy, regarded itself, was regarded by public opinion, as the guardian of the constitutional liberties of France. In November 1789, early in the French Revolution, all parlements were suspended, they were formally abolished in September 1790; the political institutions of the Parlement in Ancien Régime France developed out of the King's Council, enjoyed ancient, customary consultative and deliberative prerogatives. In the 13th century, the parlements acquired judicial functions the right of remonstrance against the king; the parlement judges were of the opinion that their role included active participation in the legislative process, which brought them into increasing conflict with the increasing monarchical absolutism of the Ancien Régime, as the Court of Justice evolved during the 16th century from a constitutional forum to a royal weapon, used to force registration of edicts. Since c. 1250, there was only the Parlement of Paris, severed from the King's Council in 1307, with sessions held inside the medieval royal palace on the Île de la Cité, still the site of the Paris Hall of Justice.
The Paris parlement's jurisdiction covered the entire kingdom as it was in the 14th century, but did not automatically advance in step with the Crown's expanding realm. In 1443, following the turmoil of the Hundred Years' War, King Charles VII of France granted Languedoc its own parlement by establishing the Parlement of Toulouse, the first parlement outside Paris; the Parlement of Paris played a major role in stimulating the nobility to resist the expansion of royal power by military force in the Fronde, 1643-1652. In the end, the King won out and the nobility was humiliated; the parlements could withhold their assent by formulating remonstrances against the king's edicts, forcing the king to react, sometimes resulting in repeated resistance by the parlements, which the king could only terminate in his favour by issuing a Lettre de jussion, and, in case of continued resistance, appearing in person in the parlement: the Lit de justice. In such a case, the parlement's powers were suspended for the duration of this royal session.
King Louis XIV moved to centralize authority into his own hands, imposing certain restrictions on the parlements. In 1665, he ordained that a Lit de justice could be held without the king having to appear in person. In 1667, he limited the number of remonstrances to only one. In 1671–1673, the parlements resisted the taxes occasioned by the Dutch War. In 1673, the king imposed additional restrictions that stripped the parlements of any influence upon new laws by ordaining that remonstrances could only be issued after registration of the edicts. After Louis' death in 1715, all the restrictions were discontinued by the regent, although some of the judges of the Parlement of Paris accepted royal bribes to restrain that body until the 1750s. From 1443 until the French Revolution, several other parlements were created all over France, until at the end of the Ancien Régime there were provincial parlements in: Douai, Metz, Colmar, Besançon, Aix, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Rouen; these locations were provincial capitals of those provinces with strong historical traditions of independence before they were annexed to France.
Assembled in the parlements, the hereditary members, the provincial nobles of the gown were the strongest decentralizing force in a France, more multifarious in its legal systems and custom than it might have seemed under the apparent unifying rule of its kings. The Parlement of Paris had the largest jurisdiction of all the parlements, covering the major part of northern and central France, was known as "the Parlement". In some regions provincial States-General continued to meet and legislate with a measure of self-governance and control over taxation within their jurisdiction. All the parlements could issue regulatory decrees for the application of royal edicts or of customary practices, they could refuse to register laws that they adjudged as either untimely or contrary to the local customary law. Tenure on the court was bought from the
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Paris
The Catholic Archdiocese of Paris is one of twenty-three archdioceses of the Catholic Church in France. The original diocese is traditionally thought to have been created in the 3rd century by St. Denis and corresponded with the Civitas Parisiorum, its suffragan dioceses, created in 1966 and encompassing the Île-de-France region, are in Créteil, Évry-Corbeil-Essonnes, Nanterre, Saint-Denis, Versailles. Its liturgical centre is at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris; the archbishop resides on rue Barbet de Jouy in the 6th arrondissement, but there are diocesan offices in rue de la Ville-Eveque, rue St. Bernard and in other areas of the city; the archbishop is ordinary for Eastern Catholics in France. The title of Duc de Saint-Cloud was created in 1674 for the archbishops. Prior to 1790 the diocese was divided into three archdeaconries: France, Brie; until the creation of new dioceses in 1966 there were two archdeaconries: St. Séverin; the churches of the current diocese can be divided into several categories: i) Latin Church parishes.
These are grouped into deaneries and subject to vicars-general who coincide with auxiliary bishops. Ii) Churches belonging to religious communities. Iii) Chapels for various foreign communities using various languages. Iv) Eastern-Church parishes and communities throughout France dependent on the Archbishop as Ordinary of the Ordinariate of France, Faithful of Eastern Rites.?–c. 250: Denis, believed to be the first bishop of Paris Prudentius 360–436: Marcellus/Marcellinus 9th Bishop of Paris c. 550: Eusebius 555–576: Germanus 606–621: Ceraunus/Ceran 650–661: Landry 666–680: Agilbert 722–730: Hugues/Hugh of Champagne 775–795: Eschenradus Eucade Hilduin 858–870: Aeneas 884–886: Goslin c.890: Anscharic?–941: Walter c. 954?: Constantius 950–977: Albert of Flanders 991–1017: Renaud of Vendôme 1061–1095: Godfrey 1095?–1101: Guilliaume de Montfort 1104–1116: Galo/Walo 1116–1123: Guibert c.1123–1141: Stephen of Senlis c.1143–1159: Theobald 1159–1160: Peter Lombard 1160–1196: Maurice de Sully 1196–1208: Odo de Sully 1208–1219: Pierre de La Chapelle 1220–1223: William of Seignelay, Guillaume de Seignelay 1224–1227: Barthélmy 1228–1249: William of Auvergne 1249–1249: Walter de Château-Thierry 1250–1268: Renaud Mignon de Corbeil 1268–1279: Étienne Tempier 1280–1280: Jean de Allodio 1280–1288: Renaud de Hombliéres c.1289: Adenolfus de Anagnia 1290–1304: Simon Matifort 1304–1319: Guillaume de Baufet 1319–1325: Etienne de Bouret 1325–1332: Hugues Michel 1332–1342: Guillaume de Chanac 1342–1349: Foulques de Chanac 1349–1350: Audoin-Aubert 1350–1352: Pierre de Lafôret 1353–1363: Jean de Meulent 1362–1373: Etienne de Poissy 1373–1384: Aimery de Magnac 1384–1409: Pierre d'Orgemont, translated from bishop of Thérouanne 1409–1420: Gérard de Montaigu, translated from Poitiers 1420–1421: Jean Courtecuisse 1421–1422: Jean de La Rochetaillée, translated to Rouen 1423–1426: Jean IV de Nant, translated from Vienne 1427–1438: Jacques du Chastelier 1439–1447: Denis du Moulin 1447–1472: Guillaume Chartier 1473–1492: Louis de Beaumont de la Forêt 1492?–1492/1493?: Gérard Gobaille 1492–1502: Jean-Simon de Champigny 1503–1519: Étienne de Poncher 1519–1532: François Poncher 1532–1541: Jean du Bellay 1551–1563: Eustache du Bellay 1564–1568: Guillaume Viole 1573–1598: Pierre de Gondi 1598–1622: Henri de Gondi The Diocese of Paris was elevated to the rank of archdiocese on October 20, 1622.
1622–1654: Jean-François de Gondi 1654–1662: Jean François Paul de Gondi, cardinal de Retz 1662–1664: Pierre de Marca 1664–1671: Hardouin de Péréfixe de Beaumont 1671–1695: François de Harlay de Champvallon 1695–1729: Louis-Antoine de Noailles 1729–1746: Charles-Gaspard-Guillaume de Vintimille du Luc 1746: Jacques Bonne-Gigault de Bellefonds 1746–1781: Christophe de Beaumont 1781–1802: Antoine-Eléonore-Léon Le Clerc de Juigné 1791–1794: Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel temporarily abolished during the French Revolution 1802–1808: Jean Baptiste de Belloy-Morangle 1810–1817: Jean-Sifrein Maury 1817–1821: Alexandre-Angélique Talleyrand de Périgord 1821–1839: Hyacinthe-Louis De Quelen 1840–1848: Denis Auguste Affre 1848–1857: Marie Dominique Auguste Sibour 1857–1862: François-Nicholas-Madeleine Morlot 1863–1871: Georges Darboy 1871–1886: Joseph Hippolyte Guibert 1886–1908: François-Marie-Benjamin Richard 1908–1920: Léon-Adolphe Amette 1920–1929: Louis-Ernest Dubois 1929–1940: Jean Verdier 1940–1949: Emmanuel Célestin Suhard 1949–1966: Maurice Feltin 1966–1968: Pierre Veuillot 1968–1981: François Marty 1981–2005: Jean-Marie Lustiger 2005–2017: André Vingt-Trois 2017–current: Michel Aupetit 1986–1997: Claude Frikart Catholic Church in France List of Catholic dioceses in France List of religious buildings in Paris List of Roman Catholic archdioceses Gams, Pius Bonifatius.
Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae: quotquot innotuerunt a beato Petro apostolo. Ratisbon: Typis et Sumptibus Georgii Josephi Manz. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 1. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 2. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Eubel, Conradus.
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC