Lojas Americanas is a Brazilian retail chain founded in 1929 in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, by the Austrian-Brazilian Max Landesmann and Americans John Lee, Glen Matson, James Marshall and Batson Borger. The company has 1490 stores in all 26 Brazilian states and in the Federal District. Lojas Americanas has its headquarters in Rio de Janeiro and has 4 distribution centers, in Nova Iguaçu, Barueri and Uberlandia, it is controlled by three Brazilian billionaires: Jorge Paulo Lemann, Marcel Herrmann Telles and Carlos Alberto Sicupira, the same trio that drives the Anheuser-Busch InBev, 3G Capital, São Carlos S. A. and other groups. The network sells over 80 thousand items of four thousand different companies. In January 2007, Lojas Americanas acquired the Brazilian operations of the network of video rental Blockbuster for R$186.2 million and adapted to store the model Americanas Express. The company was founded in 1929 by Americans John Lee, Glen Matson, James Marshall and Batson Borger.
They left the United States and went to Buenos Aires with the objective of opening a Five and Dime store. The idea was to launch a store that featured low prices, modelled after stores in the United States and Europe that became popular at the beginning of the 20th century. While on their trip to South America, they met Brazilians Aquino Sales and Max Landesman, who convinced them to change their plans and head to Rio de Janeiro. After spending time in Rio de Janeiro, the Americans saw that there were many public employees and military personnel with stable but modest salaries; the majority of the stores in the city were not financially accessible to the general public. The existing stores were expensive and sold specialized merchandise. Consumers had to go to several different establishments to do their shopping; as a result, the Americans decided that Rio de Janeiro was the perfect city in which to launch their new concept store. They built a store that had low prices—to attend to the "forgotten" consumer populations—and sold the widest variety of products possible.
In 1929 they inaugurated the first Lojas Americanas store in Niteroi. The store slogan was "Nothing over $2". During the first hour the store was open, no one came. Failure appeared imminent. However, one girl, after spending a few minutes looking at the window display and bought a doll, and just like that, Lojas Americanas had completed its first of many sales. At the end of the first year, they had opened four stores—three in Rio de Janeiro and one in São Paulo. By 1940, Lojas Americanas had become a corporation. In 1982, the board members of the Grupo Garantia came on board with Lojas Americanas as shareholders. By the first quarter of 1994, they solidified the formation of a joint venture company under the name Walmart Brasil S/A with Lojas Americanas as a 40% stakeholder and Walmart as a 60% stakeholder. In 1997, by the decision of the administrative council of the company, approval was given for sale of 40% of the company to Walmart, Inc; the council approved the participation of Lojas Americanas in a deal in 1998 which detailed their actionary control of 23 stores with the French supermarket company Comptoirs Modernes, connected to Grupo Carrefour).
Lojas Americanas decided to end the association and focus on their primary business of discount stores. In 1999, the company began selling merchandise through the site Americanas.com. By 2000, Americanas.com and a new partnership with Chase Capital, The Flatiron Fund, Next International. Global Bridge Ventures, Mercosul Internet S/A, AIG had augmented their capital. All together, these ventures translated into an additional US $40 million and the sale of 33% of the company; the early 2000s were characterized by the company's rapid expansion. The goal was to open new stores across the Southeast and South of Brazil to increase the presence of the brand and to reformulate some existing stores to improve customer service, it was during this period that Lojas Americanas acquired a television station called Shoptime, a joint venture with Banco Itaú that created the Financeira Americanas Itaú, or Americanas Taií. Americanas.com announced in November 2006 its merger with Submarino, creating an absolute leading company in the online sales segment in Brazil.
The new company, B2W, must compete with the traditional trade chains. In January 2007, Lojas Americanas announced their acquisition of BWU, the corporation responsible for Blockbuster in Brazil, integrated them into over 127 stores. Most in 2013, the Lojas Americanas network was forced to pay R$250 thousand in reparations to Bolivian sweatshop workers making clothing for the company's BASIC+ brand, they were judged to be working in "slave-like" conditions. Lojas Americanas operates 4 different kinds of affiliated stores. For this reason, the name "Americanas Network" is used to refer to the parent company. Traditional Stores Americanas Express Americanas Blockbuster Online stores: Submarino, Americanas.com and Shoptime Official Home Page of Americanas
Cosan is a public listed company, a Brazilian conglomerate producer of bioethanol and energy. The company operates in Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and United Kingdom. Cosan began in 1936 in Piracicaba city in São Paulo, with the founding of its first factory for milling of sugar cane. From the second half of the 1980s, it expanded operations through the acquisition of several factories in the State of São Paulo. Cosan cultivates and processes sugar cane, the main raw material used in the production of sugar and ethanol, its 23 plants occupy 600,000 hectares of land and employ 45,000 people. In the food sector the company owns 11.5% of shares of Camil Alimentos, that merged with Cosan Alimentos in 2012. On April 24, 2008 Cosan announced the purchase of the portfolio of downstream fuel distribution plants from Esso in Brazil. On March 13, 2009, the Group confirmed the incorporation of NovAmérica Agroenergia through a stock exchange operation between the Cosan and holding Rezende Barbosa, controller of NovAmérica.
With the acquisition, the group Cosan reinforces its position as the largest producer of sugar and alcohol in the world and will have an annual processing capacity of around 56 million tonnes of sugar cane, 10% of the Brazilian market, managing 23 plants. On 3 May 2012, Cosan signed a memorandum of understanding to acquire the BG Group's 60.1% stake in Comgás. The deal was completed in November 2012. On February 1, 2010 Cosan and Royal Dutch Shell announced the creation of a joint venture Raízen that merged their operations of sugar and the distribution and marketing of fuels in Brazil, it formed the third largest distribution company in Brazil and the world's largest bioenergy operation. The company is valued at US$12 billion
Petróleo Brasileiro S. A. — Petrobras, more known as Petrobras, is a semi-public Brazilian multinational corporation in the petroleum industry headquartered in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The company's name translates to Brazilian Petroleum Corporation — Petrobras; the company was ranked #58 in the most recent Fortune Global 500 list. The company operates in six business areas, listed in order of revenue: Refining and marketing – refining, transportation, trading operations, oil products and crude oil exports and imports and petrochemical investments in Brazil Exploration and production – crude oil, NGL and natural gas exploration and production in Brazil Distribution – distribution of oil products, ethanol and natural gas to wholesalers and through the Petrobras Distribuidora S. A. retail network in Brazil Gas and power – transportation and trading of natural gas and LNG, generation and trading of electric power, the fertilizer business International – exploration and production of oil and gas, refining and marketing, distribution and gas and power operations outside of Brazil Biofuels – production of biodiesel and its co-products and ethanol-related activities such as equity investments and trading of ethanol and the excess electricity generated from sugarcane bagasse Petrobras controls significant oil and energy assets in 16 countries in Africa, North America, South America and Asia.
However, Brazil represented 92% of Petrobras' worldwide production in 2014 and accounted for 97% of Petrobras' worldwide reserves on 31 December 2014, when the company had 8,112.8 million barrels of oil equivalent of proved developed reserves and 4,599.7 million barrels of oil equivalent of proved undeveloped reserves in Brazil. Of these, 62.7% were located in the offshore Campos Basin. The largest growth prospect for the company is the Lula oil field in the Santos Basin. In 2015, the company produced 2.284 million barrels of oil equivalent per day, of which 89% was petroleum and 11% was natural gas. Reserves held outside of Brazil accounted for 8.4% of production in 2014. The majority of these reserves are in South America. Petrobras owns refineries in Texas, Okinawa and Bahía Blanca, Argentina; the company owns exploration blocks in the Gulf of Mexico and through joint ventures has production in Nigeria, Benin and Namibia. The Brazilian government directly owns 54% of Petrobras' common shares with voting rights, while the Brazilian Development Bank and Brazil's Sovereign Wealth Fund each control 5%, bringing the State's direct and indirect ownership to 64%.
The held shares are traded on BM&F Bovespa, where they are part of the Ibovespa index. Petrobras is a major supporter of the arts in Brazil. North RegionREMAN - Refinaria Isaac Sabbá - Manaus - 46 000 bpdNortheast RegionRLAM - Landulpho Alves Refinery - São Francisco do Conde - 323 000 bpd RPCC - Potiguar Clara Refinery - Guamaré - 37 700 bpd LUBNOR - Lubrificantes e Derivados de Petróleo do Nordeste - Fortaleza - 8 000 bpdSoutheast RegionREGAP - Gabriel Passos Refinery - Betim - 150.000 bpd REPLAN - Refinery of Paulínia - Paulínia - 415 000 bpd REVAP - Henrique Lages Refinery - São José dos Campos - 252 000 bpd RPBC - Presidente Bernardes Refinery - Cubatão - 178 000 bpd RECAP - Refinery of Capuava - Mauá - 53 000 bpd REDUC - Refinery of Duque de Caxias - Duque de Caxias - 239 000 bpdSouth RegionREPAR - Presidente Getúlio Vargas Refinery - Araucária - 207 563 bpd REFAP - Alberto Pasqualini Refinery - Canoas - 201 280 bpdOut of BrazilEliçabe - Buenos Aires - 31 200 bpd San Lorenzo - San Lorenzo - 37 700 bpd Refinaria Del Norte - Salta - 28 975 bpd Pasadena Refinery System Inc - Pasadena - 106 000 bpd Okinawa - Okinawa Island - 100 000 bpd Petrobras was created in 1953 under the government of Brazilian president Getúlio Vargas with the slogan "The Oil is Ours".
It was given a legal monopoly in Brazil. In 1953, Brazil produced only 2,700 barrels of oil per day. In 1961, the company's REDUC refinery began operations near Rio de Janeiro, in 1963, its Cenpes research center opened in Rio de Janeiro. In 1967, the company established Petrobras Quimica S. A, a subsidiary focused on petrochemicals and the conversion of naphtha into ethene. Petrobras had begun processing oil shale in 1953, developing the Petrosix technology for extracting oil from oil shale, it began using an industrial-size retort to process shale in the 1990s. In 2006, Petrobras said that their industrial retort had the capacity to process 260 tonnes/hour of oil shale. In 1994, Petrobras put the world's largest oil platform, into service, it was a complete loss. In 1997, the government approved Law N.9.478, which broke Petrobras's monopoly and allowed competition in Brazil's oilfields, created the national petroleum agency Agência Nacional do Petróleo, responsible for the regulation and supervision of the petroleum industry, the National Council of Energy Policies, a public agency responsible for developing public energy policy.
In 1999, the National Petroleum Agency signed agreements with other companies, ending the compan
Sabesp is a Brazilian water and waste management company owned by São Paulo state. It provides water and sewage services to residential and industrial users in São Paulo and in 363 of the 645 municipalities in São Paulo State under 30-year concession contracts, it provides water to 60 % of the population of the state. It is the largest waste management company in Latin América, it provides basic sanitation services, which include all phases and the collection and reuse of sewage. The São Paulo Metropolitan Region and the Regional Systems accounted for 74.5% and 25.5% of the sales and services rendered during the year ended December 31, 2004 respectively. Sabesp supplies water on a bulk basis to municipalities in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area, in which it does not operate water systems to local operators. In 2009 Sabesp had 15,103 employees for 7.12 million water connections, corresponding to 2.1 employees per 1,000 connections, indicating a high level of labor productivity. SABESP was founded in 1973.
Its stocks were first floated on the São Paulo stock exchange in 1996. In 2002-2004 the São Paulo Government sold a further equity stakes, including a listing at the New York Stock Exchange. Today 49.8% of its shares are owned. In 2006 a law was passed that allowed SABESP to expand its activities into other Brazilian states and internationally, it has signed cooperation agreements in Spain and Costa Rica. According to its CEO SABESP wants to expand to serve all cities in São Paulo State. Official Home Page
Rumo known América Latina Logística is a Brazilian logistic company focused in the railway line logistics in Brazil, being the largest company in Latin America in this segment, the company provides transportation services such as logistics, intermodal transport, port operations and storage of merchandise, administration of storage facilities and general storage. It is involved in lease of railroad equipment to third parties, offers road transport services in Brazil through América Latina Logística Intermodal S. A; the company was founded as "Ferrovia Sul Atlântico" in 1997 and is headquartered in Curitiba, Paraná state. Pursuant to a privatization process it began operating lines in Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, it began operations in São Paulo state in 1998, acquired Delara Ltda, a Brazilian logistics company operating in Argentina and Uruguay. Operations were extended to Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul through acquisition in 2006. There are connections with the standard gauge rail networks in Paraguay and Uruguay and with the 1,000 mm metre gauge network in Brazil.
The company assumed its current name after acquisition of its Argentine railway interests in 1999. There it partnered with Railroad Development Corporation and the Argentine government until June 2013 in the operation of two freight services: "ALL Mesopotámica" operated the 1,435 mm standard gauge network built by the British-owned Entre Ríos and East Argentine railway companies which extends north from the city of Buenos Aires into the provinces of Entre Ríos, Corrientes and Misiones; those lines had become part of the state-owned General Urquiza Railway after railway nationalisation in 1948. With the privatisation of the entire railway network in Argentina, the 2,739 km Urquiza Railway was given in concession to private company "Ferrocarril Mesopotámico - General Urquiza S. A." on October 22, 1993. "ALL Central" operated the 5 ft 6 in broad gauge network built by the British-owned Buenos Aires and Pacific Railway which extends westwards from the city of Buenos Aires into the western provinces of Mendoza and San Juan.
Those lines had become part of the state-owned San Martín Railway after nationalisation. The 5,284 km had been operated by private company "Buenos Aires al Pacífico - San Martín S. A." that took over on August 26, 1993. On June 4, 2013, the Argentine government cancelled ALL's concessions due to contract violations by failing to invest and accumulating fines worth 30 percent of the concession; the head of Trenes Especiales Argentinos, which had operated passenger services on the General Urquiza Railway, has publicly supported the decision, claiming that ALL was responsible for the deterioration of the standard gauge network. ALL operates a subsidiary named Brado Logistics. Rail transport in Brazil Rail transport in Argentina Railroad Development Corporation Official website
CPFL Energia is the second largest non state-owned group of electric energy generation and distribution in Brazil and the third biggest Brazilian electric utility company, after Eletrobras and Energisa. The corporation is composed by CPFL Brasil, CPFL Piratininga, CPFL Paulista, CPFL Geração, CPFL Renováveis, Rio Grande Energia and SEMESA; each of these companies operates as a holding company. Its headquarters are located in the third largest city in state of São Paulo. CPFL Energia and its subsidiaries operates in the segments of generation and commercialization of electric energy and renewable energy, in addition the company in the segment of value-added services. In the Distribution segment the company has 13.0% of the market share, CPFL Energia heads the distribution segment through its eight distributors. All together, these distributors serve 569 municipalities, in 2011 accounted for the distribution of electric energy to 18.0 million customers in the States of São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná and Minas Gerais.
In 2011, of particular note was the growth in sales within the distribution companies’ concession areas, which totaled 54,590 GWh, a 4.9% increase. Of this, 14,674 GWh were invoiced in the form of the Tariff for the Use of the Distribution System. Sales to the captive market totaled 39,917 GWh, up 1.7%. The company is one of the largest Brazilian companies in the Generation segment 41 operating plants, 8 Power Plants, 33 Smal lHydro Power and Thermoelectric which together represent an Installed capacity of 1672 MW, 831 average MW of assured energy and 2% market share. In the Commercialization segment the company operates around the Brazil being leader in this sector with 21% market share with morw tha 10.500 GWh in sales of energy in Brazil. CPFL Energia operates in the segment of Generation of renewable energy sources through CPFL Renováveis, it owns a 63.0% interest in CPFL Renováveis through CPFL Geração, with 35.5% and CPFL Brasil with 27.5%. The Camargo Corrêa and Bradespar are one of the largest shareholders of CPFL Energia.
Eletrobrás Eletropaulo Itaipu Binacional Furnas Elektro Official website 22°51′29.77″S 47°02′43.59″W