Allier is a French department located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of central France named after the river Allier. Moulins is the prefecture and the INSEE and Post Code is 03; the inhabitants of the department are known as Bourbonnais since October 2018. Allier department is composed of all of the former Duchy of Bourbonnais, it is part of the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region and borders the departments of Cher, Nièvre, Saône-et-Loire, Puy-de-Dome, Creuse. Major towns The department includes three spa towns: Bourbon l'Archambault Neris-les-Bains VichyNeris-les-Bains is the only town in the department with more than 10% of second homes: 504 out of 1,800 homes in 1999. Bourbonnais bocage covers most of the western and central parts of the department, followed by the Bourbonnais Sologne in the east north-east, the Bourbonnais Mountain, the highest point of Bourbonnais together with Montoncel, in the south of the department, the Bourbonnais Limagne, which extends from Varennes to Gannat, is the breadbasket of the department.
The Bourbonnais BocageTo the north and just over 500 metres above sea level, the Bourbonnais Bocage occupies one-third of the department, with two parts: the centre and the west. The bocage is remarkable for its rich forests and woodlands including the famous Forest of Tronçais but the forests of Moladier Bagnolet, Soulongis, Dreuille and Suave. All of the southern area consists of Combrailles, sometimes called High Bourbonnais, in an area that goes beyond the departmental boundaries of Creuse and Puy-de-Dôme; this area of the department rises to 778 metres at Bosse. The rivers Sioule and Cher have carved the most picturesque gorges in Allier; the Bourbonnais SologneTo the east, between the Val d'Allier and the borders of Nièvre and Saône-et-Loire, the Bourbonnais Sologne has a nice balance between pastures, crops and ponds: the balance between agriculture and semi-wilderness constituting a favorable setting for fauna and flora. The Bourbonnais MountainsIn its southern extension, the Bourbonnais Mountain rises from the Puy Saint-Ambroise near Saint-Léon and extends to the massif of Assisi and the Black Forest at the edge of Puy-de-Dome and Loire, marked by the Puy de Montoncel – the highest point in Allier.
The Bourbonnais LimagneCommonly grouped under the name of Val d'Allier, the Limagne and Forterre extend on both sides of the river between Vichy and Saint-Pourçain-sur-Sioule with an essential quality of fertility. Limogne, together with Sioule and Allier, is part of the Gannat / Escurolles / Saint-Pourçain triangle while Forterre covers the Canton of Varennes-sur-Allier ending near Jaligny. Watercourses to the west: the Cher in the centre: the Allier and its tributary the Sioule to the east the Loire and its tributary the Besbre A transition zone in the middle of the country, Allier is a free zone between north and south; the department is wide open to Atlantic influences and it enjoys a mild and humid climate dominated by westerly winds which helps a little to differentiate it from other parts of Auvergne. The weather variances coincide with the diversity of Bourbonnais territory such as: flat regions, low altitude Bourbonnais Sologne and large floodplains, the hill country, the average altitude of 300 to 600 metres, the central part of the department, the semi-mountainous southern townships bordering the Combraille and Forez between 700 and 1,200 metres.
There are two periods of maximum precipitation in June and October and a minimum in January and February with average of 694 millimetres in Montluçon, 763 mm in Moulins 778 mm in Vichy 791 mm in Lapalisse. and nearly 1,200 mm in Assisi. As noted Atlantic winds are dominant from northwest, or southwest; the influence of topography in the valleys of Cher and Allier contributes to the south and north variance. The history of Allier corresponds to the Duchy of Bourbon with which it shares the entire territory. Allier is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, it was created from parts of the former provinces of Bourbonnais. In 1940, the government of Marshal Philippe Pétain chose the town of Vichy as its capital. Vichy became the department's second sub-prefecture in 1940, since the department now found itself split by the demarcation line between the occupied and free zones of France. On 1 January 1997 the population of Allier was estimated at 357,100 inhabitants which represented an average density of 50 people/km².
Many areas have a density less than 20 people/km². Because of its low population density, it is considered to fall within the empty diagonal. Since the early 1980s Allier has faced many demographic handicaps; the ratio of older people is important and with low fertility rates the natural growth is negative. Meanwhile, net migration has become negative. At 1 January 2009 the legal population was 343,046 inhabitants; the fertility rate was lower than the national average in 2007 but would renew the Allier population if it were not for the lack of jobs that led to the exodus of young people to more favourable employment areas, thus confirming a negative net migration. Allier has three major cities: Montluçon, Moulins by size; the rest of the department includes some small towns and villages, scattered along the rivers. The few villages are far from one another, it is a sparsely-populated
Alpes-de-Haute-Provence is a department in Southeastern France, located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region. Part of the province of Provence, it had a population of 161,916 in 2013, its main cities are Digne-les-Bains, Sisteron, Barcelonnette and Forcalquier. Inhabitants of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence are called the Bas-Alpins or Bas-Alpines referring to the department of Basses-Alpes, the former name of the department until 1970. Bounded in the east by Italy, the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department is surrounded by the departments of Alpes-Maritimes, Vaucluse, Drôme, Hautes-Alpes, it can be divided into three zones depending on the terrain, climate and economy: the plateaux and valleys of Haute-Provence, which comprise one-third of the area but two thirds of the population and the most important cities of the department with all of the economic activity apart from mountain tourism. The valley of the Durance, the artery of the department, cuts the rest of the department into two halves: the Lower Alps: an intermediate mountain area with valleys and remote villages the High Alps: including the valleys of Ubaye and the high Verdon where the economy is built around mountain tourism.
In the Haute-Ubaye, the mountain peaks exceed 3000 m above sea level and all the passes are close to or above 2000 m in altitude. In this part of the department is one of the highest roads in Europe: the main road D64 reaches an altitude of 2802 m near the Col de la Bonette and connects the region of Barcelonnette to the Tinée and Vésubie valleys; the relief of the land compartmentalises the region: the enclosed valleys are difficult to access so dividing the country into as many local areas which communicate little with the outside. In 1877, 55 communes only had access to trails or mule paths; the seismic hazard is moderate to medium with different faults such as the Durance located in the department. The main cities are Manosque, Digne-les-Bains, Sisteron, Château-Arnoux-Saint-Auban, Forcalquier, Les Mées, Villeneuve, Sainte-Tulle, Gréoux-les-Bains and Castellane; the main river is the Durance. It is in the Durance valley that the most important traffic routes are found: the A51 autoroute and the railway main line.
All of the department is in the watershed of the Durance except for the extreme south-east which are drained by the Var. The main tributaries of the Durance in the department are the Ubaye, the Bléone, the Asse, the Verdon on the left bank, the Buëch, the Jabron, the Largue on the right bank; the Durance and its tributaries have a torrential character, with a transition between the snow regime of the high valleys and the mediterranean rainfall regime in the lower mountains and below. The summer low water levels are severe and violent floods occur when heavy rains fall, in autumn; the Durance, Verdon, Bléone and Buëch have had the construction of several dams and the diversion of parts of the river for irrigation and power generation in the 20th century. The climate of the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department is a Mediterranean climate degrading by altitude and latitude. In fact, while in the lower valleys and flat lands of Haute-Provence an inland Mediterranean climate prevails, by contrast in the hills it is more mixed with the valley of the Ubaye characteristic of the inner Alps, with a marked continentality: winters are harsh with stormy summers.
In between, the two influences mingle in the area of the Lower Alps. The characteristics of both climate trends are found throughout the department to a greater or lesser extent: dry air and little fog infrequent rainfall but heavy frequent thunderstorms in the mountains in summer High sunshine hours in all seasons high thermal amplitudes and annual fresh and bright winters hot summers tempered by altitude. Haute-Provence is therefore interesting for European astronomers looking for a cloudy night sky and untouched by light pollution. Many amateur observatories have been built and the Observatoire de Haute-Provence is one of the largest observatories in continental Europe, it is an active astronomy research centre. Alpes-de-Haute-Provence is subdivided into 15 cantons and 198 communes; the population was once evenly distributed in the territory, including in the mountainous areas where mountain agriculture was well developed. From the middle of the 19th century, however, it began to decline due to a strong rural exodus.
There were more than 150,000 inhabitants in 1850 but it fell to less than 100,000 after the First World War. It was not until 1960 that the trend changed upwards quite from less than 90,000 in 1954 to nearly 140,000 in 1999 and 153,000 in 2005. However, if this figure is close to the number of inhabitants the department had 150 years earlier, the distribution and activity of the population are different; the population is now concentrated in the valley of the Durance and the South West of the department, agriculture employs less than before. Services tourism and local services, is now the main industry; the department has never developed: in 1870 there were 27 small mines. According to the general census of the population, 32.8% of available housing in the department are second homes. The department of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence is one of the least densely popu
Marseille is the second-largest city of France. The main city of the historical province of Provence, it nowadays is the prefecture of the department of Bouches-du-Rhône and region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, it is located on French Riviera coast near the mouth of the Rhône. The city covers an area of 241 km2 and had a population of 852,516 in 2012, its metropolitan area, which extends over 3,173 km2 is the third-largest in France after Paris and Lyon, with a population of 1,831,500 as of 2010. Known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Massalia, Marseille was an important European trading centre and remains the main commercial port of the French Republic. Marseille is now France's largest city on the Mediterranean coast and the largest port for commerce and cruise ships; the city was European Capital of Culture in 2013 and European Capital of Sport in 2017. It is home to Aix-Marseille University. Marseille is the second-largest city in France after Paris and the centre of the third-largest metropolitan area in France after Paris and Lyon.
To the east, starting in the small fishing village of Callelongue on the outskirts of Marseille and stretching as far as Cassis, are the Calanques, a rugged coastal area interspersed with small fjord-like inlets. Farther east still are the city of Toulon and the French Riviera. To the north of Marseille, beyond the low Garlaban and Etoile mountain ranges, is the 1,011 m Mont Sainte Victoire. To the west of Marseille is the former artists' colony of l'Estaque; the airport lies to the north west of the city at Marignane on the Étang de Berre. The city's main thoroughfare stretches eastward from the Old Port to the Réformés quarter. Two large forts flank the entrance to the Old Port—Fort Saint-Nicolas on the south side and Fort Saint-Jean on the north. Farther out in the Bay of Marseille is the Frioul archipelago which comprises four islands, one of which, If, is the location of Château d'If, made famous by the Dumas novel The Count of Monte Cristo; the main commercial centre of the city intersects with the Canebière at Rue St Ferréol and the Centre Bourse.
The centre of Marseille has several pedestrianised zones, most notably Rue St Ferréol, Cours Julien near the Music Conservatory, the Cours Honoré-d'Estienne-d'Orves off the Old Port and the area around the Hôtel de Ville. To the south east of central Marseille in the 6th arrondissement are the Prefecture and the monumental fountain of Place Castellane, an important bus and metro interchange. To the south west are the hills of the 7th and 8th arrondissements, dominated by the basilica of Notre-Dame de la Garde. Marseille's main railway station—Gare de Marseille Saint-Charles—is north of the Centre Bourse in the 1st arrondissement; the city has a hot-summer mediterranean climate with mild, humid winters and warm to hot dry summers. December and February are the coldest months, averaging temperatures of around 12 °C during the day and 4 °C at night. July and August are the hottest months, averaging temperatures of around 28–30 °C during the day and 19 °C at night in the Marignane airport but in the city near the sea the average high temperature is 27 °C in July.
Marseille is the sunniest major city in France with over 2,900 hours of sunshine while the average sunshine in country. It is the driest major city with only 512 mm of precipitation annually thanks to the Mistral, a cold, dry wind originating in the Rhône Valley that occurs in winter and spring and which brings clear skies and sunny weather to the region. Less frequent is the Sirocco, a hot, sand-bearing wind, coming from the Sahara Desert. Snowfalls are infrequent; the hottest temperature was 40.6 °C on 26 July 1983 during a great heat wave, the lowest temperature was −14.3 °C on 13 February 1929 during a strong cold wave. Marseille was founded circa 600 BC as the Greek colony of Massalia and populated by settlers from Phocaea, it became the preeminent Greek polis in the Hellenized region of southern Gaul. The city-state sided with the Roman Republic against Carthage during the Second Punic War, retaining its independence and commercial empire throughout the western Mediterranean as Rome expanded into Western Europe and North Africa.
However, the city lost its independence following the Roman Siege of Massilia in 49 BC, during Caesar's Civil War, in which Massalia sided with the exiled faction at war with Julius Caesar. Marseille continued to prosper as a Roman city, becoming an early center of Christianity during the Western Roman Empire; the city maintained its position as a premier maritime trading hub after its capture by the Visigoths in the 5th century AD, although the city went into decline following the sack of 739 AD by the forces of Charles Martel. It became part of the County of Provence during the 10th century, although its renewed prosperity was curtailed by the Black Death of the 14th century and sack of the city by the Crown of Aragon in 1423; the city's fortunes rebounded with the ambitious building projects of René of Anjou, Count of Proven
Bouches-du-Rhône is a department in Southern France named after the mouth of the river Rhône. It is the most populous department of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region with 2,019,717 inhabitants in 2016, its INSEE and postal code is 13. Marseille is prefecture. Bouches-du-Rhône is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, it was created from the western part of the former province of Provence and the principalities of Orange and Lambesc. It lost part of its territory in 1793, including Orange and Apt, when the Vaucluse department was created. Following its creation, the department was strongly and supportive of the French Revolution, containing 90 "Jacobin Clubs" by 1794, it was noteworthy that more than 50% of the priests in the department accepted the Civil Constitution of the Clergy which in effect subordinated the church to the government. During the ascendancy of the Communist Party in the twentieth century election results indicated that support for left-wing politics remained strong in the department, in the northern suburbs of Marseille.
The history of the area is linked to that of Provence. Marseille has been an important harbour since before Julius Caesar's conquest of Gaul; the Roman presence left numerous monuments across the department. Notable people born in the area include Romantic painter Camille Roqueplan and his brother and theatre director Nestor Roqueplan; the department is part of the current region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. It is surrounded by the departments of Gard on the west, Vaucluse on the north, Var on the east, by the Mediterranean Sea on the south; the Rhône river delta forms a vast swampy wetlands area called the Camargue in the southwestern part of the department. Bouches-du-Rhône is bordered by the Rhône to the Durance to the north; the Rhône divides into the Grand Petit Rhône south of Arles. The principal mountains of the department are the Sainte-Baume massif, Mont Sainte-Victoire, the Garlaban massif and Alpilles massif; the department's prefecture and largest city, contains a major industrial harbour and serves as France's largest commercial port.
The Bouches-du-Rhône department is urban, with 28 towns having a population of more than 10,000 as of 2008. Marseille, population 853,000 is the departmental and regional capital Aix-en-Provence, population 142,743, subprefecture, a university town and seat of the regional Court of Appeals Arles, population 52,729, sous-préfecture and site of an ancient Roman city Martigues, population 46,471, the leading city for the European petrochemical industry Aubagne, population 46,093, birthplace of Provençal author Marcel Pagnol Istres, population 42,603, sous-préfecture and home to a military airbase Salon-de-Provence, population 41,411, the home city of 16th-century soothsayer Nostradamus Vitrolles, population 36,610 Marignane, population 33,909, site of Marseille Provence Airport La Ciotat, population 33,790 Miramas, population 25,632, regional railway hub Gardanne, population 21,121 Les Pennes-Mirabeau, population 20,187 Allauch, population 18,728 Port-de-Bouc, population 17,207 Fos-sur-Mer, population 15,448 Châteaurenard, population 14,817 Berre-l'Étang, population 13,881 Bouc-Bel-Air, population 13,437 Tarascon, population 13,340 Rognac, population 12,195 Auriol, population 11,969 Châteauneuf-les-Martigues, population 11,564 Plan-de-Cuques, population 11,096 Saint-Martin-de-Crau, population 10,979 Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, population 10,662 Septèmes-les-Vallons, population 10,481 Trets, population 10,239 Rivers include: The Rhône, which forms the border with the Gard department The Durance, which forms the border with the Vaucluse department The Arc The HuveauneLakes include: Étang de Berre Étang de Vaccarès, in the CamargueMountains include: Alpilles mountain range Calanques between Marseille and La Ciotat Corniche des Crêtes Garlaban Mont Puget Montagne Sainte-Victoire Sainte-Baume massif The department of Bouches-du-Rhône is known for its seismic activity: the zone II townships of Lambesc Peyrolles-en-Provence and Salon-de-Provence are the most exposed.
Areas Ib including the cantons of Aix-en-Provence, Trets Eyguières, Berre-Pond, Istres-North and South, Ia areas including the other cantons in the district of Aix-en-Provence, Arles-East, Châteaurenard, Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, Martigues-East and Roquevaire-West, are least exposed. Zone 0 includes the rest of the department. Since the Bouches-du-Rhône department is one of the most populous and diverse departments, it has long been the scene of fierce political battles; the development of the Marseille-Fos Port, the relationship maintained between France and its colonial empire, the industry around coal mining in Provence, significant immigration coming from Italy, from the end the nineteenth century and during the period between the two wars are all factors that led to the emergence of a large and militant working class. From the late nineteenth century, the socialist movement gained influence, such as by in 1881 by the election of the first socialist member of France, Clovis Hugues. Rural areas, in the region of Aix have tended to favor the influence of right-wing parties, including monarchists
Digne-les-Bains, or and Digne, is a commune of France, capital of the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department, situated in the region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. The name of its inhabitants is Dignois, it had a population of 17,268 as of 2008. Located on the edge of the Prealps of Digne and on both sides of the river Bléone, which flows southwest through the middle of the commune and crosses the town. Digne-les-Bains is the capital of the Department of Alpes de Haute-Provence. Placed in the geographical centre of the Department, the commune is home to 17,400 inhabitants, making it one of the smaller prefectures of France by its population; the town centre is at 608 metres altitude. Digne is a sprawling commune in the plain formed around the Bléone Valley, given that the terrain that surrounds it is rugged; the old town is built on a hill between the Bléone and the torrent of the hot springs, but the town has extended in the three directions of the valleys downstream. Its geographical location is quite remarkable, given that it lies at the edge of the Prealps, on a thrust fault that bears its name.
A part of the town is enclosed in the Bléone Valley, while the town extends on a gentler relief, downstream. With the annexation of neighbouring towns downstream, the town extends over 8 kilometres in length. Panoramic views of Dignes-les-Bains The communes surrounding Digne-les-Bains are La Robine-sur-Galabre, Le Brusquet, Archail, Clumanc, Chaudon-Norante, Châteauredon, Le Chaffaut-Saint-Jurson, Aiglun and Thoard; the commune, at the heart of the geology, has its specificities related to the ancient town built upstream of the cluse which the Bléone has worn into the Nappe de Digne to emerge into the tertiary basin of Valensole. The districts of the town cover the alluvium of the streams; the most eastern suburbs joined a line of limestone hills with flint of the Carixian age, forming russet cliffs oriented to the south-west. The hot springs were captured, since ancient times, to the point where these carixian limestones are cut by the hack of the southernmost valley, descending from Entrages.
Their healing powers are linked to their ascent along the gypsiferous Triassic levels of the sole thrust of the Nappe de Digne. The most visible mountain of the commune is Le Cousson at 1,516 metres. Many reliefs are objectives for hikers; the Rocher de Neuf Heures Three chapels The right bank of the Bléone (Park of the Haute-Provence Geological Reserve, along the Caguerenard path, paths to access the top of the slope and the crest of Andran - Martignon - La Bigue. Trails to access the Basses Bâties de Cousson, Le Cousson The Chapel of Saint Pancrace Barre des Dourbes In the Eaux-Chaudes Valley, there is one cold and eight hot springs used for hydrotherapy; some are radioactive, contain sulfides and arsenic. The town is crossed by the Bléone and the Mardaric rivers; the town is served by Chemins de Fer de Provence via the Nice-Digne railway line, a narrow gauge line which operates daily. It is the Train des Pignes, which allows the railway to serve little inhabited places with many stations. Bus - Since 1992, Digne has the TUD, which manages the public transport.
With six buses, this service increased its vehicle fleet in 1998 with the acquisition of two buses powered by natural gas. Six bus routes are available to the people of Digne. None of the 200 communes of the Department is in the zero seismic risk zone. Digne townships are located in zone 1b of the 1991 deterministic classification, based on the historic earthquakes, in zone 4 according to the EC8 probabilistic classification 2011; the town of Digne is exposed to three other natural risks: Forest fire Flooding and in those of its tributaries. The town of Digne is exposed to a risk of technological origin, that of transport of dangerous goods, by rail and pipeline. With regard to the railway, the Saint-Auban to Digne railway line has no traffic. Route nationale 85 and the departmental road RD 900 can be used for the road transport of dangerous goods; the pipeline to supply natural gas is an additional risk factor to Digne. The foreseeable natural risk prevention plan of the town was approved in 2008 for the risks of flooding, movement of land and earthquakes and the DICRIM has existed since 2009.
The commune has been the subject of several orders of natural disaster: in 1984 for an earthquake, many times for floods and mudslides, landslides due to drought. Included is a flood disaster prior to the orders: The waters of the Mardaric and Eaux-Chaudes which flooded the town in 1928, the Bléone in 1973 which destroyed the bridge; this destruction was caused by the breakdown of a jam created in the bed of the Bès, causing a wave of flooding. Several massive landslides have happened in the history of the commune, for example on 24 December 1916, which caused the collapse of part of Courbons, 2002-2003 at Villard-des-Dourbes. Earthquakes have a long history in Di
Carcassonne is a French fortified city in the department of Aude, in the region of Occitanie. A prefecture, it has a population of about 50,000. Inhabited since the Neolithic period, Carcassonne is located in the Aude plain between historic trade routes, linking the Atlantic to the Mediterranean sea and the Massif Central to the Pyrénées, its strategic importance was recognized by the Romans, who occupied its hilltop until the demise of the Western Roman Empire. In the fifth century, it was taken over by the Visigoths, its strategic location led successive rulers to expand its fortifications until the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659. Its citadel known as the Cité de Carcassonne, is a medieval fortress dating back to the Gallo-Roman period, was restored by the theorist and architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc in 1853, it was added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites in 1997. Carcassonne relies on tourism but counts manufacturing and wine-making as some of its other key economic sectors. Carcassonne is located in the south of France, about 80 kilometres east of Toulouse.
Its strategic location between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea has been known since the neolithic era. The town's area is about 65 km2, larger than the numerous small towns in the department of Aude; the rivers Aude and the Canal du Midi flow through the town. The first signs of settlement in this region have been dated to about 3500 BC, but the hill site of Carsac – a Celtic place-name, retained at other sites in the south – became an important trading place in the 6th century BC; the Volcae Tectosages fortified the oppidum. The folk etymology – involving a châtelaine named Lady Carcas, a ruse ending a siege, the joyous ringing of bells – though memorialized in a neo-Gothic sculpture of Mme. Carcas on a column near the Narbonne Gate, is of modern invention; the name can be derived as an augmentative of the name Carcas. Carcassonne became strategically identified when the Romans fortified the hilltop around 100 BC and made the colonia of Julia Carsaco Carcasum; the main part of the lower courses of the northern ramparts dates from Gallo-Roman times.
In 462 the Romans ceded Septimania to the Visigothic king Theodoric II who had held Carcassonne since 453. He built more fortifications at Carcassonne, a frontier post on the northern marches. Theodoric is thought to have begun the predecessor of the basilica, now dedicated to Saint Nazaire. In 508 the Visigoths foiled attacks by the Frankish king Clovis. Saracens from Barcelona took Carcassonne in 725, but King Pepin the Short drove them away in 759-60. A medieval fiefdom, the county of Carcassonne, controlled its environs, it was united with the County of Razès. The origins of Carcassonne as a county lie in local representatives of the Visigoths, but the first count known by name is Bello of the time of Charlemagne. Bello founded a dynasty, the Bellonids, which would rule many honores in Septimania and Catalonia for three centuries. In 1067, Carcassonne became the property of Raimond-Bernard Trencavel, viscount of Albi and Nîmes, through his marriage with Ermengard, sister of the last count of Carcassonne.
In the following centuries, the Trencavel family allied in succession either with the counts of Barcelona or of Toulouse. They built the Basilica of Saints Nazarius and Celsus. In 1096, Pope Urban II blessed the foundation stones of the new cathedral. Carcassonne became famous for its role in the Albigensian Crusades, when the city was a stronghold of Occitan Cathars. In August 1209 the crusading army of the Papal Legate, Abbot Arnaud Amalric, forced its citizens to surrender. Viscount Raymond-Roger de Trencavel was imprisoned whilst negotiating his city's surrender and died in mysterious circumstances three months in his own dungeon; the people of Carcassonne were allowed to leave – in effect, expelled from their city with nothing more than the shirt on their backs. Simon De Montfort was appointed the new viscount, he added to the fortifications. In 1240, Trencavel's son in vain; the city submitted to the rule of the kingdom of France in 1247. Carcassonne became a border fortress between France and the Crown of Aragon under the Treaty of Corbeil.
King Louis IX founded the new part of the town across the river. He and his successor Philip III built the outer ramparts. Contemporary opinion still considered the fortress impregnable. During the Hundred Years' War, Edward the Black Prince failed to take the city in 1355, although his troops destroyed the Lower Town. In 1659, the Treaty of the Pyrenees transferred the border province of Roussillon to France, Carcassonne's military significance was reduced. Fortifications were abandoned, the city became an economic centre that concentrated on the woollen textile industry, for which a 1723 source quoted by Fernand Braudel found it "the manufacturing centre of Languedoc", it remained so until the Ottoman market collapsed at the end of the eighteenth century, thereafter reverting to a country town. Carcassonne was the first fortress to use hoardings in times of siege. Temporary wooden ramparts would be fitted to the upper walls of the fortress through square holes beneath the rampart itself, it provided protection to defenders on the wall and allowed defenders to go out past the wall to drop projectiles on attackers at the wall
Évry is a former commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, prefecture of the department of Essonne. On 1 January 2019, it was merged into the new commune Évry-Courcouronnes, it is located 25.0 km from the center of Paris, in the "new town" of Évry Ville Nouvelle, created in the 1960s, of which it is the central and most populated commune. Significant nearby communes include Courcouronnes, Corbeil-Essonnes, Ris-Orangis, Brétigny-sur-Orge, Draveil; the commune was called Évry-sur-Seine. The name "Évry" comes from the Gallic name Eburacon or Eburiacos, meaning "land of Eburos" the leader of a Gallic tribe in the area before the conquest of Gaul by the Romans. After the conquest, the name was corrupted into Latin Apriacum Medieval Latin Avriacum, Evriacum. In 1881 the name of the commune was changed into Évry-Petit-Bourg at the request of entrepreneur Paul Decauville, owner of Ateliers de Petit-Bourg, a large boiler works located in Évry and at the time the largest employer in the area; the factory owed its name to the hamlet of Petit-Bourg.
On 29 June 1965 the name of the commune was shortened into "Évry" only. Évry had just been chosen to become a "new town" of the suburbs of Paris, destined to host tens of thousands of suburbanites, so the name "Petit-Bourg" was deemed too old fashioned and improper for the new large suburban city of Évry to be built. In 1965 Évry took its current name. Before it was known as "Évry-Petit-Bourg" and had a population of only a few thousand; when Évry was built, Orly was the primary international airport of France, many international companies such as Digital, Hewlett-Packard, Alstom established their head offices in Évry. However, with the expansion of Charles de Gaulle Roissy airport, all the larger companies have moved out, causing the downfall of the many smaller service companies which catered to the lunchtime needs of the thousands of staff who were either displaced or made redundant. Amongst the few international companies remaining are the hotel and catering firm of Accor and the supermarket chain of Carrefour.
Although both have a postal Cedex address in Évry, geographically they are in Courcouronnes. The town has tried to counteract this exodus by increasing the capacity of the commercial center, the Agora, to 235 shops selling the same wares; the economy of the Agora has been hit by the recession. A total of 29 shops and one restaurant are vacant. 24 are on the upper level where the rents are double that of the lower level shops. During the week the car parks are now "pay by the hour" to discourage rail commuters from saturating the parking space during the day to the detriment of shoppers. Weekend parking is free. Another measure taken by the local authorities has been to declare certain quarters a "zone franche" which means that businesses starting up in these areas are exempt from corporation tax along with many other social benefits and aids which makes Évry an attractive town for future entrepreneurs; the Cathedral of the Resurrection, dedicated to Saint Corbinien, is one of the few 20th century cathedrals built in a modern style.
The total cost was 13.72M€. The total surface is 1,600 m2, it is 34m high, it can receive 1,400 people. Pope John Paul II made a visit on 22 August 1997, although car parks were requisitioned as far away as Corbeil-Essonnes, apart from invited guests, fewer than 500 people turned out for the event, which means that Évry may hold the world record for the smallest crowd at a papal appearance. In 2003, the Socialist mayor, Manuel Valls, and, the constituency deputé and a qualified avocat, embarked upon a massive safeguard plan designed to renovate the more defavourised areas which includes much demolition of the obsolete 1960s buildings, the upgrading of the more recent residential structures and schools. 2006 saw the final renovation of the Collège des Pyramides at the cost of 11.43M€ and will receive 571 pupils. In 2007, enlargement and renovation was to begin on the Lycée des Loges; the work was to last three years without interruption of lessons, the budget was set at 40M€. Demolition of several buildings in the Jules Vallès quarter of the Pyramides is in progress.
They will be replaced by "low level" blocks of appartements. At the same time, the university residence is being renovated along with the construction of a "mall" which will link the northern limit of the town with the town centre in preparation for when the tramway will provide a direct transport to Paris as an alternative to the RER railway. On 31 January 2006, in the Sénat during the 14th ceremony of the "Prix du Trombinoscope 2005", Manuel Valls was elected "Local Representative of the Year". With the heavy defeat of the Socialists on the national scale during the 2007 elections, Manuel Valls has taken a prominent position in the party and has been given the nickname of "Le Sarko de la gauche" (the left