Île de la Cité
The Île de la Cité is one of two remaining natural islands in the Seine within the city of Paris. It is the location where the medieval city was refounded; the western end has held a palace since Merovingian times, its eastern end since the same period has been consecrated to religion after the 10th-century construction of a cathedral preceding today's Notre-Dame. The land between the two was, until the 1850s residential and commercial, but has since been filled by the city's Prefecture de Police, Palais de Justice, Hôtel-Dieu hospital, Tribunal de commerce. Only the westernmost and northeastern extremities of the island remain residential today, the latter preserves some vestiges of its 16th-century canon's houses; as of 2013, the island's population was 981. The Mémorial des Martyrs de la Déportation, a memorial to the 200,000 people deported from Vichy France to the Nazi concentration camps during the Second World War, is located at the upriver end of the island. In 52 BC, at the time of Vercingetorix's struggle with Julius Caesar, the island may have been a fortified crossing point held by the Parisii, a small Gallic tribe.
At that time, the island was a low-lying area subject to flooding that offered a convenient place to cross the Seine and a refuge in times of invasion. After the conquest of the Celts, the Roman Labienus developed a settlement on the slopes above the Left Bank, where Roman Lutetia was established; the Emperor Julian, in Gaul from 355 to 361, described Lutetia as "a small island lying in the river. Clovis established a Merovingian palace on the island, which became the capital of Merovingian Neustria; the island remained an important political centre throughout the Middle Ages. Odo used the island as a defensive position to fend off Viking attacks at the Siege of Paris in 885-86, in the 10th century, a cathedral was built on the island. From early times wooden bridges linked the island to the riverbanks on either side, the Grand Pont spanning the wider reach to the Right Bank, the Petit Pont spanning the narrower crossing to the Left Bank; the first bridge rebuilt in stone was at the site of the present Pont Saint-Michel, but ice floes carried it away with the houses, built on it in 1408.
The Grand Pont or Pont Notre-Dame swept away at intervals by floodwaters, the Petit Pont, were rebuilt by Fra Giovanni Giocondo at the beginning of the 16th century. The six arches of the Pont Notre-Dame supported gabled houses, some of half-timbered construction, until all were demolished in 1786; the Île de la Cité remains the heart of Paris. All road distances in France are calculated from the 0 km point located in the Place du Parvis de Notre-Dame, the square facing Notre-Dame's pair of western towers; the Pont Neuf, the "new bridge", now the oldest bridge in Paris, was completed by Henry IV, who inaugurated it in 1607. The bronze equestrian statue of Henry IV was commissioned from Giambologna under the orders of Marie de Medici, Henry's widow and Regent of France, in 1614. After his death, Giambologna's assistant Pietro Tacca completed the statue, erected on its pedestal by Pietro Francavilla in 1618, it was destroyed in 1792 during the French Revolution, but was remade from surviving casts in 1818.
The sculpture rose from the river on its own foundations, abutting the bridge. The Place Dauphine, laid out in 1609 while the Place des Vosges was still under construction and named for the Dauphin of France, the future Louis XIII, was among the earliest city-planning projects of Henry IV; the space a triangle because of its promontory location, was made over to Achille de Harlay for development. Twelve lots were sold, forty-five irregularly sized houses were constructed behind a standardised façade; the houses were built of brick with limestone quoins supported on arcaded stone ground floors and capped by steep slate roofs with dormers like the contemporaneous façades of Place des Vosges. There were two entrances to the Place Dauphine, one at the "downstream" point, through a kind of gateway centred on paired pavilions facing the equestrian statue of Henry IV on the far side of the Pont Neuf, the second in the centre of the eastern range. Badly damaged during the turmoil of the Paris Commune of 1871, the eastern range was swept away in 1872 to open the view to the monumental white marble Second Empire Palais de Justice, like a glazed colonnade centred on the Place Dauphine, the remains of which now form a kind of forecourt to it.
Few visitors penetrate the Place Dauphine, which lies behind them, where all the other buildings have been raised in height, given new façades, rebuilt or replaced with heightened pastiches of the originals. Three medieval buildings remain on the Île de la Cité: Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris, built from 1163 on the site of a church dedicated to Saint Étienne, which in turn occupied a sacred pagan site of Roman times. During the French Revolution the cathedral was badly damaged restored by Viollet-le-Duc. Louis IX's Sainte-Chapelle, built as a reliquary to house the Crown of Thorns and a piece of the True Cross, enclosed within the mid-19th century Palais de Justice. Conciergerie prison, where Marie
Planoise is an urban area in the western part of Besançon, built in the 1960s between the hill of Planoise and the district of Hauts-de-Chazal. It is the most populous district of Besançon, with 21,000 inhabitants, its inhabitants are called Planoisiennes. The area is changing and developing. Despite difficult economic and social conditions, Planoise has become a commercial crossroads and a multicultural sector, it is a urbanized area with few monuments or sites of interest, but the area contains notable buildings like the Departmental archives of Doubs and the Statue of Diversity. The first traces of life in Planoise date back during the Middle Paleolithic era. Objects were found in the Epoisses area during archaeological excavations, including a flint point dating to the Middle Paleolithic, three bracelets dating to the end of the Iron Age, an oil lamp dating to Hellenistic Greece The objects are conserved in the Musée des Beaux-Arts et d'archéologie de Besançon During the 13th century the territory of Planoise became part of the Imperial city of Besançon, according to Jean de Chalon.
In the 15th century the clergy of Besançon bought the hill of Planoise. The name "Planoise" first appears in records in 1435; the name comes from the Latin word "planesium", which means "plain." At that time, the sector consisted of a large wood and had few inhabitants farmers. Between the Middle Ages and the modern era, the area continued to be uninhabited, it was an agricultural area, farming potatoes. The prince of Liechtenstein wanted to take the city of Besançon in 1815, he sent an army, stopped at Planoise. They abandoned their plans to take the city. At the beginning of the 20th century, many farms were built in the area; as the population grew, agriculture became a major sector of the economy. The First and Second World Wars did not have a big impact on Planoise, although an American soldier was killed there. At the end of the 1950s, Planoise become a new urban area of Besançon. Construction began in 1962 on 13,000 new dwellings in Planoise, continued until 1985; the first inhabitants settled in the new buildings in 1968.
At the beginning of the 1970s, the first shops were under construction, the church of Planoise was built in 1972. Soon after, Diderot school was built and the Cassin sector expanded; this period is known as the "golden age" of Planoise. In 1977 the population was 12,000 inhabitants. Like other areas of France at the time, Planoise came into social difficulties. Since 1985 the area has been classed as a "sensitive urban zone" by the municipality, 40% of the inhabitants aged 18–25 years are unemployed. In 2005, during the 2005 civil unrest in France, the "Forum" building was burned. Salah Gaham died in the fire. A policeman was attacked in the Cassin sector in 2009, attempting to stop a riot, there was a hold-up of a bus at the Planoise bus stop in 2008; this followed many strikes by the bus conductors of Besançon public transport. To stop the civil unrest in Planoise, the municipality tried to react promptly by opening a commissionership in Cassin sector. However, it was burned in 2007. Police presence has been increased in the area.
Since 2000, an area of the neighborhood was classed as a "zone franche urbaine", which has enabled the establishment of many new companies and businesses. Planoise is located in the west of Besançon, in the Canton of Besançon-1. Planoise is bounded on the west by Grandfontaine; the area is located in a plain measuring 300 hectares, between the hill of Planoise and the hill of Rosemont. Doubs river is one kilometre away. Two large woods surround the wood of Pirey; the principal road is Dole street, the principal road of Besançon. The west boulevard joins the area at Velotte. In the center of Planoisen the principal roads are Île-de-France avenue, Bourgonge road, Franche-Comté street. Wildlife in Planoise consists of rats and some snakes. Common birds are ravens. Many cats and dogs are at large. Livestock, including horses and goats, are kept in the Malcombe area. Planoise, while urban, has a rich environmental heritage and a lot of wooded space, urban trees beeches, firs and birches, are present on all streets.
The urban park of Planoise is a wooded park with playgrounds, is located in Cassin sector. The municipality plans to build a new playground; the wood of Planoise has a large diversity of flora. Foxes, boars and birds are present. Vegetation includes beeches, aesculus, oaks and Platanus. A network of trails allows an easy access to the Fort of Planoise in the wood; the only new infrastructure is the Water tower of Planoise. Planoise is divided into seven sectors: Île-de-France sector: The name of this sector comes from a French region, because the principal street of the sector is called Ile-de-France street; the area is the most populated in Planoise, with a third of the total population. Ile-de-France is considered as the worse sector of Franche-Comté, with the highest rate of unemployment and the highest crime rates; the sector was built in 1967. Époisses
SS Île de France
The SS Île de France was a French ocean liner, built in Saint-Nazaire, for the Compagnie Générale Transatlantique. The ship was named after the region around Paris known as "L'Ile de France", launched in 1926 and commenced her maiden voyage on June 22, 1927, it was the first major ocean liner built after World War I, was the first liner to be decorated entirely with modern designs associated with the Art Deco style. She was neither the largest ship nor the fastest, but was considered the most beautifully decorated ship built by CGT, becoming the favored ship of the pre-World War II era, carrying young and fashionable Americans to Europe and back. All of the ship's luxurious fittings were removed for its conversion into a prison ship during World War II. After the war, Île de France resumed transatlantic operations. In 1956, she played a key role in rescuing passengers from the SS Andrea Doria after the latter ship's fatal collision with the MS Stockholm off Nantucket, her last hurrah came just before she was scrapped in 1959, "starring" in the movie The Last Voyage as a doomed ocean liner, being sunk, while scenes were being filmed with actors playing their parts in the flooded ship.
She was subsequently taken to Japan to be scrapped. The movie was released in 1960; the construction of the Île de France was part of an agreement between the Compagnie Générale Transatlantique and the French government dating to November 1912. This agreement was for the construction of four passenger-mail ships, with the first ship named Paris and the second, Île de France. World War I delayed construction until the 1920s, with the Paris being launched in 1916 and not entering service until 1921. After its keel was laid down in 1925, the Île de France was launched on 14 March 1926 at the shipyard Ateliers et Chantiers de Saint-Nazaire Penhoët in Saint-Nazaire on the west coast of France, was greeted by thousands of government and company officials, workers and French citizens; the ship would experience fourteen months of fitting-out before it left the shipyards in 1927 to begin sea trials on 29 May, for its maiden voyage on 22 June. In 1926, the CGT had released an elaborate booklet with a gold cover devoted to promoting the company's new ship.
The illustrations depicted huge and elegant but modern public rooms with female passengers carrying feather fans and smoking cigarettes, passengers being led around the uncluttered sun deck. The trend in ship interior design up to this point, including the Mauretania, the Olympic and the Imperator, all had interiors that celebrated various styles of the past, which could be found in the most expensive, upper-class manors or châteaux on land. In contrast, the interiors of the Île de France represented something new: for the first time, a ship's passenger spaces had been designed not to reproduce decorative styles of the past, but to celebrate the progressive style of the present, with a degree of modernity unlike any previous ship; the first-class dining room's decor was simple, in contrast to past styles which had vied with each other regarding extent of decoration and detail. The first class dining room was the largest of any ship existing at the time, rising through three decks high with a grand staircase as its entrance.
In addition to the luxurious dining room, there was a grand foyer, open to four decks, a chapel in the neo-gothic style, a shooting gallery, an elaborate gymnasium, a merry-go-round for the younger passengers. Every cabin, including the least luxurious, had beds instead of bunks. Many of the chairs been given a new designs; as each of the major liner companies subsequently planned their next passenger ships, many of the planners visited this extraordinary and trend-setting French vessel. After its sea trials, the Île de France traveled to its home port of Le Havre on June 5, 1927; the novelty of Art Deco aboard a ship was an immediate sensation and the reaction of the visiting press would be evident by favorable reviews the next week. On June 22, 1927 the Île de France traveled from Le Havre for its maiden voyage to New York. Upon its arrival in New York it received great attention from the American media and thousands of people crowded the docks just to see the new ship, her official accommodation was for 1,786 passengers, but her normal capacity was closer to 1400.
With a listed capacity of 537 in first-class, the Île de France, like the France and Paris, became fashionable. Captain Joseph Blancart and his chief purser, Henri Villar, became celebrities. With the contribution made by this splendid vessel, the CGT ended the year 1928 with record earnings. For the first time the company's receipts exceeded a billion francs, half of this derived from the New York service, which had transported more than 90,000 passengers, its popularity was such that by 1935, the ship had carried more first-class passengers than any other transatlantic liner. The ship was popular among wealthy Americans, it became the chosen ship of the youthful, the stylish, the famous. But they did not choose it for its speed – it was about as fast as the Aquitania of 1914, no larger. In 1936 it was immortalised in the song A Fine Romance performed by Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers in the film Swing Time with the lyric "You're just as hard to land as the Île de France". Though the Île de France was not the fastest vessel in the world, it pioneered the quickest mail system between Europe and the United States.
In July 1928, a seaplane catapult was installed at the ship's stern for trials with two CAMS 37 flying boats that launched when the ship was within 200 miles, which decreased the mail delivery time b
The Île-de-France is a breed of sheep native to the French region of Île-de-France near Paris. It was first developed at a French veterinary college in the 1830s through crosses of Dishley Leicester and Rambouillet, was known as the Dishley Merino. A breed association was formed in 1933, it was rigorously tested early on its breeding for meat characteristics and maternal qualities. Today the Île-de-France is one of the top meat breeds worldwide, is present in South Africa and the Americas as well as in Europe, it is used as a terminal sire, but is occasionally found as a dairy breed in the United States. It's a large polled breed with white fleece. Ile-de-france-sheep.com Ile De France, National Sheep Association Ile De France Sheep Breeders Society of South Africa Ile De France Australia
Île-de-France called the région parisienne, contains the city of Paris, is the most populous of the 18 regions of France. It covers 12,012 square kilometres, or two percent of the national territory, has official estimated population of 12,213,364 as of January 1, 2019, or 18.2% of the population of France. The region accounts for nearly 30 percent of the French Gross Domestic Product; the region is made up of eight administrative departments: Paris, Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Seine-et-Marne, Val-de-Marne, Val-d'Oise and Yvelines. It was created as the "District of the Paris Region" in 1961 renamed in 1976 after the historic province of Île-de-France, when its status was aligned with the other French administrative regions created in 1972. Residents are sometimes referred to an administrative word created in the 1980s; the GDP of the region in 2016 was €681 billion. It has the highest per-capita GDP among regions in France and the third-highest of regions in the European Union. In 2018 all of the twenty-eight French companies listed in the Fortune Global 500 had their headquarters in the Paris region.
Besides the landmarks of Paris, the region has many important historic sites, including the Palace of Versailles and the Palace of Fontainebleau, as well as the most-visited tourist attraction in France, Disneyland Paris. Although the modern name Île-de-France means "Island of France", the etymology is in fact unclear; the "island" may refer to the land between the rivers Oise and Seine, or it may have been a reference to the Île de la Cité, where the French royal palace and cathedral were located. The Île-de-France was inhabited by the Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris's Left Bank, it became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris's strategic importance—with its bridges preventing ships from passing—was established by successful defence in the Siege of Paris. In 987, Hugh Capet, Count of Paris and Duke of the Franks, was elected King of the Franks. Under the rule of the Capetian kings, Paris became the largest and most prosperous city in France; the Kings of France enjoyed getting away from Paris and hunting in the game-filled forests of the region. They built palatial hunting lodges, most notably Palace of Fontainebleau and the Palace of Versailles. From the time of Louis XIV until the French Revolution, Versailles was the official residence of the Kings and the seat of the French government; the Ile-de-France became the term used for the territory of Paris and the surrounding province, administered directly by the King.
During the French Revolution, the royal provinces were abolished and divided into departments, the city and region were governed directly by the national government. In the period after World War II, as Paris faced a major housing shortage, hundreds of massive apartment blocks for low-income residents were built around the edges of Paris. In the 1950s and the 1960s, Many thousands of immigrants settled in the communes bordering the city. In 1959, under President Charles De Gaulle, a new region was created out of six departments, which corresponded with the historic region, with the name District de la région de Paris. On 6 May 1976, as part of the process of regionalisation, the district was reconstituted and increased administrative and political powers and renamed the Île-de-France region. Île-de-France has a land area of 12,011 km2. It is composed of eight départements centered on Paris. Around the département of Paris, urbanization fills a first concentric ring of three departments known as the petite couronne, extends into a second outer ring of four départements known as the grande couronne.
The former département of Seine, abolished in 1968, included the city proper and parts of the petite couronne. The petite couronne consists of the départements of Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Val-de-Marne, the grande couronne of those of Seine-et-Marne, Yvelines and Val-d'Oise. Politically, the region is divided into 8 départements, 25 arrondissements, 155 cantons and 1 276 communes, out of the total of 35 416 in metropolitan France, The outer parts of the Ile-de-France remain rural. Agriculture land and natu
Île-de-France (European Parliament constituency)
In European elections, Île-de-France is a constituency of the European Parliament. It consists of the region of Île-de-France. Since the 2014 European elections, French citizens living abroad are voting in this constituency. Brackets indicate. European Election News by European Election Law Association