The Iberomaurusian is a backed bladelet lithic industry found near the coasts of Morocco and Tunisia. It is known from a single major site in Libya, the Haua Fteah, where the industry is locally known as the Eastern Oranian; the Iberomaurusian seems to have appeared around the time of the Last Glacial Maximum, somewhere between c. 25,000 and 22,500 cal BP. It would have lasted until the early Holocene c. 11,000 cal BP. The name of the Iberomaurusian means "of Iberia and Mauritania". Pallary coined this term to describe assemblages from the site of La Mouillah in the belief that the industry extended over the strait of Gibraltar into the Iberian peninsula; this theory is now discounted, but the name has stuck. Pallary described the industry based on material found at the site of l'Abri Mouillah. In Algeria and Libya, but not in Morocco, the industry is succeeded by the Capsian industry, whose origins are unclear; the Capsian is believed either to have spread into North-Africa from the Near East, or have evolved from the Iberomaurusian.
In Morocco and Western Algeria, the Iberomaurusian is succeeded by the Cardial culture after a long hiatus. Because the name of the Iberomaurusian implies Afro-European cultural contact now discounted, researchers have proposed other names: Mouillian or Mouillan, based on the site of La Mouillah; the Oranian, based on the Algerian region of Oran. The Epipalaeolithic; the Late Upper Palaeolithic. What follows is a timeline of all published radiocarbon dates from reliably Iberomaurusian contexts, excluding a number of dates produced in the 1960s and 1970s considered "highly doubtful". All dates and Before Present, are according to Hogue and Barton; the Tamar Hat date beyond 25,000 cal BP is tentative. In 2013, Iberomaurusian skeletons from the prehistoric sites of Taforalt and Afalou were analyzed for ancient DNA. All of the specimens belonged to maternal clades associated with either North Africa or the northern and southern Mediterranean littoral, indicating gene flow between these areas since the Epipaleolithic.
The ancient Taforalt individuals carried the mtDNA Haplogroup N subclades like U6, H, JT and V, which points to population continuity in the region dating from the Iberomaurusian period. In 2016 it has been identified mtDNA haplogroups H or U, T2b, JT or H14b1, J, J1c3f, H1, R0a1a, R0a2c, H2a1e1a, H2a2a1, H6a1a8, H14b1, U4a2b, U4c1, U6d3. Loosdrecht et al. analysed genome-wide data from seven ancient individuals from the Iberomaurusian Grotte des Pigeons site near Taforalt in eastern Morocco. The fossils were directly dated to between 13,900 calibrated years before present; the scientists found. The male specimens with sufficient nuclear DNA preservation belonged to the paternal haplogroup E1b1b1a1, with one skeleton bearing the E1b1b1a1b1 parent lineage to E-V13, one male specimen belonged to E1b1b; these Y-DNA clades are related to the E1b1b1b subhaplogroup, observed in skeletal remains belonging to the Epipaleolithic Natufian and Pre-Pottery Neolithic cultures of the Levant. Maternally, the Taforalt remains bore the U6a and M1b mtDNA haplogroups, which are common among modern Afroasiatic-speaking populations in Africa.
A two-way admixture scenario using Natufian and modern West African samples as reference populations inferred that the seven Taforalt individuals are best modeled genetically as 63.5% Natufian-related and 36.5% Hadza-like ancestries, with no apparent gene flow from the Epigravettian culture of Paleolithic southern Europe. The scientists indicated that further ancient DNA testing at other Iberomaurusian archaeological sites would be necessary to determine whether the Taforalt samples were representative of the broader Iberomaurusian gene pool. Afroasiatic Urheimat Aterian Mushabian Taforalt Ifri N'Ammar Haua Fteah
The Idrisids were an Arab Zaydi-Shia dynasty of Morocco, ruling from 788 to 974. Named after the founder Idriss I, the great grandchild of Hasan ibn Ali, the Idrisids and the Hamroun are considered to be the founders of the first Moroccan state; the founder of the dynasty was Idris ibn Abdallah, who traced his ancestry back to Ali ibn Abi Talib and his wife Fatimah, daughter of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. After the Battle of Fakhkh, near Mecca, between the Abbasids and a Shiite party, Idris ibn Abdallah fled to the Maghreb, he first arrived in Tangier, the most important city of Morocco at the time, by 788 he had settled in Volubilis. The powerful Awraba Berbers of Volubilis took him in and made him their'imam'; the Awraba tribe had supported Kusayla in his struggle against the Ummayad armies in the 670s and 680s. By the second half of the 8th century they had settled in northern Morocco, where their leader Ishak had his base in the Roman town of Volubilis. By this time the Awraba were Muslim, but lived in an area where most tribes were either Christian, Khariji or pagan.
The Awraba seem to have welcomed a Sharifi imam as a way to strengthen their political position. Idris I, active in the political organization of the Awraba, began by asserting his authority and working toward the subjugation of the Christian and Jewish tribes. In 789 he founded a settlement south east of Volubilis, called Medinat Fas. In 791 Idris I was killed by an Abbasid agent. Though he left no male heir, shortly after his death, his concubine Lalla Kanza bint Uqba al-Awrabi, bore him his only son and successor, Idris II. Idris' loyal Arab ex-slave and companion Rashid brought up the boy and took on himself the regency of the state, on behalf of the Awraba. In 801 Rashid was killed by the Abbasids. In the following year, at the age of 11 years, Idris II was proclaimed imam by the Awraba. Though he had spread his authority across much of northern Morocco, as far west as Tlemcen, Idris I had been dependent on the Awraba leadership. Idris II began his rule with the weakening of Awraba power by welcoming Arab settlers in Walili and by appointing two Arabs as his vizier and qadi.
Thus he transformed himself from a protégé of the Awraba into their sovereign. The Awraba leader Ishak responded by plotting against his life with the Aghlabids of Tunisia. Idris reacted by having his former protector Ishak killed, in 809 moved his seat of government from the Awraba dominated Walili to Fes, where he founded a new settlement named Al-'Aliya. Idriss II developed the city of Fez, established earlier by his father as a Berber market town. Here he welcomed two waves of Arab immigration: one in 818 from Cordoba and another in 824 from Aghlabid Tunisia, giving Fes a more Arab character than other Maghrebi cities; when Idris II died in 828, the Idrisid state spanned from western Algeria to the Sous in southern Morocco and had become the leading state of Morocco, ahead of the principalities of Sijilmasa and Nekor. The dynasty would decline following Idriss II's death and under his son and successor Muhammad the kingdom was divided amongst seven of his brothers, whereby eight Idrisid statelets formed in Morocco and Algeria.
Muhammad himself came to rule Fes, with only nominal power over his brothers. During this time Islamic and Arabic culture gained a stronghold in the towns and Morocco profited from the trans-Saharan trade, which came to be dominated by Muslim traders. So, the Islamic and Arabic culture only made its influence felt in the towns, with the vast majority of Morocco's population still using the Berber languages and adhering to Islamic heterodox and heretical doctrines; the Idrisids were principally rulers of the towns and had little power over the majority of the country's population. The Idrisid family in turn was berberised, with its members aligning itself with the Zenata tribes of Morocco. In the 870s the family was described by Ibn Qutaybah as being berberised in customs. By the 11th century this process had developed to such an extant, that the family was integrated in the Berber societies of Morocco. In the 11th century the Hammudid family arose among these Berber Idrisids, able to gain power in several cities of northern Morocco and southern Spain.
In 868 the Berber Khariji tribes of Madyuna and Miknasa of the Fes region formed a common front against the Idrisids. From their base in Sefrou they were able to occupy Fes, his brother Yahya was able to establish himself as the new ruler. The Idrisids attacked the Kharijis of Barghawata and Sijilmasa, the Sunnis of Nekor multiple times, but were never able to include these territories in their state. In 917 the Miknasa and its leader Masala ibn Habus, acting on behalf of their Fatimid allies, attacked Fes and forced Yahya ibn Idris to recognize Fatimid suzerainty, before deposing him in 921. Hassan I al-Hajam managed to wrest control of Fez from 925 until 927 but he was the last of the dynasty to hold power there. From Fes, the Miknasa began a violent hunt across Morocco for members of the Idrisid family, seeking to exterminate them. Most of the Idrisids settled among the Jbala tribes in North-west Morocco where they were protected by the reluctance of tribal elders to have the local descendants of Muhammad's family be wiped out.
In the Jbala region they had a stronghold in the fortress of Hajar an-Nasar, from where they tried to restore their power base, until the last Idrisid made the mistake of switching allegiances back to the Fatimids, was deposed and executed in 985 by the Cordobans. Idris
The Vandalic or Vandal War was a conflict fought in North Africa between the forces of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire and the Vandalic Kingdom of Carthage, in 533–534. It was the first of Justinian I's wars of reconquest of the lost Western Roman Empire; the Vandals had occupied Roman North Africa in the early 5th century, established an independent kingdom there. Under their first king, the formidable Vandal navy carried out pirate attacks across the Mediterranean, sacked Rome and defeated a massive Roman invasion in 468. After Geiseric's death, relations with the surviving Eastern Roman Empire normalized, although tensions flared up due to the Vandals' militant adherence to Arianism and their persecution of the Chalcedonian native population. In 530, a palace coup in Carthage overthrew the pro-Roman Hilderic and replaced him with his cousin Gelimer; the Eastern Roman emperor Justinian took this as a pretext to interfere in Vandal affairs, after he secured his eastern frontier with Sassanid Persia in 532, he began preparing an expedition under general Belisarius, whose secretary Procopius wrote the main historical narrative of the war.
Justinian took advantage of, or instigated, rebellions in the remote Vandal provinces of Sardinia and Tripolitania. These not only distracted Gelimer from the Emperor's preparations, but weakened Vandal defences through the dispatch of the bulk of the Vandal navy and a large portion of their army under Gelimer's brother Tzazon to Sardinia; the Roman expeditionary force set sail from Constantinople in late June 533, after a sea voyage along the coasts of Greece and southern Italy, landed on the African coast at Caputvada in early September, to Gelimer's complete surprise. The Vandal king gathered his forces and met the Roman army at the Battle of Ad Decimum, near Carthage, on 13 September. Gelimer's elaborate plan to encircle and destroy the Roman army came close to success, but Belisarius was able to drive the Vandal army to flight and occupy Carthage. Gelimer withdrew to Bulla Regia, where he gathered his remaining strength, including the army of Tzazon, which returned from Sardinia. In December, Gelimer met the Romans at the Battle of Tricamarum.
The battle resulted in the death of Tzazon. Gelimer fled to a remote mountain fortress, where he was blockaded until he surrendered in the spring. Belisarius returned to Constantinople with the Vandals' royal treasure and the captive Gelimer to enjoy a triumph, while Africa was formally restored to imperial rule as the praetorian prefecture of Africa. Imperial control scarcely reached beyond the old Vandal kingdom and the Moorish tribes of the interior proved unwilling to accept imperial rule and soon rose up in rebellion; the new province was shaken by the wars with the Moors and military rebellions, it was not until 548 that peace was restored and Roman government established. In the course of the gradual decline and dissolution of the Western Roman Empire in the early 5th century, the Germanic tribe of the Vandals, allied with the Alans, had established themselves in the Iberian peninsula. In 429, the Roman governor of the Diocese of Africa, who had rebelled against the West Roman emperor Valentinian III and was facing an invasion by imperial troops, called upon the Vandalic King Geiseric for aid.
Thus, in May 429, Geiseric crossed the straits of Gibraltar with his entire people 80,000 in total. Geiseric's Vandals and Alans, had their own plans, aimed to conquer the African provinces outright, their possession of Mauretania Caesariensis, Mauretania Sitifensis and most of Numidia was recognized in 435 by the Western Roman court, but this was only a temporary expedient. Warfare soon recommenced, in October 439, the capital of Africa, fell to the Vandals. In 442, another treaty exchanged the provinces hitherto held by the Vandals with the core of the African diocese, the rich provinces of Zeugitana and Byzacena, which the Vandals received no longer as foederati of the Empire, but as their own possessions; these events marked the foundation of the Vandalic Kingdom, as the Vandals made Carthage their capital and settled around it. Although the Vandals now gained control of the lucrative African grain trade with Italy, they launched raids on the coasts of the Mediterranean that ranged as far as the Aegean Sea and culminated in their sack of Rome itself in 455, which lasted for two weeks.
Taking advantage of the chaos that followed Valentinian's death in 455, Geiseric regained control—albeit rather tenuous—of the Mauretanian provinces, with his fleet took over Sardinia and the Balearic Islands. Sicily escaped the same fate through the presence there of Ricimer. Throughout this period, the Vandals survived several Roman attempts at a counterstrike: the Eastern Roman general Aspar had led an unsuccessful expedition in 431, an expedition assembled by the Western emperor Majorian off the coast of Spain in 460 was scattered or captured by the Vandals before it could set sail, in 468, Geiseric defeated a huge joint expedition by both western and eastern empires under Basiliscus. In the aftermath of this disaster, following further Vandal raids against the shores of Greece, the eastern emperor Zeno concluded a "perpetual peace" with Geiseric; the Vandal state was unique in many respects among the Germanic kingdoms that succeeded the Western Roman Empire: instead of respecting and continuing the established Roman socio-political order, they replaced it with their own.
Whereas the kings of Western Europe continued to pay deference to the emperors and minted coinage
History of Algeria
Much of the history of Algeria has taken place on the fertile coastal plain of North Africa, called the Maghreb. North Africa served as a transit region for people moving towards Europe or the Middle East, the region's inhabitants have been influenced by populations from other areas, including the Carthaginians and Vandals; the region was conquered by the Muslims in the early 8th century AD, but broke off from the Umayyad Caliphate after the Berber Revolt of 740. Various Berbers, Persian Muslim states, Shia or Ibadi communities were established that ruled parts of modern-day of Algeria: including the Rustamids, Fatimids, Zirids, Almoravid, Almohads and Ziyyanids. During the Ottoman period, Algiers was the center of the Barbary slave trade which led to many naval conflicts; the last significant events in the country's recent history have been the Algerian War and Algerian Civil War. Evidence of the early human occupation of Algeria is demonstrated by the discovery of 1.8 million year old Oldowan stone tools found at Ain Hanech in 1992.
In 1954 fossilised Homo erectus bones were discovered by C. Arambourg at Ternefine that are 700,000 years old. Neolithic civilization developed in the Saharan and Mediterranean Maghrib between 6000 and 2000 BC; this type of economy, richly depicted in the Tassili n'Ajjer cave paintings in southeastern Algeria, predominated in the Maghrib until the classical period. The amalgam of peoples of North Africa coalesced into a distinct native population, the Berbers lacked a written language and hence tended to be overlooked or marginalized in historical accounts. Since 4000 BC, the indigenous peoples of northern Africa resisted Phoenician, Vandal, Byzantine and French invaders but accepted Islam between the 7th to 9th century, Arabic is now the language spoken by a majority in the country. Phoenician traders arrived on the North African coast around 900 BC and established Carthage around 800 BC. During the classical period, Berber civilization was at a stage in which agriculture, manufacturing and political organization supported several states.
Trade links between Carthage and the Berbers in the interior grew, but territorial expansion resulted in the enslavement or military recruitment of some Berbers and in the extraction of tribute from others. The Carthaginian state declined because of successive defeats by the Romans in the Punic Wars, in 146 BC, the city of Carthage was destroyed; as Carthaginian power waned, the influence of Berber leaders in the hinterland grew. By the 2nd century BC, several large but loosely administered Berber kingdoms had emerged. After that, king Masinissa managed to unify Numidia under his rule. Madghacen was a king of independent kingdoms of the Numidians, between 12 and 3 BC. Berber territory was annexed by the Roman Empire in AD 24. Increases in urbanization and in the area under cultivation during Roman rule caused wholesale dislocations of Berber society, Berber opposition to the Roman presence was nearly constant; the prosperity of most towns depended on agriculture, the region was known as the "breadbasket of the empire".
Christianity arrived in the 2nd century. By the end of the 4th century, the settled areas had become christianized, some Berber tribes had converted en masse. From the 8th century Umayyad conquest of North Africa led by Musa bin Nusayr, Arab colonization started; the 11th century invasion of migrants from the Arabian peninsula brought oriental tribal customs. The introduction of Islam and Arabic had a profound impact on North Africa; the new religion and language introduced changes in social and economic relations, established links with the Arab world through acculturation and assimilation. According to historians of the Middle Ages, the Berbers are divided into two branches, both are from their ancestor Mazigh; the two branches Botr and Barnès are divided into tribes, each Maghreb region is made up of several tribes. The large Berber tribes or peoples are Sanhaja, Zenata, Kutama, Barghawata... etc. Each tribe is divided into sub tribes. All these tribes have territorial decisions. Several Berber dynasties emerged during the Middle Ages: - In North Africa, Sudan, in Andalusia, Italy, in Mali, Niger and Egypt.
Ibn Khaldoun made a table of Berber dynasties: Zirid, Banu Ifran, Almoravid, Almohad Caliphate, Zayyanid, Meknes, Hafsid dynasty. The invasion of the Banu Hilal Arab tribes in 11th century, sacked Kairouan, the area under Zirid control was reduced to the coastal region, the Arab conquests fragmented into petty Bedouin emirates; the second Arab military expeditions into the Maghreb, between 642 and 669, resulted in the spread of Islam. The Umayyads recognised that the strategic necessity of dominating the Mediterranean dictated a concerted military effort on the North African front. By 711 Umayyad forces helped by Berber converts to Islam had conquered all of North Africa. In 750 the Abbasids moved the caliphate to Baghdad. Under the Abbasids, Berber Kharijites Sufri Banu Ifran were opposed to Abbasids. After, the Rustumids ruled most of the central Maghrib from Tahirt, southwest of Algiers; the imams gained a reputation for honesty and justice, the court of Tahirt was noted for its support of scholarship.
The Rustumid imams failed, however, to organise a reliable standing army, which opened the way for Tahirt's demise under the assault of the Fatimid dynasty. With their interest focused
The Marinid dynasty or Banu abd al-Haqq was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Zenata Berber descent that ruled Morocco from the 13th to the 15th century. In 1244, the Marinid rulers overthrew the Almohad Caliphate; the Marinid dynasty held sway over all the Maghreb in the mid-14th century. It supported the Kingdom of Granada in Al-Andalus in 14th centuries; the Marinids were overthrown after the 1465 revolt. The Wattasid dynasty, a related ruling house, came to power in 1472; the Marinids were a branch of the Wassin, a nomadic Zenata Berber tribe that lived in the Zibans before being driven towards Tlemcen by the Arab invasion in the 11th century. The tribe had first frequented the area between Figuig, Morocco. Following the arrival of Arab tribes in the area in the 11th-12th centuries, Marinids moved to the north-west of present-day Algeria, before settling into northern Morocco by the beginning of the 13th century; the Marinids took their name from Marin ibn Wartajan al-Zenati. After arriving in Morocco, they submitted to the Almohad dynasty, at the time the ruling house.
After contributing to the Battle of Alarcos, in central Spain, the tribe started to assert itself as a political power. Starting in 1213, they began to tax farming communities of north-eastern Morocco; the relationship between them and the Almohads became strained and starting in 1215, there were regular outbreaks of fighting between the two parties. In 1217 they tried to occupy eastern Morocco, but they were expelled, pulling back and settling in the eastern Rif mountains. Here they remained for nearly 30 years. During their stay in the Rif, the Almohad state suffered huge blows, losing large territories to the Christians in Spain, while the Hafsids of Ifriqia broke away in 1229, followed by the Zayyanid dynasty of Tlemcen in 1235. Between 1244 and 1248 the Marinids were able to take Taza, Salé, Meknes and Fes from the weakened Almohads; the Marinid leadership installed in Fes declared war on the Almohads, fighting with the aid of Christian mercenaries. Abu Yusuf Yaqub captured Marrakech in 1269.
After the Nasrids ceded Algeciras to the Marinids, Abu Yusuf went to Al-Andalus to support the ongoing struggle against the Kingdom of Castile. The Marinid dynasty tried to extend its control to include the commercial traffic of the Strait of Gibraltar, it was in this period that the Spanish Christians were first able to take the fighting to Morocco: in 1260 and 1267 they attempted an invasion of Morocco, but both attempts were defeated. After gaining a foothold in Spain, the Marinids became active in the conflict between Muslims and Christians in Iberia. To gain absolute control of the trade in the Strait of Gibraltar, from their base at Algeciras they started the conquest of several Spanish towns: by the year 1294 they had occupied Rota and Gibraltar. In 1276 they founded Fes Jdid, which they made their military centre. While Fes had been a prosperous city throughout the Almohad period becoming the largest city in the world during that time, it was in the Marinid period that Fes reached its golden age, a period which marked the beginning of an official, historical narrative for the city.
It is from the Marinid period that Fes' reputation as an important intellectual centre dates, they established the first madrassas in the city and country. The principal monuments in the medina, the residences and public buildings, date from the Marinid period. Despite internal infighting, Abu Said Uthman II initiated huge construction projects across the land. Several madrassas were built; the building of these madrassas were necessary to create a dependent bureaucratic class, in order to undermine the marabouts and Sharifian elements. The Marinids strongly influenced the policy of the Emirate of Granada, from which they enlarged their army in 1275. In the 13th century, the Kingdom of Castile made several incursions into their territory. In 1260, Castilian forces raided Salé and, in 1267, initiated a full-scale invasion, but the Marinids repelled them. At the height of their power, during the rule of Abu al-Hasan'Ali, the Marinid army was large and disciplined, it consisted of 40,000 Zenata cavalry, while Arab nomads contributed to the cavalry and Andalusians were included as archers.
The personal bodyguard of the sultan consisted of 7,000 men, included Christian and Black African elements. Under Abu al-Hasan another attempt was made to reunite the Maghreb. In 1337 the Abdalwadid kingdom of Tlemcen was conquered, followed in 1347 by the defeat of the Hafsid empire in Ifriqiya, which made him master of a huge territory, which spanned from southern Morocco to Tripoli. However, within the next year, a revolt of Arab tribes in southern Tunisia made them lose their eastern territories; the Marinids had suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of a Portuguese-Castilian coalition in the Battle of Río Salado in 1340, had to withdraw from Andalusia, only holding on to Algeciras until 1344. In 1348 Abu al-Hasan was deposed by his son Abu Inan Faris, who tried to reconquer Algeria and Tunisia. Despite several successes, he was strangled by his own vizir in 1358, after which the dynasty began to decline. After the death of Abu Inan Faris in 1358, the real power lay with the viziers, while the Marinid sultans were paraded and forced to succeed eac
The Hoggar Mountains, are a highland region in the central Sahara, southern Algeria, along the Tropic of Cancer. The mountains cover an area of 550,000 square km; this mountainous region is located about 1,500 km south of Algiers. The area is rocky desert with an average elevation of more than 900 m above sea level; the highest peak, Mount Tahat, is at 2,908 m. The mountains are composed of metamorphic rock 2 billion years old, although there are areas where more recent volcanic activity has laid down much newer rock. Several of the more dramatic peaks, such as Ilamen, are the result of erosion wearing away extinct volcano domes, leaving behind the more resistant material that plugged the volcanic cores. Assekrem is a famous and visited point where Charles de Foucauld built a hermitage in 1911; the main city near the Hoggar Mountains is Tamanrasset, built in wadi. The Hoggar Mountain range experiences hot summers, with a cold winter climate. Temperatures fall below 0 °C in the winter. Rainfall is sporadic year-round.
However, since the climate is less extreme than in most other areas of the Sahara, the Hoggar Mountains are a major location for biodiversity, including number of relict species. The Hoggar Mountains are part of the West Saharan montane xeric woodlands ecoregion, it is one of the national parks of the country. To the west of the Hoggar range, a population of the endangered African wild dog remained viable into the 20th century, but is now thought to be extirpated within this entire region. Analysis of collected scat in 2006 showed the presence of the Northwest African Cheetah in the region. Relict populations of the West African crocodile persisted in the Hoggar Mountains until the early 20th century; the park contains a population of herbivores such as the saharan subspecies of the barbary sheep and the Dorcas gazelle Vegetation in this area includes trees such as Vachellia tortilis, Vachellia seyal and Tamarix aphylla which are scattered throughout the area. Other plants may include Calotropis procera.
Prehistoric settlement is evident from extant rock paintings dating to 6000 BC. The Hoggar Massif is the land of the Kel Ahaggar Tuareg; the tomb of Tin Hinan, the woman believed to be the matriarch of the Tuareg, is located at Abalessa, an oasis near Tamanrasset. According to legend, the Tim Lam are from the Tafilalt region in the Moroccan Atlas Mountains. France and weapons of mass destruction. 2001. Encyclopedia of World Geography, Published by Marshall Cavendish, 3456 pages ISBN 0-7614-7289-4, 9780761472896 C. Michael Hogan. 2009. Painted Hunting Dog: Lycaon pictus, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. N. Stromberg Jeremy Keenan. 1977. "The Tuareg: People of Ahaggar", Published by Penguin Books Ltd.. London, 385 pages, ISBN 0-7139-0636-7 A website about the park Park data on UNEP-WPMC Ahaggar National Park - The Biodiverse Home of the Saharan Cheetah
The Aghlabids were an Arab dynasty of emirs from the Najdi tribe of Banu Tamim, who ruled Ifriqiya, nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids. In 800, the Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid appointed Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab, son of a Khurasanian Arab commander from the Banu Tamim tribe, as hereditary Emir of Ifriqiya as a response to the anarchy that had reigned in that province following the fall of the Muhallabids. At that time there were 100,000 Arabs living in Ifriqiya, although the Berbers still constituted the great majority. Ibrahim was to control an area that encompassed eastern Algeria and Tripolitania. Although independent in all but name, his dynasty never ceased to recognise Abbasid overlordship; the Aghlabids paid an annual tribute to the Abbasid Caliph and their suzerainty was referenced in the khutba at Friday prayers. After the pacification of the country Ibrahim ibn al-Aghlab established a residence at a new capital, al-‘Abbāsiyya, founded outside Kairouan to distance himself from the opposition of the Malikite jurists and theologians, who condemned what they saw as the luxurious life of the Aghlabids, disliked the unequal treatment of the Muslim Berbers.
Additionally, border defenses were set up in Monastir. The Aghlabids built up the irrigation of the area and enhanced the public buildings and mosques of al-‘Abbāsiyya, it was recorded. One unique feature of the Aghlabids is that despite the political differences and rivalry between Aghlabids, who served under the Abbasid Caliphate, the Umayyad Emirate of Cordoba, the Muslims in Spain sent a fleet under Asba' ibn Wakil to aid the Aghlabids conquest of Sicily. Ibn Kathir recorded that a joint force of 300 Aghlabid ships were present; the Aghlabid garrison at Mineo managed to get into contact with the Andalusian Umayyads whom agreed to the alliance, provided that Asbagh was recognized as the overall commander, together with fresh troops from Ifriqiya they marched on Mineo. Theodotus retreated to Enna and the siege of Mineo was broken; the combined Ifriqiyan and Andalusian army torched Mineo and laid siege to another town Calloniana. However, a plague broke out in their camp causing the death of many others.
The town fell in autumn, but the Arabs' numbers were depleted subsequently they had to abandon it and retreat west. Theodotus launched a pursuit and inflicted heavy casualties, so that most of the Andalusians departed the island. However, Theodotus too was killed at this time in one of these skirmishes. Under Ziyadat Allah I came the crisis of a revolt of Arab troops in 824, not quelled until 836 with the help of the Berbers; the conquest of Byzantine Sicily from 827 under Asad ibn al-Furat was an attempt to keep the unruly troops under control - it was only achieved and only in 902 was the last Byzantine outpost taken. Plundering raids into mainland Italy, which included the sack of the Roman basilicas in 846, took place until well into the 10th century; the Aghlabids lost control of the Arab forces in Sicily and a new dynasty, the Kalbids, emerged there. The Aghlabid kingdom reached its high point under Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Aghlabi. Ifriqiya was a significant economic power thanks to its fertile agriculture, aided by the expansion of the Roman irrigation system.
It became the focal point of trade between the Islamic world and Byzantium and Italy the lucrative slave trade. Kairuan became the most important centre of learning in the Maghreb, most notably in the fields of theology and law, a gathering place for poets; the Aghlabid emirs sponsored building projects, notably the rebuilding of the Mosque of Uqba and the kingdom developed an architectural style which combined Abbasid and Byzantine architecture. The decline of the dynasty began under Ibrahim II ibn Ahmad. An attack by the Tulunids of Egypt had to be repelled and a revolt of the Berbers put down with much loss of life. In addition, in 893 there began amongst the Kutama Berbers the movement of the Shiite Fatimids to overthrow the Aghlabids. Abdullah al-Mahdi Billah captured the cities of Qairawan and Raqqada and took an oath of allegiance from the people. By 909, the Aghlabid Dynasty was replaced with the Fatimids. Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab ibn Salim Abdallah I ibn Ibrahim Ziyadat Allah I ibn Ibrahim al-Aghlab Abu Iqal ibn Ibrahim Abu'l-Abbas Muhammad I ibn al-Aghlab Abi Affan Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Aghlabi Ziyadat Allah II ibn Abil-Abbas Abu'l-Gharaniq Muhammad II ibn Ahmad Abu Ishaq Ibrahim II ibn Ahmad Abu'l-Abbas Abdallah II ibn Ibrahim Abu Mudhar Ziyadat Allah III ibn Abdallah History of Islam in southern Italy History of medieval Tunisia List of Sunni Muslim dynasties History of Algeria History of Libya Georges Marçais, "Aghlabids," Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd ed. Vol. I, pp. 699–700.
Mohamed Talbi, Emirat Aghlabide, Paris: Adrien Maisonneuve, 1967. Maurice Vonderheyden, La Berbérie orientale sous la dynastie des Benoû l-Aṛlab, 800-909, Paris: Geuthner, 1927. Versteegh, Kees; the Arabic Language. Columbia University Press